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Garrulax canorus
(Chinese hwamei)

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Datasheet

Garrulax canorus (Chinese hwamei)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Garrulax canorus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Chinese hwamei
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Aves
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • G. canorus is a medium-sized passerine songbird native to southern and western China, Vietnam and Laos. In its native range it prefers woodland, montane and scrubland habitat, although it will also reside in ta...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Garrulax canorus (Chinese hwamei ); adult, captive specimen. San Diego Zoo, California, USA.
TitleAdult, captive specimen
CaptionGarrulax canorus (Chinese hwamei ); adult, captive specimen. San Diego Zoo, California, USA.
Copyright©Dick Daniels/http://carolinabirds.org/ - CC BY-SA 3.0
Garrulax canorus (Chinese hwamei ); adult, captive specimen. San Diego Zoo, California, USA.
Adult, captive specimenGarrulax canorus (Chinese hwamei ); adult, captive specimen. San Diego Zoo, California, USA.©Dick Daniels/http://carolinabirds.org/ - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Garrulax canorus Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • Chinese hwamei

Other Scientific Names

  • Garralax canorus taewanus Swinhoe, 1859
  • Garralux canorus owstoni Rothschild, 1903
  • Garrulax canorus canorus Rothschild, 1903
  • Leucodioptron canorum
  • Leucodioptron canorum canorum
  • Turdus canorus

International Common Names

  • English: Chinese thrush; melodious laughing thrush; spectacled jay-thrush
  • Spanish: charlatán canoro
  • French: garrulaxe hoamy

Local Common Names

  • China: huamei; Hua-mei; hwamei
  • Germany: China-Augenbrauenhäherling

Summary of Invasiveness

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G. canorus is a medium-sized passerine songbird native to southern and western China, Vietnam and Laos. In its native range it prefers woodland, montane and scrubland habitat, although it will also reside in tall grass, reeds and gardens. It is thought that the population in its native range is in slow decline due to trapping and other pressures. Due to its popularity as a caged songbird, G. canorus has been introduced to Japan, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Hawaii. In Japan, Singapore and Hawaii escapees and released birds have established breeding populations. The birds are sedentary and have spread slowly in the surrounding areas. The effects of these introductions on native species are only just starting to be monitored in Japan. In Hawaii, it is thought that G. canorus may now be competing with some endemic native species for food and/or nesting sites, and it could possibly have contributed to the likely extinction of Myadestes myadestinus, an endemic species of Kauai.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Aves
  •                     Order: Passeriformes
  •                         Family: Timaliidae
  •                             Genus: Garrulax
  •                                 Species: Garrulax canorus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The taxonomy of Garrulax spp. and related birds is confusing due to unclear interspecific relationships (Lou et al., 2009). They are often described as belonging to the Timiliidae (a family in the superfamily Sylvioidea) as well as the Leiothrichidae. 
 
Three subspecies of Garrulax canorus are often described in the literature: G. canorus canorus, G. canorus owstoni and G. canorus taewanis, that broadly speaking are found in central and southern mainland China, Hainan island, and Taiwan, respectively. 
 
After Collar (2006), G. canorus was split into two separate species: G. canorus and G. taewanus. Phylogenetic analysis (Li et al., 2006) also suggested that G. canorus should be delimited into two species, G. canorus and G. taewani. The same study also suggested that the status of the subspecies G. canorusowstoni should remain until more analysis has taken place. 
 
Some sources now refer to G. canorus as Leucodioptron canorum (Collar, 2007). Li et al. (2010b) referred to G. canorus and G. taewanus as L. canorus and L. taewani, respectively, and suggested that hybridisation between the two could be threatening the evolutionary integrity of L. taewani in Taiwan.
 
These bird is often referred to as the huamei or hwamei in the literature, a name taken from the Chinese word for thrush. It is possible this name derives from a description of the bird’s distinctive postocular white stripe, since the translation for ‘draw eyebrow’ sounds like huamei. Some sources give a translation of the Chinese name as ‘painted eyebrow’ (Sibagu, 2015). G. canorus is also referred to as a babbler or laughing thrush.

Description

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Compiled using photographs and information from Allen (2012), BirdForum (2015), Birding in Taiwan (2015) and Field Guide to Birds of North America (2015):

G. canorus is a medium-sized passerine songbird, 21-25 cm long, weighing 49-75 g, with broad rounded wings, a fan-shaped tail and weak flight.

For individuals native to mainland China, plumage is reddish-brown with dark streaks on the crown, back and throat. Flight feathers are darker brown and the tail fathers have dark bars and base. The underside is a lighter reddish-brown colour and the belly is grey. The bird has a blue-white eye ring that extends backwards to form a distinctive postocular stripe. Inner orbital skin is blue and irises vary from brown to pale green-brown/yellow. Legs vary from pink to yellow. G. canorus has a generalised yellow bill.

The sexes look similar, although the song of the male is far more elaborate, varied and rich. The song starts out low then gradually increases in volume and pitch. The female generally produces a series of more monotone calls that, when produced near the male, cause him to sing.

Birds on Hainan Island, off the south coast of China, have plumage that is more olive-coloured and have a paler underside.

For birds native to Taiwan, the upper plumage is a grey-olive colour, the crown and nape are more buff and heavily streaked, and the eye ring and postocular stripe are absent.

Distribution

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G. canorus is native to southern and western China, Vietnam and northern Laos. It is now scarce in its former range in Vietnam, possibly due to trapping pressure (Avibase, 2015; BirdLife International, 2015).

Although G. canorus is ranked as least concern by IUCN (2015), it has been suggested by some sources that trapping pressure and other factors may be causing a moderate decline in its natural range (Avibase, 2015) and some measures are being taken to protect its habitat.

G. canorus has been introduced to Japan, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Hawaii. It has established breeding populations in Japan, Singapore and the Hawaiian islands of Kauai, Oahu, Maui and Hawaii following accidental and deliberate introductions (Alien Species in Hawaii, 1999). It is also seen occasionally on Molokai (Field Guide to Birds of North America, 2015). There are four main populations in Japan, in Kyushu, Kanto, Tohoku and Nagano (Kawakami and Yamaguchi, 2004).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaWidespreadNative Not invasive Clements et al., 2014; Avibase, 2015; BirdLife International, 2015subspecies G.c. canorus throughout Yangtze Valley
-AnhuiLocalisedNative Not invasive Listing Proposal, 1999Hills and low mountains
-BeijingLocalisedNative Not invasive eBird, 2015Close to the city
-FujianWidespreadNative Not invasive Avibase, 2015; eBird, 2015Hills and low mountains
-GansuLocalisedNative Not invasive Listing Proposal, 1999South
-GuangdongLocalisedNative Not invasive Listing Proposal, 1999Hills and low mountains
-GuangxiWidespreadNative Not invasive Avibase, 2015
-GuizhouLocalisedNative Not invasive Listing Proposal, 1999Hills and low mountains
-HainanWidespreadNative Not invasive Listing Proposal, 1999; Clements et al., 2014; Avibase, 2015; eBird, 2015subspecies G.c. owstoni in the mountains
-HenanWidespreadNative Not invasive Listing Proposal, 1999; Avibase, 2015; eBird, 2015
-Hong KongWidespreadNative Not invasive Avibase, 2015; eBird, 2015
-HubeiLocalisedNative Not invasive Listing Proposal, 1999Hills and low mountains
-HunanLocalisedNative Not invasive Listing Proposal, 1999Hills and low mountains
-JiangsuLocalisedNative Not invasive eBird, 2015Near Nanjing
-JiangxiWidespreadNative Not invasive Listing Proposal, 1999; Avibase, 2015
-LiaoningLocalisedNative Not invasive eBird, 2015Low frequency
-MacauWidespreadNative Not invasive eBird, 2015
-ShaanxiWidespreadNative Not invasive Avibase, 2015; eBird, 2015
-ShandongLocalisedNative Not invasive eBird, 2015Low frequency
-SichuanWidespreadNative Not invasive Listing Proposal, 1999; Avibase, 2015; eBird, 2015
-YunnanLocalisedNative Not invasive Listing Proposal, 1999; eBird, 2015Hills and low mountains
-ZhejiangLocalisedNative Not invasive Listing Proposal, 1999; eBird, 2015Hills and low mountains
JapanLocalisedIntroduced1980sKawakami and Yamaguchi, 2004
-HonshuLocalisedIntroducedKawakami and Yamaguchi, 2004; Lever, 2010; Miyazawa and Suzuki, 2013; Arase, 2014; Avibase, 2015; BirdLife International, 2015
-KyushuLocalisedIntroducedKawakami and Yamaguchi, 2004; Lever, 2010; Avibase, 2015; BirdLife International, 2015
LaosLocalisedNative Not invasive Listing Proposal, 1999; Clements et al., 2014; BirdLife International, 2015Subspecies G.c. canorus
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced Not invasive Allen, 2012Small non-breeding populations may have died out
SingaporeLocalisedIntroducedAllen, 2012; BirdForum, 2015; Singapore Birds, 2015Small feral populations from escaped cage birds. Breeding on Sentosa Island.
TaiwanWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Li et al., 2010b; eBird, 2015G. canorus (Leucodioptron canorum canorum) considered a threat to the genetic integrity of the endemic G. taewanus
VietnamPresent, few occurrencesNative Not invasive Listing Proposal, 1999; Avibase, 2015; BirdLife International, 2015; BirdLife International, 2015; eBird, 2015Scarce due to trapping pressure

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiWidespreadIntroducedAlien Species in Hawaii, 1999; Kawakami and Yamaguchi, 2004; Lever, 2010; Avibase, 2015; eBird, 2015

History of Introduction and Spread

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G. canorus was introduced to Japan as a cage bird in the 1980s. Populations in Japan have expanded significantly since its arrival in the 1980s. Import, transport and possession of the bird are now prohibited in Japan under the Invasive Alien Species Act (Invasive Species of Japan, 2015).

G. canorus has also been introduced to Hawaii and is now established on the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Maui and Hawaii (Alien Species in Hawaii, 1999). It is also seen occasionally on Molokai (Field Guide to Birds of North America, 2015).

Risk of Introduction

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Wherever G. canorus is imported and kept as a cage bird there is the potential risk that birds could escape and breed.

Habitat

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G. canorus is found in scrubland, woodland, forest regions, tall grass, reeds, bamboo, parks and gardens. It can also be found in abandoned urban areas. In China, it is usually found up to 1800 m above sea level. A comparison of rainfall maps and bird sighting maps for China and Hawaii Island suggests that G. canorus prefers to live in subtropical, continental or temperate areas that are wet for much of the year.

The species is fairly terrestrial in habit, foraging among leaf litter for insects and fruits. Nests have been found in forests, garden shrubs and hedgerows (Miyazawa and Suzuki, 2013).

The population endemic to Taiwan is mostly found in secondary woodland and in foothills and low mountains with Ficus-Machillus and Machilus-Castanopsis vegetation up to 1200 m above sea level (BirdLife International, 2015. 

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial-managed
Disturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Arid regions Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Natural forests Principal habitat Natural
Natural grasslands Principal habitat Natural
Riverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Scrub / shrublands Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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There do not seem to be any major crops affected by G. canorus, presumably as it is mostly insectivorous.

G. canorus may compete with native bird species for food and nest sites. In Hawaii, birds that may have been affected are the kamao (Myadestes myadestinus), now classified as extinct, and the puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri), classified as critically endangered (IUCN, 2015).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The G. canorus karyotype is 2n=78 (Guo and Dong, 1991).

There are several nucleotide sequences from G. canorus and closely related species/subspecies in GenBank (NCBI, 2014).

Molecular genetic studies on G. canorus have focused on species delimitation, due to the complex intergeneric relationships in the polyphyletic genus Garrulax. Li et al. (2006) conducted phylogenetic analysis using the entire mitochondrial cyt b gene. They found that the basal clade was G. canorus taewanus, which split from the other taxa around 1.5 million years ago. It was also found that G. canorus owstoni diverged from G. canorus canorus 0.6 million years ago. As a result, it was suggested that it should be delimited into the two species: G. canorus and G. taewanus (having previously been considered as two subspecies). A later study using 18 nuclear loci suggested that divergence had occurred 2 million years earlier than the mitochondrial DNA study has suggested, and also showed that there had been gene flow between the two species post-divergence (Li et al., 2010a)

Hybridization between G. canorus canorus and G. canorus taewanus on Taiwan was investigated by Li et al. (2010b). Of the birds sampled, 20.3% were probably hybrids.

Reproductive Biology

G. canorus is monogamous. In its natural range it breeds from March to August. In Hawaii, it breeds from April to July (Field Guide to Birds of North America, 2015).

The large, cup-shaped nests have been found in forests, garden shrubs, bamboo clumps and hedgerows from approx. 139 to 208 cm above the ground (Miyazawa and Suzuki, 2013). Nesting material includes grasses, bamboo leaves and roots. Another study found nests in bushes to be close to ground level in forests (average height above ground was 15.6 cm) and were made from a larger range of plant materials and lined. It was suggested that nesting habit varied according to the availability of cover at 1 m above ground, height of other vegetation and slope position (Zhang et al., 2003).

Typically G. canorus lays 2-5 blue or blue-green eggs. Occasionally these may be speckled. It is possible that egg colour is related to social interactions in some Garrulax spp. (Campbell and Lack, 2010).

Eggs are incubated by the female for 13-16 days, with a similar nesting period. Both parents feed the chicks, and there are typically 1-2 broods per year.

Physiology and Phenology

G. canorus has a low basal metabolic rate, a narrow thermal neutral zone, and minimal tolerance of water restriction; normal traits for birds from warm, mesic environments (Xia et al., 2013).

G. canorus has a thin triangular tongue with many setae and backward pointing comb papillae at the base. It has a relatively developed small intestine accounting for 87-89% of the intestinal tract total length. The liver is large and divides into two (Sun et al., 2010).

Longevity

Captive birds can live to be 18 years old, although it is assumed that wild birds do not live this long.

Activity Patterns

G. canorus is a non-migratory sedentary bird and this is likely to have contributed to its diverse social behaviours. Birds tend to associate in small groups and it has been suggested that Garrulax spp. may defend group territories and adopt cooperative breeding strategies (Campbell and Lack, 2010).

Not as gregarious as other similar species, G. canorus is more likely to be found skulking and foraging among leaf litter in pairs or small groups.

Where G. canorus is introduced and living in gardens, it has been described as not shy (Allen, 2012), although this could be due to the fact that there is less dense scrub cover for the birds to hide in compared to the wild.

The male has a rich and varied song that can be initiated by the more monotone calls of the female (Field Guide to Birds of North America, 2015).

Mainly insectivorous, G. canorus may switch to foraging for seeds in crop fields after the crops have been harvested.

Population Size and Structure

In 1999, the population size of G. canorus in Hubei province, China, was estimated at 1.0-1.2 million (CITES Listing Proposal, 1999) and most sources suggest that the bird is relatively common in its native range (Collar and Robson, 2007). The IUCN rates it as of least concern (IUCN, 2015). However, G. canorus is a popular caged bird in China and so hunting pressure is high, and it is suggested that the population may be falling there (BirdLife International, 2015).

There is some evidence that populations are expanding in some areas of Japan (Arase, 2014).

Nutrition

Its diet consists mainly of insects, especially in the breeding season, including locust eggs (Locustidae) and ants (Formicidae). G. canorus also eats seeds and sometimes cultivated maize (Zea) and fruits (Collar and Robson, 2007).

During crop growth the bird’s diet is mostly insect-based, and it may eat more seeds after crops have been harvested.

Environmental Requirements

As its diet mainly consists of insects G. canorus is loosely restricted to areas where these are abundant in vegetation and leaf litter. Nests tend to be above 139 cm off the ground (although can be as low as 40 cm), so vegetation is required.

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
Ants All Stages
Insects All Stages
salmonids Egg
Seeds All Stages

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
40 19

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The bird are likely to be eaten by rats, snakes and hawks.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

G. canorus does not migrate and has fairly weak flight. Studies in Japan have shown that fledglings do not disperse far from the area in which they are raised (Miyazawa and Suzuki, 2013).

Accidental Introduction

G. canours was accidentally introduced to Singapore and has established small populations, with breeding reported on Sentosa Island, just south of Singapore (Allen, 2012).

Intentional Introduction

As the most popular cage bird in China that has been exported to other areas, there have been several accidental introductions of G. canorus. It is assumed that movement of G. canorus outside of its natural range has been mostly due to the trade in cage birds.

G. canorus has been introduced into Taiwan, where it hybridising with G. taewanus (Li et al. 2010b). It was imported to Taiwan, despite the similar G. taewanus there, because of the superior quality of its song. It is thought that when individual birds stopped singing they were released into the wild and, along with escaped birds, founded the population in Taiwan.

G. canorus was also introduced to Hawaii as a cage bird. Escaped birds were able to colonise this new territory and it is now widespread in many of the Hawaiian Islands. A large fire in Honolulu in 1900 allowed it to escape out of the city into Oahu (Lever, 2010).

Introduced populations in Peninsular Malaysia did not breed and have possibly already died out (Allen, 2012).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapePopular caged birds in China Yes Yes Li et al., 2006
FoodHunted for food in Hainan, China Yes Liang et al., 2013
Pet tradePopular caged birds in China Yes Li et al., 2006

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Pets and aquarium speciesPopular caged birds in China Yes Li et al., 2006

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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No negative economic impacts have been reported in the literature as yet.

Trade in the species as a cage bird is likely to have a positive local economic impact. For instance, over 100,000 of these birds are traded per year in Shanghai and Beijing alone (CITES Listing Proposal, 1999).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats
 
It has been suggested that in its natural habitats G. canorus has a role in ecosystem maintenance, due to insect control and seed dispersal (CITES Listing Proposal, 1999). In its introduced range it may be a significant seed dispersal agent of both invasive and native species (Foster and Robinson, 2007; Lever, 2010).
 
Impact on Biodiversity
 
Studies have found evidence that G. canorus may compete with native birds in Hawaii, resulting in the decline of some of these populations (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006; Invasive Species of Japan, 2015). 
 
There is also evidence that G. canorus may compete with native species in Japan; however, as of 2004, serious adverse effects of these established populations had not been reported in Japan (Eguchi and Amano, 2004).
 
Li et al. (2010b) suggested that hybridisation between G. canorus and G. taewani could be potentially threatening the evolutionary integrity of the G. taewani population in Taiwan. The study suggested that prevention of further hybridization should be a primary management concern in Taiwan.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Myadestes myadestinusEX (IUCN red list: Extinct) EX (IUCN red list: Extinct)HawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006
Myadestes palmeri (Puaiohi)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)HawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006
Loxioides bailleui (palila)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006

Social Impact

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No negative social impacts have been reported in the literature.

Caged birds are taken out to organised gatherings in parks in China and in other countries with a significant Chinese population.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
Impact outcomes
  • Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Hybridization
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally

Uses

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Economic Value
 
The elaborate, varied and rich song of the male has made G. canorus a popular cage bird in China. Trade in the species as a cage bird is likely to have a positive local economic impact. Over 100,000 of these birds are traded per year in Shanghai and Beijing alone (CITES Listing Proposal, 1999). G. canorus (especially females, whose song is less rich) is also traded as food in China. It has been estimated that many thousands of birds per year may be removed from the wild in the country to be traded as either cage birds or for meat (CITES Listing Proposal, 1999).
 
Social Benefit
 
Caged birds are taken out to organised gatherings in parks in China and other countries with a significant Chinese population, and so are likely to have a positive social impact.
 
Environmental Services
 
It has been suggested that in its natural habitats G. canorus has a role in ecosystem maintenance, due to insect control and seed dispersal (CITES Listing Proposal, 1999).

Uses List

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General

  • Pet/aquarium trade

Human food and beverage

  • Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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G. canorus is similar to the spot-breasted scimitar-babbler (Pomatorhinus mcclellandi)and the streak-breasted scimitar-babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis).

There is evidence that the song of mainland G. canorus is more complex than that of G. taewanus (Tu and Severinghaus, 2004).

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

In China, export licenses control the legal international trade of G. canorus. It is reported that these licenses stopped being issued after 1998 (CITES Listing Proposal, 1999). However, as G. canorus is not a protected species, the number of birds that are exported illegally is difficult to ascertain (CITES Listing Proposal, 1999).

Public Awareness

It is unlikely that the general public is aware of any issues with G. canorus as an introduced species since the bird does not have significant impacts on livelihood or economics.

Control

There are no studies detailing the control of G. canorus in the wild. Control measures for this species in areas where there are established breeding populations appear to be limited to legislation involving the export, import and sale of G. canorus.

Movement Control

The Invasive Alien Species Act of Japan (2004) prevents, to a certain degree, the movement of further individuals of G. canorus into the country from elsewhere (Invasive Species of Japan, 2015).

The Council of Agriculture in Taiwan banned the sale of G. canorus in 2002 in an attempt to prevent the pet trade that has resulted in the release of the species and its hybridization with the endemic G. taewanus.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Evidence for direct causal effects between G. canorus and the decline of native species is limited at present, and appears to be complicated by the presence of other alien species in the study areas.

Long term studies in areas where the populations are expanding, such as areas of Japan and Singapore, to explore their effects on the native flora and fauna, would be beneficial.

Research and monitoring on Hawaiian islands where the birds are not currently widespread would provide baseline studies for any potential invasion by G. canorus, so that action can be taken swiftly if the birds do begin to colonise.

There are few reports in the literature that specifically discuss physical control and management of the spread of G. canorus either in their native range or elsewhere.

There are some studies on parasites of G. canorus in Japan (Yoshino et al., 2003), and viruses carried by the birds in Vietnam (Takakuwa et al., 2013), but research on whether these birds are vectors for parasites and diseases that could affect native species is absent.

Research on whether there is a strong illegal export trade of G. canorus from its native ranges, and whether this poses a threat of further introductions to new areas, is required. 

References

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Alien Species in Hawaii, 1999. Alien Species in Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/

Allen J, 2012. Field Guide to the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, 2nd Edition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 322.

Arase T, 2014. Bird fauna observed in Terasawayama Research Forest at Shinshu University from 2004 to 2013. Bulletin Shinshu University Alpine Field Center, No.12:107-114.

Avibase, 2015. Avibase - the world bird database. http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org/avibase.jsp?lang=EN

BirdForum, 2015. BirdForum - the net's largest birding community. http://www.birdforum.net/

Birding in Taiwan, 2015. Birding in Taiwan. http://www.birdingintaiwan.com/index.htm

BirdLife International, 2015. BirdLife International. www.birdlife.org/

Campbell B, Lack E, 2010. A Dictionary of Birds. London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Clements JF, Schulenberg TS, Iliff MJ, Roberson D, Fredericks TA, Sullivan BL, Wood CL, 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6. http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

Collar N, Robson C, 2007. Chinese Hwamei (Leucodioptron canorum). In: Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive [ed. by Hoyo, J. del \Elliott, A. \Sargatal, J. \Christie, D. A. \Juana, E. de]. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions. http://www.hbw.com/species/chinese-hwamei-leucodioptron-canorum

Collar NJ, 2006. A partial revision of the Asian babblers (Timaliidae). Forktail, 22:85-112.

eBird, 2015. eBird. www.ebird.org

Eguchi K, Amano HE, 2004. Spread of exotic birds in Japan. Ornithological Science, 3(1):3-11.

Field Guide to Birds of North America, 2015. Hwamei. Field Guide to Birds of North America. http://www.whatbird.com/

Foster JT, Robinson SK, 2007. Introduced birds and the fate of Hawaiian rainforests. Conservation Biology, 21(5):1248-1257. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/cbi

Guo C, Dong Y, 1991. Analysis of karyotypes in four species of wild birds from Anhui. Journal of Anhui Normal University, 3:50-54.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Avibase, 2015. Chinese Hwamei (Garrulax canorus)(Linnaeus, 1758)http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org/species.jsp?avibaseid=71D4A2090891D13C
BirdLife International (2015b), Species factsheet: Garrulax canorushttp://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/factsheet/22735076/additional

Principal Source

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Draft datasheet under review

Contributors

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19/02/15 Original text by:

Vicki Cottrell, consultant, UK

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