Garrulax canorus (Chinese hwamei)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural Food Sources
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Garrulax canorus Linnaeus, 1758
Preferred Common Name
- Chinese hwamei
Other Scientific Names
- Garralux canorus owstoni Rothschild, 1903
- Garrulax canorus canorus Rothschild, 1903
- Leucodioptron canorum
- Leucodioptron canorum canorum
- Turdus canorus
International Common Names
- English: Chinese thrush; melodious laughing thrush; spectacled jay-thrush
- Spanish: charlatán canoro
- French: garrulaxe hoamy
Local Common Names
- China: huamei; Hua-mei; hwamei
- Germany: China-Augenbrauenhäherling
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
G. canorus is a medium-sized passerine songbird native to southern and western China, Vietnam and Laos. In its native range it prefers woodland, montane and scrubland habitat, although it will also reside in tall grass, reeds and gardens. It is thought that the population in its native range is in slow decline due to trapping and other pressures. Due to its popularity as a caged songbird, G. canorus has been introduced to Japan, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Hawaii. In Japan, Singapore and Hawaii escapees and released birds have established breeding populations. The birds are sedentary and have spread slowly in the surrounding areas. The effects of these introductions on native species are only just starting to be monitored in Japan. In Hawaii, it is thought that G. canorus may now be competing with some endemic native species for food and/or nesting sites, and it could possibly have contributed to the likely extinction of Myadestes myadestinus, an endemic species of Kauai.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Chordata
- Subphylum: Vertebrata
- Class: Aves
- Order: Passeriformes
- Family: Leiothrichidae
- Genus: Garrulax
- Species: Garrulax canorus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The taxonomy of Garrulax species and related birds is confusing due to unclear interspecific relationships (Lou et al., 2009). The genus Garrulax previously belonged to the family Timaliidae (in the superfamily Sylvioidea) but has now been transferred to the family Leiothrichidae (Gill and Donsker, 2018).
Currently, two subspecies are recognized: G. canorus canorus and G. canorus owstoni, found in central and southern mainland China and Hainan respectively. A third subspecies, G. canorus taewanus, found in Taiwan, is now widely accepted as a separate species, G. taewanus (Li et al., 2006; Cibois et al., 2018), and is treated as such in this datasheet.
Some sources have referred to G. canorus as Leucodioptron canorum (e.g. Li et al., 2010a,b). Li et al. (2010b) referred to G. canorus and G. taewanus as L. canorus and L. taewani, respectively, and suggested that hybridization between the two could be threatening the evolutionary integrity of L. taewani [G. taewanus] in Taiwan.
G. canorus is often referred to as the huamei or hwamei in the literature, a name taken from the Chinese word for thrush. It is possible this name derives from a description of the bird’s distinctive postocular white stripe, since the translation for ‘draw eyebrow’ sounds like huamei. Some sources give a translation of the Chinese name as ‘painted eyebrow’ (Sibagu, 2015). G. canorus is also referred to as a babbler or laughing thrush.
DescriptionTop of page
G. canorus is a medium-sized passerine songbird, 21-25 cm long, weighing 49-75 g, with broad rounded wings, a fan-shaped tail and weak flight.
For individuals native to mainland China, plumage is reddish-brown with dark streaks on the crown, back and throat. Juveniles have less streaking on their head and breast than the adult (Collar and Robson, 2007). Flight feathers are darker brown and the tail fathers have dark bars and base. The underside is a lighter reddish-brown colour and the belly is grey. The bird has a blue-white eye ring that extends backwards to form a distinctive postocular stripe. Inner orbital skin is blue and irises vary from brown to pale green-brown/yellow. Legs vary from pink to yellow. G. canorus has a generalized yellow bill.
The sexes look similar, although the song of the male is far more elaborate, varied and rich. The song starts out low then gradually increases in volume and pitch. The female generally produces a series of more monotone calls that, when produced near the male, cause him to sing.
Birds on Hainan Island, off the south coast of China, have plumage that is more olive-coloured and have a paler underside.
DistributionTop of page
G. canorus is native to southern and western China, Vietnam and northern Laos. It is now scarce in its former range in Vietnam, possibly due to trapping pressure (Avibase, 2015; BirdLife International, 2015).
Although G. canorus is ranked as Least Concern by IUCN (2015), it has been suggested by some sources that trapping pressure and other factors may be causing a moderate decline in its native range (Avibase, 2015) and some measures are being taken to protect its habitat.
G. canorus has been introduced to Japan, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Hawaii. It has established breeding populations in Japan, Singapore and the Hawaiian islands of Kauai, Oahu, Maui and Hawaii following accidental and deliberate introductions (Alien Species in Hawaii, 1999). Introduced G. canorus in Taiwan are threatening native G. taewanus through hybridization (Li et al., 2010b; BirdLife International, 2016), therefore it is likely that breeding populations of G. canorus also occur in Taiwan. It is also seen occasionally on Molokai (Field Guide to Birds of North America, 2015). There are four main populations in Japan, in Kyushu, Kanto, Tohoku and Nagano (Kawakami and Yamaguchi, 2004).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 14 Dec 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present, Widespread||Native||subspecies G.c. canorus throughout Yangtze Valley|
|-Anhui||Present, Localized||Native||Hills and low mountains|
|-Beijing||Present, Localized||Native||Close to the city|
|-Fujian||Present, Widespread||Native||Hills and low mountains|
|-Guangdong||Present, Localized||Native||Hills and low mountains|
|-Guizhou||Present, Localized||Native||Hills and low mountains|
|-Hainan||Present, Widespread||Native||subspecies G.c. owstoni in the mountains|
|-Hubei||Present, Localized||Native||Hills and low mountains|
|-Hunan||Present, Localized||Native||Hills and low mountains|
|-Jiangsu||Present, Localized||Native||Near Nanjing|
|-Liaoning||Present, Localized||Native||Low frequency|
|-Shandong||Present, Localized||Native||Low frequency|
|-Yunnan||Present, Localized||Native||Hills and low mountains|
|-Zhejiang||Present, Localized||Native||Hills and low mountains|
|Hong Kong||Present, Widespread||Native|
|Japan||Present, Localized||Introduced||First reported: 1980s|
|Laos||Present, Localized||Native||Subspecies G.c. canorus|
|-Peninsular Malaysia||Absent, Formerly present||Small non-breeding populations may have died out|
|Singapore||Present, Localized||Introduced||Small feral populations from escaped cage birds. Breeding on Sentosa Island.|
|Taiwan||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||G. canorus (Leucodioptron canorum canorum) considered a threat to the genetic integrity of the endemic G. taewanus|
|Vietnam||Present, Few occurrences||Native||Scarce due to trapping pressure|
|United States||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
G. canorus was introduced to Japan as a cage bird in the 1980s. Populations in Japan have expanded significantly since its arrival in the 1980s. Import, transport and possession of the bird are now prohibited in Japan under the Invasive Alien Species Act (Invasive Species of Japan, 2015).
G. canorus has also been introduced to Hawaii and is now established on the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Maui and Hawaii (Alien Species in Hawaii, 1999). It is also seen occasionally on Molokai (Field Guide to Birds of North America, 2015). A more detailed description of the introduction of G. canorus to Hawaii can be found in Long (1981).
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Wherever G. canorus is imported and kept as a cage bird there is the potential risk that birds could escape and breed.
HabitatTop of page
G. canorus is found in scrubland, woodland, forest regions, tall grass, reeds, bamboo, parks and gardens. It can also be found in abandoned urban areas. In China, it is usually found up to 1800 m above sea level. A comparison of rainfall maps and bird sighting maps for China and Hawaiian Islands suggests that G. canorus prefers to live in subtropical, continental or temperate areas that are wet for much of the year.
The species is fairly terrestrial in habit, foraging among leaf litter for insects and fruits. Nests have been found in forests, garden shrubs and hedgerows (Miyazawa and Suzuki, 2013).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Riverbanks||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Scrub / shrublands||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Arid regions||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Littoral||Coastal areas||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
There do not seem to be any major crops affected by G. canorus, presumably as it is mostly insectivorous.
G. canorus may compete with native bird species for food and nest sites. In Hawaii, birds that may have been affected are the kamao (Myadestes myadestinus), now classified as extinct, and the puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri), classified as critically endangered (IUCN, 2015).
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The G. canorus karyotype is 2n = 78 (Guo and Dong, 1991).
There are several nucleotide sequences from G. canorus and closely related species/subspecies in GenBank (NCBI, 2014).
Molecular genetic studies on G. canorus have focused on species delimitation, due to the complex intergeneric relationships in the polyphyletic genus Garrulax. Li et al. (2006) conducted phylogenetic analysis using the entire mitochondrial cyt b gene. They found that the basal clade was G. canorus taewanus, which split from the other taxa around 1.5 million years ago. It was also found that G. canorus owstoni diverged from G. canorus canorus 0.6 million years ago. As a result, it was suggested that it should be delimited into the two species: G. canorus and G. taewanus (having previously been considered as two subspecies). A later study using 18 nuclear loci suggested that divergence had occurred 2 million years earlier than the mitochondrial DNA study has suggested, and also showed that there had been gene flow between the two species post-divergence (Li et al., 2010a)
Hybridization between G. canorus and G. taewanus on Taiwan was investigated by Li et al. (2010b). Of the birds sampled, 20.3% were probably hybrids.
G. canorus is monogamous. In its native range it breeds from March to August. In Hawaii, it breeds from April to July (Field Guide to Birds of North America, 2015).
Large, cup-shaped nests have been found in forests, garden shrubs, bamboo clumps and hedgerows at a mean of 139.3 cm +/- SD 44.57 (range 90-208 cm) above the ground (Miyazawa and Suzuki, 2013). Nesting material includes grasses, bamboo leaves and roots. Another study found that nests in bushes close to ground level in forests (average height above ground was 15.6 cm, range 0-53.5 cm) were made from a larger range of plant materials and lined. It was suggested that nesting habit varied according to the availability of cover at 1 m above ground, height of other vegetation and slope position (Zhang et al., 2003).
Typically G. canorus lays 2-5 blue or blue-green eggs. Occasionally these may be speckled. It is possible that egg colour is related to social interactions in some Garrulax spp. (Campbell and Lack, 2010). Eggs are incubated by the female for 13-16 days, with a similar nesting period; both parents feed the chicks and there are typically 1-2 broods per year (Campbell and Lack, 2010).
Physiology and Phenology
G. canorus has a low basal metabolic rate, a narrow thermal neutral zone, and minimal tolerance of water restriction; normal traits for birds from warm, mesic environments (Xia et al., 2013).
G. canorus has a thin triangular tongue with many setae and backward pointing comb papillae at the base. It has a relatively developed small intestine accounting for 87-89% of the intestinal tract total length. The liver is large and divides into two (Sun et al., 2010).
G. canorus is a non-migratory sedentary bird and this is likely to have contributed to its diverse social behaviours. Birds tend to associate in small groups but there is no evidence of group territories or cooperative breeding strategies.
Not as gregarious as other similar species, G. canorus is more likely to be found skulking and foraging among leaf litter in pairs or small groups.
Where G. canorus is introduced and living in gardens, it has been described as not shy (Allen, 2012), although this could be due to the fact that there is less dense scrub cover for the birds to hide in compared to the wild.
The male has a rich and varied song that can be initiated by the more monotone calls of the female (Field Guide to Birds of North America, 2015).
Population Size and Structure
In 1999, the population size of G. canorus in Hubei province, China, was estimated at 1.0-1.2 million (CITES Listing Proposal, 1999) and most sources suggest that the bird is relatively common in its native range (Collar and Robson, 2007). The IUCN rates it as of Least Concern (IUCN, 2015). However, G. canorus is a popular caged bird in China and so hunting pressure is high, and it is suggested that the population may be falling there (BirdLife International, 2015).
There is some evidence that populations are expanding in some areas of Japan (Arase, 2014).
Its diet consists mainly of insects, especially in the breeding season, including locust eggs (Locustidae) and ants (Formicidae). G. canorus also eats seeds and sometimes cultivated maize (Zea) and fruits (Collar and Robson, 2007).
As its diet mainly consists of insects, G. canorus is loosely restricted to areas where these are abundant in vegetation and leaf litter. Nests can be found at ground level or up to approximately 2 metres above ground level (Zhang et al., 2003; Miyazawa and Suzuki, 2013), so vegetation is required.
Natural Food SourcesTop of page
|Food Source||Food Source Datasheet||Life Stage||Contribution to Total Food Intake (%)||Details|
ClimateTop of page
|Af - Tropical rainforest climate||Preferred||> 60mm precipitation per month|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Tolerated||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Df - Continental climate, wet all year||Preferred||Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)|
|Ds - Continental climate with dry summer||Tolerated||Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)|
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
The bird are likely to be eaten by rats, snakes and hawks.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
G. canorus does not migrate and has fairly weak flight. Studies in Japan have shown that fledglings do not disperse far from the area in which they are raised (Miyazawa and Suzuki, 2013).
G. canorus was accidentally introduced to Singapore and has established small populations, with breeding reported on Sentosa Island, just south of Singapore (Allen, 2012).
As the most popular cage bird in China that has been exported to other areas, there have been several accidental introductions of G. canorus. It is assumed that movement of G. canorus outside of its natural range has been mostly due to the trade in cage birds.
G. canorus has been introduced into Taiwan, where it is hybridizing with G. taewanus (Li et al. 2010b). It was imported to Taiwan, despite the similar G. taewanus there, because of the superior quality of its song. It is thought that when individual birds stopped singing they were released into the wild and, along with escaped birds, founded the population in Taiwan.
G. canorus was also introduced to Hawaii as a cage bird. Escaped birds were able to colonize this new territory and it is now widespread in many of the Hawaiian Islands. A large fire in Honolulu in 1900 allowed it to escape out of the city into Oahu (Lever, 2010).
Introduced populations in Peninsular Malaysia did not breed and have possibly already died out (Allen, 2012).
Pathway CausesTop of page
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Environment (generally)||Positive and negative|
Economic ImpactTop of page
No negative economic impacts have been reported in the literature as yet.
Trade in the species as a cage bird is likely to have a positive local economic impact. For instance, over 100,000 of these birds are traded per year in Shanghai and Beijing alone (CITES Listing Proposal, 1999).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Habitats
It has been suggested that in its native habitat G. canorus has a role in ecosystem maintenance, due to insect control and seed dispersal (CITES Listing Proposal, 1999). In its introduced range it may be a significant seed dispersal agent of both invasive and native species (Foster and Robinson, 2007; Lever, 2010).
Impact on Biodiversity
Studies have found evidence that G. canorus may compete with native birds in Hawaii, resulting in the decline of some of these populations (Mountainspring and Scott, 1985; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006; Invasive Species of Japan, 2015).
There is also a suggestion that G. canorus may compete with native species in Japan; however, as of 2004, serious adverse effects of these established populations had not been reported in Japan (Eguchi and Amano, 2004).
Li et al. (2010b) suggested that hybridization between G. canorus and G. taewanus could potentially be threatening the evolutionary integrity of the G. taewanus population in Taiwan. The study suggested that prevention of further hybridization should be a primary management concern in Taiwan.
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Myadestes myadestinus||EX (IUCN red list: Extinct)||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources||US Fish and Wildlife Service (2006)|
|Myadestes palmeri (Puaiohi)||CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources||US Fish and Wildlife Service (2006)|
|Loxioides bailleui (palila)||CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources||US Fish and Wildlife Service (2006)|
|Garrulax taewanus (Taiwan hwamei)||NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)||Taiwan||Hybridization||BirdLife International (2016)|
Social ImpactTop of page
No negative social impacts have been reported in the literature.
Caged birds are taken out to organised gatherings in parks in China and in other countries with a significant Chinese population.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Is a habitat generalist
- Tolerant of shade
- Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
- Highly mobile locally
- Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
UsesTop of page
The elaborate, varied and rich song of the male has made G. canorus a popular cage bird in China. Trade in the species as a cage bird is likely to have a positive local economic impact. Over 100,000 of these birds are traded per year in Shanghai and Beijing alone (CITES Listing Proposal, 1999). G. canorus (especially females, whose song is less rich) is also traded as food in China. It has been estimated that many thousands of birds per year may be removed from the wild in the country to be traded as either cage birds or for meat (CITES Listing Proposal, 1999).
Caged birds are taken out to organized gatherings in parks in China and other countries with a significant Chinese population, and so are likely to have a positive social impact.
It has been suggested that in its native habitat G. canorus has a role in ecosystem maintenance, due to insect control and seed dispersal (CITES Listing Proposal, 1999).
Uses ListTop of page
- Pet/aquarium trade
Human food and beverage
- Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
G. canorus is similar to the spot-breasted scimitar-babbler (Pomatorhinus mcclellandi) and the streak-breasted scimitar-babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis).
In Taiwan, G. canorus occurs alongside G. taewanus, which had previously been considered a subspecies of G. canorus but is now recognized as a species in its own right. G. taewanus is mostly found in secondary woodland and in foothills and low mountains with Ficus-Machillus and Machilus-Castanopsis vegetation up to 1200 m above sea level (BirdLife International, 2015). G. canorus is also found in woodlands and up to approximately 1800 m above sea level.
There is evidence that the song of mainland G. canorus is more complex than that of G. taewanus (Tu and Severinghaus, 2004). In addition, the upper plumage of G. taewanus is a grey-olive colour, the crown and nape are more buff and heavily streaked, and the eye ring and postocular stripe are absent.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
In China, export licenses control the legal international trade of G. canorus. It is reported that these licenses stopped being issued after 1998 (CITES Listing Proposal, 1999). However, as G. canorus is not a protected species, the number of birds that are exported illegally is difficult to ascertain (CITES Listing Proposal, 1999).
It is unlikely that the general public is aware of any issues with G. canorus as an introduced species since the bird does not have significant impacts on livelihood or economics.
There are no studies detailing the control of G. canorus in the wild. Control measures for this species in areas where there are established breeding populations appear to be limited to legislation involving the export, import and sale of G. canorus.
The Council of Agriculture in Taiwan banned the sale of G. canorus in 2002 in an attempt to prevent the pet trade that has resulted in the release of the species and its hybridization with the endemic G. taewanus.
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
Evidence for direct causal effects between G. canorus and the decline of native species is limited at present, and appears to be complicated by the presence of other alien species in the study areas.
Long term studies in areas where the populations are expanding, such as areas of Japan and Singapore, to explore their effects on the native flora and fauna, would be beneficial.
Research and monitoring on Hawaiian islands where the birds are not currently widespread would provide baseline studies for any potential invasion by G. canorus, so that action can be taken swiftly if the birds do begin to colonize.
There are few reports in the literature that specifically discuss physical control and management of the spread of G. canorus either in their native range or elsewhere.
There are some studies on parasites of G. canorus in Japan (Yoshino et al., 2003), and viruses carried by the birds in Vietnam (Takakuwa et al., 2013), but research on whether these birds are vectors for parasites and diseases that could affect native species is absent.
Research on whether there is a strong illegal export trade of G. canorus from its native ranges, and whether this poses a threat of further introductions to new areas, is required.
ReferencesTop of page
Alien Species in Hawaii, 1999. Alien Species in Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/
Allen J, 2012. Field Guide to the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, 2nd Edition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 322
Avibase, 2015. Avibase - the world bird database. http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org/avibase.jsp?lang=EN
BirdForum, 2015. BirdForum - the net's largest birding community. http://www.birdforum.net/
Birding in Taiwan, 2015. Birding in Taiwan. http://www.birdingintaiwan.com/index.htm
BirdLife International, 2015. BirdLife International. www.birdlife.org/
BirdLife International, 2016. Garrulax taewanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016.e.T22734473A95086939. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22734473A95086939.en
Campbell B, Lack E, 2010. A Dictionary of Birds. London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing
Cibois A, Gelang M, Alström P, Pasquet E, Fjeldså J, Ericson PGP, Olsson U, 2018. Comprehensive phylogeny of the laughingthrushes and allies (Aves, Leiothrichidae) and a proposal for a revised taxonomy. Zoologica Scripta, 47(4), 428-440. doi: 10.1111/zsc.12296
Clements JF, Schulenberg TS, Iliff MJ, Roberson D, Fredericks TA, Sullivan BL, Wood CL, 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6. http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
Collar N, Robson C, 2007. Chinese Hwamei (Leucodioptron canorum). In: Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive [ed. by Hoyo, J. del \Elliott, A. \Sargatal, J. \Christie, D. A. \Juana, E. de]. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions. http://www.hbw.com/species/chinese-hwamei-leucodioptron-canorum
eBird, 2015. eBird. www.ebird.org
Field Guide to Birds of North America, 2015. Hwamei. Field Guide to Birds of North America. http://www.whatbird.com/
Gill F, Donsker D, 2018. IOC World Bird List (v 8.1). http://www.worldbirdnames.org/
Guo C, Dong Y, 1991. Analysis of karyotypes in four species of wild birds from Anhui. Journal of Anhui Normal University, 3:50-54
Invasive Species of Japan, 2015. Invasive Species of Japan., Japan: National Institute for Environmental Studies. http://www.nies.go.jp/biodiversity/invasive/DB/detail/20150e.html
IUCN, 2015. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Kawakami K, Yamaguchi Y, 2004. The spread of the introduced Melodious Laughing Thrush Garrulax canorus in Japan. Ornithological Science, 3(1):13-21
Lever C, 2010. Timaliidae (Babblers and Parrot-bills), Melodious Laughing Thrush, Garrulax canorus. In: Naturalised Birds of the World. London, UK: A & C Black, 173
Li JW, Yeung CKL, Tsai PW, Lin RC, Yeh CF, Yao CT, Han L, Hung LM, Ding P, Wang Q, Li SH, 2010. Rejecting strictly allopatric speciation on a continental island: prolonged postdivergence gene flow between Taiwan (Leucodioptron taewanus, Passeriformes Timaliidae) and Chinese (L. canorum canorum) hwameis. Molecular Ecology, 19(3):494-507
Li SH, Li JW, Han LX, Yao CT, Shi H, Lei FM, Yen C, 2006. Species delimitation in the Hwamei Garrulax canorus. Ibis, 148(4):698-706
Li SH, Yeung CKL, Han L, MHLe, Wang CX, Ding P, Yao CT, 2010. Genetic introgression between an introduced babbler, the Chinese hwamei Leucodioptron c. canorum, and the endemic Taiwan hwamei L. taewanus: a multiple marker systems analysis. Journal of Avian Biology, 41(1):64-73
Liang Wei, Cai Yan, Yang CanChao, 2013. Extreme levels of hunting of birds in a remote village of Hainan Island, China. Bird Conservation International, 23(1):45-52. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=BCI
Listing Proposal CITES, 1999. https://www.cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/cop/11/prop/35.pdf
Long JL, 1981. Introduced birds of the world: the worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments, London, UK: David & Charles.
Lou L, Qu YH, Han LX, Li SH, Lei FM, 2009. Phylogenetic analysis of laughingthrushes (Timaliidae: Garrulax) and allies based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Zoologica Scripta, 38(1):9-22
Mountainspring S, Scott JM, 1985. Interspecific competition among Hawaiian forest birds. Ecological Monographs, 55(2), 219-239.
NCBI, 2014. GenBank. Bethseda, Maryland, USA: National Center for Biodiversity Information. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/
Sibagu, 2015. List of Bird Species of China. Birds of China. http://www.sibagu.com/china/index.html
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ContributorsTop of page
19/02/15 Original text by:
Vicki Cottrell, consultant, UK
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