Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Gambusia affinis
(western mosquitofish)

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Datasheet

Gambusia affinis (western mosquitofish)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gambusia affinis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • western mosquitofish
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • G. affinis has been introduced throughout the world as a mosquito-control agent. It has become a pest in many waterways following initial introductions in the early 1900s. G. affinis is a highly predatory...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Gambusia affinis (mosquito fish); artwork of adult fish.
TitleArtwork of adult fish
CaptionGambusia affinis (mosquito fish); artwork of adult fish.
Copyright©Duane Raver/US Fish and Wildlife Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Gambusia affinis (mosquito fish); artwork of adult fish.
Artwork of adult fishGambusia affinis (mosquito fish); artwork of adult fish.©Duane Raver/US Fish and Wildlife Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gambusia affinis Biard and Girard, 1853

Preferred Common Name

  • western mosquitofish

Other Scientific Names

  • Gambusia affinis affinis Biard and Girard, 1853
  • Gambusia affinis katruelis Biard and Girard, 1853
  • Gambusia gracilis Girard, 1859
  • Gambusia humilis Gunher, 1866
  • Gambusia patruelis Biard and Girard, 1853
  • Haplochilus melanops Cope, 1870
  • Heterandria affini Biard and Girard, 1853
  • Heterandria patruelis Biard and Girard, 1853
  • Zygonectes brachypterus Cope, 1880
  • Zygonectes gracilis Girard, 1859
  • Zygonectes inurus Jordan and Gilbert, 1882
  • Zygonectes patruelis Biard and Girard, 1853

International Common Names

  • English: mosquito fish; mosquitofish

Local Common Names

  • Albania: burkaleci
  • Canada: gambusie
  • China/Hong Kong: live-bearing tooth-carp; sang hang ue; tes; topminnow
  • France: alevin; gambouse; gambuse; gambusie
  • Germany: Koboldkarpfling; Silberkarpfling; Texaskarpfling
  • Greece: kounoupopsaro
  • Japan: kadayashi
  • Philippines: isdang canal
  • Poland: gambuzia pospolita
  • Portugal: gambuzia
  • Russian Federation: obyknovennaya gambuziya
  • Spain: gambusino
  • Sweden: vastlig moskitfisk
  • Ukraine: gambuzija

Summary of Invasiveness

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G. affinis has been introduced throughout the world as a mosquito-control agent. It has become a pest in many waterways following initial introductions in the early 1900s. G. affinis is a highly predatory fish, that as well as controlling mosquitoes also eats the eggs of economically important fish, and preys on rare indigenous fish and invertebrate species (ISSG, 2010).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Cyprinodontiformes
  •                         Family: Poeciliidae
  •                             Genus: Gambusia
  •                                 Species: Gambusia affinis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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This datasheet focuses upon Gambusia affinis, although much of the biology is confused between the previous subspecies and now congeners, G. holbrooki and G. affinis. Both species were regarded as Gambusia affinis prior to 1988 and even after this date, workers often referred Gambusia affinis as a generic name for both species.
 
The genus Gambusia comprises about 30 species divided into four sub-genera: Orthophallus, Arthrophallus, Heterophallina,and Gambusia. Other gambusine species rarely coexist with G. affinis, but when they do they are usually ecologically segregated. 
 
Wotten et al. (1988) formally recognised two species - G. holbrooki and G. affinis - which were previously regarded as sub-species of G. affinis (G. a. holbrooki and G. a. affinis). These species are different in a number of meristic characteristics but are definitively differentiated by the morphological differences of the gonopodium (male anal fin) (see Lloyd, 1990c). 

Description

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G. affinis is a small, stout, robust, dull grey to brown with a terminal and upward pointing mouth adapted for feeding at the surface of the water. It has a small, rounded dorsal fin that originates behind the anal fin. Dorsal fin rays are 7-9 in number, and anal rays are 9-10 (FishBase, 2004). Origin of seventh dorsal fin is opposite anal ray. There are 8 horizontal scale rows between back and abdomen. The first few rays of the anal fin are greatly elongated in adult males. Mature females are larger than males. The maximum total length reported for male and female is 4.0 cm (Billard, 1997) and 7.0 cm respectively (FishBase, 2004).

Distribution

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Native range of G. affinis is recorded as Atlantic and Gulf Slope drainage from southern New Jersey, USA to Mexico; Mississippi River basin from central Indiana and Illinois, USA south to Gulf (USGS, 2003). Because of its reputation as a mosquito-control agent, G. affinis has been stocked routinely and indiscriminately in temperate and tropical areas around the world resulting in a wide distribution. Due to their hardiness, this species may now be the most widespread freshwater fish in the world (USGS, 2003).

For non-indigenous occurrences of G. affinis within the USA please see the USGS fact sheet on this species (Nico et al., 2007).

Because G. affinis and G. holbrooki were treated as subspecies of G. affinis prior to 1988, it is not always possible to discern which species is referred to in the earlier literature and the Distribution and Intrroductions Tables may include records of G. holbrooki. It was confirmed by Pyke (2005) that records across Australia were of G. holbrooki

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

ComorosPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988)
EgyptPresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988)
GhanaPresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988)
KenyaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
MadagascarPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
-RodriguesPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
MoroccoPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
South AfricaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
SudanPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
ZambiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)Not established
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Bell-Cross and Minshull (1988)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Coad (1981)
ArmeniaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Gabrielyan (2001)
BangladeshPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Gopi (2000)
CambodiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
ChinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWelcomme (1988)
GeorgiaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Reshetnikov and et al. (1997)
Hong KongPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: Man and Hodgkiss (1981)
IndiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)Not established
IraqPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
IsraelPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
JapanPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
KazakhstanPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
LaosPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
MyanmarPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
PakistanPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
SingaporePresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
SyriaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
TaiwanPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
ThailandPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
TurkeyPresentIntroducedFAO (1997)
UzbekistanPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Kamilov and Urchinov (1995)
VietnamPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroducedFAO (1997)
BulgariaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
FrancePresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Keith and Allardi (1998)
GreecePresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988)
HungaryPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
ItalyPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
PortugalPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
RomaniaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
RussiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988)
SpainPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
UkrainePresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Movchan Yu (1988)

North America

CanadaPresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988)
MexicoPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Original citation: Page and Burr (1991)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
United StatesPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Original citation: Page and Burr (1991)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Yamamoto (1992)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988)
AustraliaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Welcomme (1988)Earlier reports of G. affinis are of G. holbrooki
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
FijiPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Lewis and Pring (1986)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
GuamPresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988)
KiribatiPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
New ZealandPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
SamoaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)
Timor-LestePresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988)
BoliviaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWelcomme (1988)
ChilePresentIntroducedInvasiveWelcomme (1988)
PeruPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Afghanistan Unknown Yes No Coad (1981); Coad (1981)
Albania Unknown Yes No FAO (1997)
Argentina 1943 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Bangladesh Unknown No No Gopi (2000)
Bolivia Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Canada California 1924 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Central Africa 1958 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Chile 1937 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
China North America Unknown Yes No Xie (2001)
Côte d'Ivoire Unknown No No Welcomme (1988)
Cyprus Syria Unknown No No Welcomme (1988)
Egypt 1929 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Fiji 1930-1939 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
France North America 1924 Unknown Yes No Keith and Allardi (1998)
French Polynesia Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Georgia (Republic of) Italy 1925 Unknown Yes No Reshetnikov and et al. (1997); Reshetnikov et al. (1997)
Ghana Unknown No No Welcomme (1988)
Greece Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Hawaii Texas 1905 Individual Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Hong Kong Unknown Yes No FAO (1997)
Hungary 1939 Unknown Yes No FAO (1997)
India Italy 1928 Government Yes No FAO (1997)
Indonesia Italy 1929 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Iraq 1950-1955 Government Yes No FAO (1997)
Israel 1924 Unknown Yes No Golani and Mires (2000); Golani and Mires (2000)
Italy USA 1919-1921 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Japan Taiwan 1916 Unknown Yes No Chiba and et al. (1989); Chiba et al. (1989)
Kazakhstan Russian Federation 1934 Unknown Yes No Mitrofanov and Petr (1999); Mitrofanov and Petr (1999)
Kenya Unknown Yes No FAO (1997)
Kiribati Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Laos Unknown No No ; Kottelat (2001); Kottelat (2001a); Kottelat et al. (2001a)
Madagascar USA 1929 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Malaysia Unknown Yes No Ang and et al. (1989); Ang et al. (1989)
Mexico 1931 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Morocco 1929 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Myanmar Unknown No No Gopi (2000)
New Zealand Hawaii 1930 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Pakistan Unknown No No Gopi (2000)
Papua New Guinea 1930 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Peru Central America 1940 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Philippines Hawaii 1905 Government Yes No Juliano and et al. (1989); Juliano et al. (1989)
Portugal 1921 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Puerto Rico USA 1914 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Romania 1921 Unknown Yes No FAO (1997)
Russian Federation Italy 1925 Unknown Yes No Reshetnikov and et al. (1997); Reshetnikov et al. (1997)
Solomon Islands Unknown Yes No Eldredge (1994); Eldredge (1994)
South Africa 1936 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Spain 1921 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Sri Lanka 1930-1939 Unknown Yes No Pethiyagoda (1991); Pethiyagoda (1991)
Sudan Italy 1929 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Syria Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Taiwan North America 1920-1924 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Thailand Government Yes No Piyakarnchana (1989); Piyakarnchana (1989)
Turkey Unknown Yes No FAO (1997)
Ukraine Unknown No No Movchan Yu (1988)
Uzbekistan Italy 1930 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) 1927 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Zambia South Africa 1940-1949 Unknown No No Thys van den Audenaerde DFE (1994)
Zimbabwe USA 1925 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedRicefields Present, no further details
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalFloodplains Present, no further details
Swamps Present, no further details
Freshwater
 
Lakes Present, no further details
Rivers / streams Present, no further details
Ponds Present, no further details
Brackish
 
Lagoons Present, no further details

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceFood Source DatasheetLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
detritus Adult/Broodstock
zoobenthos Adult/Broodstock
zooplankton Adult/Broodstock

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Salinity (part per thousand) <16 Optimum Adult
Water pH (pH) 6 8 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 15 30 Optimum Adult

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cichla ocellaris Predator Adult Honebrink, 1990
Morone saxatilis Predator Adult Setler and et al., 1980

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Intentional Introduction

Intentional release of G. affinis is carried out by mosquito-control agencies.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Biological controlIntroduced for mosquito control Yes Yes
Live food or feed tradeLive food fish Yes
Ornamental purposesOrnamental fish Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Human health Positive
Native fauna Negative
Rare/protected species Negative

Environmental Impact

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G. affinis has been regarded as a controversial species as it has created ecological problems of various kinds but is, at the same time, perceived as being extremely useful in controlling unwanted organisms (Welcomme, 1988). According to Courtenay and Meffe (1989), mosquitofish have had the greatest ecological impact by far of any of the introduced poeciliids. Although widely introduced as mosquito control agents, recent critical reviews of the world literature on mosquito control have not supported the view that Gambusia are particularly effective in reducing mosquito populations or in reducing the incidence of mosquito-borne diseases (Courtenay and Meffe, 1989).

Because of the aggressive and predatory behaviour of G. affinis, it is reported that native fish species and populations of small fish tend to decline, or are eliminated in areas where it has become established. In some habitats, introduced G. affinis reportedly displaced select native fish species regarded as better or more efficient mosquito control agents. They have been particularly destructive in the American West where they have contributed to the elimination or decline of populations of federally endangered and threatened species (Courtenay and Meffe, 1989). Mosquitofish, and other introduced poeciliids, have been implicated in the decline of native damselflies on Oahu, Hawaii. Often the distributions of the damselflies and introduced fishes were found to be mutually exclusive, probably resulting from predation of the fish on the insects (Englund, 1999).

For further information on predation see Threat Abatement Plan for Gambusia holbrooki (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2003).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Crenichthys baileyi (White River killfish)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)NevadaNico et al., 2007
Fundulus sciadicus (Plains topminnow)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern)
Neochanna diversus (black mudfish)DD (IUCN red list: Data deficient)New ZealandWillis and Ling, 2000
Poeciliopsis occidentalis (Gila topminnow)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesArizona; New MexicoCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998
Ambrysus funebris (Nevares Spring naucorid bug)No DetailsHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014a
Erinna newcombi (Newcomb's snail)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006
Gambusia heterochir (Clear Creek gambusia)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesTexasCompetition - monopolizing resources; HybridizationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1982
Gila nigra (headwater chub)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)Arizona; New MexicoPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Gila robusta (roundtail chub)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)Arizona; California; NevadaCompetition (unspecified); PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b
Hyla wrightorum (Arizona treefrog)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern)ArizonaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013c
Iotichthys phlegethontis (least chub)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)UtahCompetition (unspecified); PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013d
Lepidomeda mollispinis pratensis (Big Spring spinedace)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesNevadaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1994
Megalagrion xanthomelas (orangeblack Hawaiian damselfly)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2014b
Plagopterus argentissimus (woundfin)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesArizona; Nevada; New Mexico; UtahCompetition - monopolizing resources; PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008b
Pyrgulopsis morrisoni (page springsnail)DD (IUCN red list: Data deficient); USA ESA candidate speciesArizonaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013e
Rhinichthys osculus lethoporus (Independence Valley speckled dace)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesNevadaCompetition (unspecified); Ecosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008a
Rana chiricahuensis (Chiricahua leopard frog)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)Arizona

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition (unspecified)
  • Hybridization
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Live feed

Environmental

  • Biological control

General

  • Ornamental

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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G. affinis can be confused with G. holbrooki and at one time they were classified as the subspecies G. affinis affinis and G. affinis holbrooki, respectively (Froese and Pauly, 2007).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Control

Chemical control

Chemical control of mosquitofish was investigated by Willis and Ling (2000) in New Zealand in fish living alongside the black mudfish, Neochanna diversus. The relative sensitivities of the mudfish and mosquitofish to the chemical compound rotenone were tested to determine whether the piscicide could be used to remove the mosquitofish from the mudfish habitats – the former having detrimental effects of the survival of mudfish. Rotenone was chosen as although it is extremely toxic to fish by acting by blocking cellular oxygen uptake causing fish to gasp at the water’s surface, non-target fish can be saved by removal to freshwater or by the addition of a strong oxidising agent.

Their study found that mudfish were approximately twice as sensitive to rotenone as mosquitofish; however, when mudfish were removed from the treated areas they did fully recover. Willis and Ling concluded that the application of rotenone to wetland standing water could only be used to control mosquitofish numbers rather than eliminate them completely.

References

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Allen GR, 1991. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of New Guinea. Madang, Papua New Guinea: Christensen Research Institute, 180 pp.

Ang KJ, Gopinath R, Chua TE, 1989. The status of introduced fish species in Malaysia. In: De Silva SS, ed. Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. Asian Fisheries Society. Special Publication 3. Manila, Philippines: Asian Fisheries Society, 71-82.

Arkhipchuk VV, 1999. Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk. Ukraine.

Bell-Cross G, Minshull JL, 1988. The fishes of Zimbabwe. National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe, Harare. 294 pp.

Billard R, 1997. Les poissons d’eau douce des rivieres de France. Identification, inventaire et repartition des 83 especes. Lausanne: Delachaux and Niestle, 192 pp.

Burgess GH, Franz R, 1989. Zoogeography of the Antillean freshwater fish fauna. In: Woods CA, ed. Biogeography of the West Indies: past, present, and future, 236-304.

Chiba K, Taki Y Sakai K, Oozeki Y, 1989. Present status of aquatic organisms introduced into Japan. In: De Silva SS, ed., Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia, Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia, p 63-70, Asian Fish Soc. Spec. Publ. 3,. Manila, Philippines: Asian Fish Society.

Coad BW, 1981. Fishes of Afghanistan, an annotated check-list. Publications in Zoology, National Museums of Canada, 14:23.

Courtenay WRJr, Meffe GK, 1989. Small fishes in strange places: a review of introduced poeciliids. Ecology and evolution of livebearing fishes (Poeciliidae)., 319-331.

Eldredge LG, 1994. Perspectives in aquatic exotic species management in the Pacific islands. Volume I. Introduction of commercially significant aquatic organisms to the Pacific islands. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia, 127 pp.

Englund RA, 1999. The impacts of introduced poeciliid fish and Odonata on the endemic Megalagrion (Odonata) damselflies of Oahu Island, Hawaii. Journal of Insect Conservation, 3(3):225-243.

FAO, 1997. FAO Database on Introduced Aquatic Species. FAO, Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Fishbase, 2004. Entry for Gambusia affinis. Main ref. Page LM, Burr BM, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 432 pp. Online at www.fishbase.org. Accessed 17 September 2004.

Froese R, Pauly D, 2007. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Froese R, Pauly D, 2010. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Gabrielyan BK, 2001. An annotated checklist of freshwater fishes of Armenia. Naga, 24(3/4):23-29.

Gandolfi G, Zerunian S, Torricelli P, Marconato A, eds, 1991. I pesci delle acque interne italiane. Ministero dell’Ambiente e Unione Zoologica Italiana. Instituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Roma. 616 pp.

Golani D, Mires D, 2000. Introduction of fishes to the freshwater system of Israel. Isr. J. Aquacult./Bamidgeh, 52(2):47-60.

Gopi KC, 2000. Freshwater fishes of Kerala State. In: Ponniah AG, Gopalakrishnan A, eds. Endemic Fish Diversity of Western Ghats. NBFGR-NATP Publication. Lucknow, UP, India: National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, 56-76.

Honebrink R, 1990. Fishing in Hawaii: a student manual. Honolulu, Hawaii: Education Program, Division of Aquatic Resources, 79 pp.

ISSG, 2010. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

Juliano RO, Guerrero R III, Ronquillo I, 1989. The introduction of exotic aquatic species in the Philippines. In: De Silva SS, ed. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia: The Asian Fisheries Society, 83-90.

Kamilov G, Urchinov Zh U, 1995. Fish and fisheries in Uzbekistan under the impact of irrigated agriculture. In: Petr T, ed. Inland fisheries under the impact of irrigated agriculture: Central Asia. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 894, 10-41.

Keith P, Allardi J, 1998. The introduced freshwater fish of France: status, impacts and management. In: Cowx IG, ed. Stocking and introduction of fish. Fishing News Books. Bodmin, Cornwall: MPG Books Ltd., 153-166.

Klinkhardt M, Tesche M, Greven H, 1995. Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften, 179 pp.

Kottelat M, 2001. Fishes of Laos. Colombo, Sri Lanka: WHT Publications Ltd., 198 pp.

Lewis AD, Pring CK, 1986. Freshwater and brackishwater fish and fisheries of Fiji. In: Petr T, ed. Reports and papers presented at the Indo-Pacific Fishery Commission Expert Consultation on inland fisheries of the larger Indo-Pacific islands. Bangkok, Thailand, 4-6 August 1986. FAO Fish. Rep. (371) Suppl., 38-59.

Man SH, Hodgkiss IJ, 1981. Hong Kong freshwater fishes. Hong Kong: Urban Council, Wishing Printing Company, 75 pp.

Masuda H, Amaoka K, Araga C, Uyeno T, Yoshino T, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokyo, Japan: Tokai University Press, 437 pp.

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Distribution References

Anon, 1988. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. [ed. by Welcomme R L]. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. x + 318 pp.

Anon, 2010. FishBase. In: FishBase, [ed. by Froese R, Pauly D]. http://www.fishbase.org

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

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FAO, 1997. FAO Database on Introduced Aquatic Species., Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Gambusia control homepagehttp://www.gambusia.net
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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09/01/2010 Updated by:

Vicki Bonham, CABI, Nosworthy Way, Wallingford, OX10 8DE, UK

Main Author
Sunil Siriwardena
Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK

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