- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Water Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Gammarus tigrinus Sexton (1939)
Local Common Names
- Finland: leväkatka
- Germany: bachflohkrebs; gefleckter flussflohkrebs; getigerter
- Netherlands: tijgervlokreeft
- Poland: kielz tygrys
- Russian Federation: bokoplav
- Sweden: tigermärle
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Gammarus tigrinus is a small gammarid amphipod naturally occurring in fresh to brackish waters of the East coast of North America. The species was first reported from Europe (UK) in 1931 and later found in the North East Atlantic and in the Baltic Sea, soon being described as one of the most invasive and aggressive alien freshwater species in Europe. It is thought to have been mainly introduced via transportation in ships ballast water and intentional imports as fish food. Its success as an invader is due to a combination of behavioural, physiological and environmental characteristics: it reaches sexual maturity in a short time (as short as 27 days), produces many generations throughout the year and withstands a wide range of temperatures and salinities. The species has been shown to outcompete and displace some native gammarid species and to impose strong predation pressure on some other macroinvertebrates, ultimately causing modifications in invaded food web structure and functioning. G. tigrinus has also been responsible for introductions of alien parasites.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Crustacea
- Class: Malacostraca
- Subclass: Eumalacostraca
- Order: Amphipoda
- Suborder: Gammaridea
- Family: Gammaridae
- Genus: Gammarus
- Species: Gammarus tigrinus
DescriptionTop of page
G. tigrinus has a typical amphipod body that is segmented throughout, laterally compressed, slender, evenly rounded with a curved or hook-like profile. The body consists of cephalothorax with two pairs of antennas, two eyes and mouthparts; pereon with seven pairs of appendages (pereopods) mainly designed for movement; pleon with another three pairs (pleopods) and urosome carrying three pairs of uropods. Telson is the last segment of the crustacean body. Average body length of a full-grown male is 10.5-12.5 mm, female 8.5-10 mm (Sexton and Cooper, 1939), from the tip of the rostrum to the insertion of telson. Body size varies greatly with temperature, salinity and type and nutritional type of food. In Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, USA, males average 10.5 mm and females average 7.6 mm in length (Grigorovich et al., 2005). Body colour of the living animal is whitish to yellow/faint orange, with black patches or transverse stripes. The remarkable pattern of dark stripes on the light background gave the species the specific name tigrinus. Stripes run across each segment, and two longitudinal bands along the length of the body; the lower is dark, the upper is red. The pattern disappears when specimens are preserved. The cuticle is microscopically spinulose all over, spinules more pronounced in the pleon and in the dorsal region. Mature males G. tigrinus typically have 2-5 groups of posterior marginal setae in the second peduncular (basal) segment of their first antennae, longer and curly second antennae, distinct setae on their pereopods (Sexton and Cooper, 1939; Grigorovich et al., 2005). Uropod 3 is long and setose. Setae are usually less curly during winter months (Jensen, 2010). A detailed description of the segments morphology and their setation can be found in Sexton and Cooper (1939). Overall, morphological differences between male and female in this species are much more noticeable than it is usual for the genus. Females have fewer setae in the antennae and pereopods (Bousfield, 1969; Grigorovich et al. 2005) and are slightly smaller than males.
DistributionTop of page
G. tigrinus is native to shallow lagoons, bays and estuaries along the Atlantic coast of North America, being common from southern Labrador (Canada) to Chesapeake Bay (USA), and sporadic southwards to Florida (Bousfield, 1958; 1963; 1969; 1973). The species has been introduced in different areas of the USA, Europe and Venezuela. Distribution of G. tigrinus tends to show a continuous, rather than fragmented, pattern (Ba et al., 2010). Its southernmost location is in South America, where it has been found in the Gulf of Paria and the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela (Capelo et al., 2004; Martin and Diaz, 2007), and the northernmost one in Finland (harbour of Hamina, Baltic Sea; Pienimäki et al., 2004).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Belgium||Present, Widespread||Introduced||1996||Invasive||Eastern part of Flanders|
|Estonia||Present||Introduced||2003||Invasive||Gulf of Riga (Koiguste Bay)|
|Finland||Present||Introduced||2003||Invasive||First record in harbours of Hamina and Turku, Gulf of Finland|
|France||Present||Introduced||Invasive||First record for France (River Moselle); First reported: before 1991|
|Germany||Present||Introduced||1957||Invasive||First introduction in river Werra|
|Latvia||Present||Introduced||2012||Invasive||First record for Latvian waters of the Gulf of Riga and in the coastal Lake Liepaja; Original citation: Strode et al. (2013)|
|Netherlands||Present||Introduced||1960||Invasive||First introduction in Ijsselmeer|
|Poland||Present||Introduced||Invasive||First record for Poland in the Szczecin Lagoon likely in 1988|
|Russia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Based on regional distribution|
|-Central Russia||Present, Widespread||Introduced||2003||Invasive||Gulf of Finland|
|United Kingdom||Present||Introduced||1931||Invasive||First record for Europe, Worcestershire, Warwickshire and north Gloucestershire|
|Canada||Present, Widespread||Native||From St. Lawrence River, Quebec, southwards|
|United States||Present||Native and Introduced||Both native and introduced in the country. Native along the USA coast from Canada to North Carolina. Introduced and invasive in the Great Lakes and the Upper Mississippi River basin|
|-Florida||Present||Native||St John's river and estuary|
|-Maryland||Present||Native||Tidal creek of the Rhode River|
|-Michigan||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron in 2002, first record for The Laurentian Great Lakes (although it was present earlier)|
|-New Jersey||Present||Native||Head of Barnegat Bay|
|-North Carolina||Present||Native||North River Pond|
|-Virginia||Present||Native||Chesapeake Bay, Potomac estuary|
|Atlantic - Northeast||Present, Localized||Introduced||1931||Invasive||UK, Ireland, Baltic region, Atlantic coast|
|Atlantic - Northwest||Present, Widespread||Native|
|Atlantic - Western Central||Present, Localized||Native and Introduced||Both native and introduced: native along the USA coast down to Florida; introduced and invasive in the Gulf of Paria and the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela|
|Venezuela||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive||Gulf of Paria and the Orinoco Delta|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Some authors suggest that G. tigrinus was taken to Europe (Ireland) on American naval vessels during World War I and later transported to English estuaries and canals, but this information has never been confirmed (Costello, 1993; Bailey et al., 2006). The first record of G. tigrinus from Europe, in which it was described as a new species, was done by Sexton and Cooper in 1939 (Sexton and Cooper, 1939). However, these authors refer to an earlier observation of the species by Prof. H. Munro in 1931, who found G. tigrinus in abundance in freshwaters contaminated by natural brine seepage near Coventry, in Wyken Slough, and in the brackish waters of River Salwarpe, both in the Droitwich district, Worcestershire. The species was later found in Warwickshire and north Gloucestershire (Sexton and Cooper, 1939). In purely freshwater sites in Northern Ireland, it was found in Lough Neagh, Lough Erne and the lower River Bann, to where it was presumably transported in ballast waters in the first half of the twentieth century (Hynes, 1955; Costello, 1993). Approximately from this period onwards, G. tigrinus started to further colonize European waters, quickly spreading along the Baltic Sea south coast (at rates of around 40 km per year) and covering a total of about 1000 km from 1975 to 1998 (Grigorovich et al., 2005). Despite this quick spread, the species has not yet been observed in Swedish (Främmande Arter, 2006), Danish or Norwegian waters.
Although ballast water has been suggested as a likely introduction vector, the spread of this amphipod in European waters was accelerated by its deliberate release into rivers in Germany and the Netherlands during the 1950-1960s. In 1991, another intentional release of G. tigrinus occurred in River Moselle, in the Germany-Luxembourg border, near Nennig (Massard and Gaby, 1992). Molecular studies have identified multiple introductions from different sources to Europe (Bulnheim, 1985; Pinkster et al., 1992; Kelly et al., 2006b). For instance, the Dutch and German populations originate from Northern Ireland and England, respectively, and these, in turn, may also come from different American source populations.
G. tigrinus from Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland, were introduced into Ijsselmeer, the Netherlands, in 1960 (Nijssen and Stock, 1966; Pinkster et al., 1977). This introduction may have been the result of a semi-intentional release by a scientist who had imported specimens from Northern Ireland for laboratory experiments (Nijssen and Stock, 1966). Between 1964 and 1975, G. tigrinus became the dominant freshwater amphipod in oligohaline waters in the Netherlands (Pinkster, 1978), reaching a more or less stable situation at the end of 1979 (Pinkster et al., 1980). In 1973, the species was found in Haringvliet, the estuary of rivers Meuse and Rhine (Dieleman and Pinkster, 1977). It invaded River Meuse at the latest in 1983 (Berndt, 1984), becoming very abundant at Keizersveer (km 884) in 1991 (Ketelaars, 1993; Ketelaars and Frantzen, 1995) and spreading until Belfeld (km 716). At Grave (km 804), it was the dominant gammarid species from 1992 to 1996, having declined after the arrival of the Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus. It was collected at Borgharen (km 632) in small numbers in 1992, at Petit Lanaye (km 624) in 1995 and at Chokier (km 584) in 1998. In 1984, G. tigrinus was found in the River Rhine and its affluents (Platvoet and Pinkster, 1985) and in the Frisian Isles of Texel, Terschelling and Ameland (Hautus and Pinkster, 1987). It appears that a second invasion, this time coming from German rivers, took place around the 1990s, starting from the eastern part of the country and progressing in a western direction (Pinkster et al., 1992). Later, and mostly due to invasion by the aggressive D. villosus, G. tigrinus was found to be restricted to the Netherlands lowlands and regressing in River Meuse (Dick and Platvoet, 2000; Josens et al., 2005).
The German populations of G. tigrinus were introduced from a brackish lake in England in 1957, as supplement fish feeding to the salt-polluted River Werra, where native gammarids had disappeared (Schmitz, 1960). The species now completely dominates anthropogenically salinized sites of this river (Arle and Wagner, 2013; Szöcs et al., 2014). G. tigrinus spread to the River Weser estuary in 1967, and then east to the oligohaline Kiel Canal, from where it spread to the western Baltic Sea between 1975 and 1979 (Bulnheim, 1980; 1985; Jazdzewski, 1980). In 1975, the species reached the southwestern Baltic Sea, with a record from the westernmost part of Schlei Fjord, Germany (Bulnheim, 1976). After two decades, its rapid spread along the southern Baltic coastline of Germany was noticed, with some authors suggesting it already present in Szczecin Lagoon by 1988 (Wawrzyniak-Wydrowska and Gruszka, 2005; Normant et al., 2007). In 1992, the species was recorded in the Mecklenburg area, more specifically in Peenestrom and Achterwasser in the River Oder estuary (Rudolph, 1994; Zettler, 1995; 2001).
In 1998, G. tigrinus was recorded in the Vistula Lagoon, Poland (Jazdzewski and Konopacka, 2000). From 2001, the gammarid is known to be abundant in northeastern Polish waters, Puck Bay (Gruszka, 2002). The species probably entered Puck Bay from the western part of the Baltic Sea, having moved eastwards along the Polish coastline (Szaniawska et al., 2003). In 2008-2010, G. tigrinus was the most dominant species in nearshore zones of both Vistula Lagoon and Vistula Delta, with native gammarid species becoming absent (Dobrzycka-Krahel et al., 2013). The rapid colonisation of Vistula Lagoon and Vistula Delta might have been facilitated by a salinity increase recorded in the area during the last century (Chubarenko and Tchepikova, 2001; Dobrzycka-Krahel et al., 2013).
In 2004, the species was documented in the Lithuanian part of the Curonian Lagoon (Daunys and Zettler, 2006) and recorded by Ezhova et al. (2005) in waters of Kaliningrad province, Russia. In 2003, it was recorded in Koiguste Bay, northern Gulf of Riga, Estonia (Kotta, 2005; Herkul et al., 2006) where, in 2004, high densities and biomass were registered (Herkul et al., 2009). The Curonian Lagoon in Lithuania is the nearest documented location of G. tigrinus and might be the donor region for the Estonian populations (Herkul and Kotta, 2007). In 2005, the species was found all over the northern Gulf of Riga, throughout the southern coast of Saaremaa Island, and in Rame Bay, western mainland of Estonia. By 2006, G. tigrinus had reached Parnu Bay and the eastern bays of the West Estonian Archipelago Sea. By the end of 2008, the species had been found in a total of 350 benthos samples from the Estonian coastal sea (Herkul et al., 2009). In Latvia, it was recorded during field surveys in 2011-2012, from different sites of the Gulf of Riga and in the coastal Lake Liepaja (Strode et al., 2013).
In 2003, the gammarid was found in Finnish waters (Pienimäki et al., 2004), in harbours of Turku, northern Baltic, and in Hamina, Gulf of Finland, the latter being the northernmost record for the species. In 2005, G. tigrinus was recorded in the eastern-most part of the Baltic Sea, near a new oil terminal in the River Neva estuary, Russia, where, in 2006, its density had more than quadrupled (Berezina, 2007a). Spreading eastwards along the estuary, at a speed of about 100 km per year (Berezina, 2007a), the species reached the northern and southern parts of the estuary by 2006-2009. In 2011, it was recorded from Luga and Koporye Bays in the south, and from the northern part of the Russian Gulf of Finland (Berezina and Petryashev, 2012). By 2013, G. tigrinus had become established in shallow water habitats of the whole coastal zone of the Gulf of Finland (Kotta et al., 2013).
In Belgium, the first record of G. tigrinus in the wild is from 1996, in a pond near Antwerp (Vercauteren et al., 1996; Kerckhof et al., 2007). However, in 1991, the species was already reported in canals (Messiaen et al., 2010), which indicates that it might have arrived earlier via the Scheldt-Rhine connection and other canals. It is possible that the introduction into Belgium occurred through natural expansion via River Meuse, or by accident while replacing fish stocks from Dutch into Belgian waters. By 2010, the species had invaded part of the Kleine Nete and Postelvaartje.
In northeastern France, G. tigrinus was first recorded in 1991 (Dhur, 1993) in River Moselle, an oligohaline tributary of River Rhine. Since then, the species has rapidly dispersed via canals that connect to other river catchments, such as rivers Saône and Rhône (in 1995; Fruget and Dessaix, 2003) and the upper Loire River (in 2003; Bollache et al., 2004). In 2002, the species was sampled from Meurthe River (Piscart et al., 2005). A clear range expansion was observed when the species reached River Vilaine and the Nantes-Brest canal (Piscart et al., 2007; 2008). G. tigrinus was first reported along the southern coast of Brittany in 2005 (Piscart et al., 2007). By September 2008, its range had expanded by more than 60 km to the North and West of that observed in 2005 (Piscart et al., 2008). The species is currently spreading at a slow rate along the Atlantic coast of France (Piscart et al., 2005; 2007; 2008). Whereas the eastern part of France seems to have been invaded by a freshwater tolerant strain of G. tigrinus (Piscart et al., 2008), the distribution and dispersal of the species in Brittany suggests a recent introduction to the region, probably via Saint Nazaire harbour (River Loire estuary) and from a brackish water origin (e.g. ballast water transfer). G. tigrinus of brackish origin are expected to slowly spread into freshwaters, with an increased dispersal rate once populations have adapted to lower salinity levels (Kelly et al., 2006b).
G. tigrinus was introduced in the American Great Lakes in 2002, possibly with ballast water transported from Europe (Grigorovich et al., 2005; Kelly et al., 2006b). It was initially found in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, but archived material indicates the species was present in Lake Superior and Lake Erie already in 2001. Furthermore, according to Trebitz et al. (2010), the species was already present in St. Louis River/Duluth, Lake Superior, in 1985. Subsequent collections reveal the species has broadly colonized shallow-water habitats around the perimeter of the Great Lakes, being now, in many wetland habitats, the second most abundant amphipod after G. pseudolimnaeus (Grigorovich et al., 2005). In 2004-2006, zoobenthic surveys in the Upper Mississippi River basin (Missouri, Upper Mississippi and Ohio rivers) revealed new invasions by euryhaline amphipods (Grigorovich et al., 2008). G. tigrinus and Echinogammarus ischnus were discovered in the lower reaches of the Ohio and Upper Mississippi rivers in 2004, with an increase in range and abundance from 2004 to 2006. The presence of breeding adults suggests the species is permanently established in this area.
Recent records by Capelo et al. (2004) and Martin and Diaz (2007) suggest the species has started to invade the Western Central Atlantic, where it was found in the Gulf of Paria and the Orinoco Delta, Venezuela.
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Many authors highlight the risk of G. tigrinus invading new waterbodies as very significant. In Europe, for example, there is a high risk of further expansions to various lakes of Eastern Europe via inland canal-river systems (Berezina, 2007a,b), to lentic waters of Brittany and most French large waterways (Piscart et al., 2007; 2008), and along the Baltic coast, especially under ongoing environmental changes related to increased eutrophication and warming climate (Lenz et al., 2011; Sareyka et al., 2011; Kotta et al., 2013).
Ba et al. (2010) used ecological niche modelling to analyse the invasive potential of G. tigrinus. The authors predict the global occurrence of the invasive amphipod to expand mainly through shipping. Ports with salinity between 29.54 and 35.66 in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Cote d'Ivoire, Japan, New Zealand, North Korea and Far East Russia are at high risk.
HabitatTop of page
In its native range, G. tigrinus is essentially benthic, common in the upper portion of estuaries in both fresh and brackish waters (Bousfield, 1973; van Maren, 1978). It lives in debris, among algae (Enteromorpha [Ulva]) and hydroids (Cordylophora), on stakes and pilings, hard substratum or sand. It is a low intertidal (often on rocky shores in beach seeps and stream outflows), but essentially subtidal species. Populations are found in a wide range of inland and coastal ecosystems in temperate regions, indicating low habitat selectivity in its native range.
In the American invaded range, the species mostly occurs in very shallow areas on silty sand, on Cladophora or in macrophyte beds (Grigorovich et al., 2005). In the European invaded range, G. tigrinus seems to have a narrower niche, thought to be a consequence of its restricted genetic pool (Kelly et al., 2006b; Kotta et al., 2013; 2014). The abundance and biomass of G. tigrinus vary as a function of wave exposure, water salinity and transparency, being higher at less exposed, less saline and more turbid sites (Kotta et al., 2014). Accordingly, at the type location (UK), the species was found in sheltered places at the edge of the river among leaves, roots and debris around Glyceria aquatica [Catabrosa aquatica] plants, or from undersides of stones (Sexton and Cooper, 1939). In Northern Ireland, inland populations of G. tigrinus occur in deep, mid-Lough areas and, to a limited extent, in sheltered, vegetated shores (Dick, 1996). Similarly, in the northern Baltic, the species inhabits charophyte communities from sheltered to moderately exposed coasts, where salinity is low, eutrophication moderate-high and visibility moderate to poor (Herkul et al., 2009; Kotta et al., 2014). The species prefers sheltered sandy and silty sediments associated with charophytes, phanerogams (Myriophyllum spicatum and Potamogeton pectinatus [Stuckenia pectinata]) and the green alga Cladophora glomerata. It is suggested that the dense charophyte communities provide food and, due to high structural complexity, serve as refuge from predators (Kinzler and Maier, 2003; Orav-Kotta and Kotta, 2004; Kotta et al., 2013; 2014). In Poland, the species inhabits the littoral nearshore zone bordered by rush (Phragmites sp., Typha sp., Scirpus sp., sometimes Pilayella and Ulva), among submerged plants and in sandy or sandy-muddy bottoms with decaying plant remains (Dobrzycka-Krahel et al., 2013). In the Lithuanian part of the Curonian Lagoon, it was found in all types of habitats sampled (reeds, mixed and soft bottoms), except in enclosed depositional environments with mixed substrates and mud present (Daunys and Zettler, 2006). In the invaded range, habitat differentiation may take place to avoid intraguild predation and cannibalism (Dick, 1996; van Riel et al., 2007; 2009). A field survey of a Dutch lake invaded by both G. tigrinus and Dikerogammarus villosus showed D. villosus to be dominant on the rocky boulder substrate of the shoreline and G. tigrinus to dominate the crushed shell/sand matrix immediately adjacent to this (MacNeil et al., 2008). In Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland, a similar scenario exists between G. duebeni celticus and G. tigrinus, with G. d. celticus dominating the boulder substrate in the nearshore areas of the lake and G. tigrinus the sandy substrates of the mid-Lough (MacNeil and Prenter, 2000; MacNeil et al., 2003b).
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Kelly et al. (2006a) suggest that deep levels of population structure among American G. tigrinus populations developed consistently with ancient glaciation events. Analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 phylogenies support this deep genetic structure and the existence of major northern and southern phylogroups. The occurrence of divergent population structure of G. tigrinus supports limited dispersal of the species and highlights the importance of historical factors as determinants of estuarine speciation and diversification of this gammarid in its native range. This strong native phylogeographical structure allowed Kelly et al. (2006b) to identify three allopatrically evolved clades in invading populations of G. tigrinus and to determine multiple introductions in Europe. The study shows that the most divergent clades occur in the British Isles and in mainland Europe, and were sourced from St. Lawrence and Chesapeake/Delaware Bay estuaries. A third clade was found in the Great Lakes, USA, and sourced to the Hudson River estuary. Patterns of habitat colonisation by different native clades suggest differences in salinity tolerance among lineages. G. tigrinus did not occur in freshwater at putative source sites, but colonized both fresh and brackish waters in the British Isles, Western Europe and Eastern Europe. Populations consisting of admixtures of two of the invading clades were mainly found in recently invaded fresh and brackish water sites in Eastern Europe, and were characterized by a higher genetic diversity than the source populations.
Reproductive biology of the species has been studied in detail by Chambers (1977). G. tigrinus undergoes direct development, with no independent larval stage. Females carry their embryos in a brood chamber between the pereopods. When released, juveniles reach maturity after several moults, without any metamorphosis. Sexual maturity is reached at a small size, with females only slightly over 4 mm having been observed bearing eggs. Maturity is usually achieved in a short time period, but this is greatly influenced by temperature. For example, Hynes (1955) stated that it took 13 weeks for the species to reach sexual maturity at 16°C and 6 weeks at 25°C. According to Pinkster (1975; 1978), maturity was reached in 40 days at 10°C, 32 days at 15°C and 27 days at 20°C. Savage (1982) suggested that G. tigrinus reaches sexual maturity after 8.7 weeks at 15°C, and after 6 weeks at 25°C.
Reproduction can be triggered at any time of the year, if temperature increases by 15-16°C (Ginn et al., 1976). Males grasp females in a characteristic pre-copula pose, and hold on until spawning takes place. Overwintering animals may copulate in winter, and egg-bearing females have been found in early spring at a water temperature of 2°C. Females can produce 3-16 generations during each reproductive season, with the exception of the coldest months, when water temperatures are close to 0°C. There are usually three spawning peaks per year, in July, August and October. The number of eggs in a brood depends on the size of the female, but mean brood size is about 20 eggs. The maximum number of eggs recorded in a brood is 95 (Grabowski et al., 2007a). In Saginaw Bay, Great Lakes, USA, reproductive females carry, on average, 32 embryos and populations contain many more juveniles and females than males, probably because males have shorter life spans (Grigorovich et al., 2005).
In the invaded range, G. tigrinus shows higher fecundity, more generations per year, the ability to mature earlier and reproduce throughout the year. This effective reproduction strategy may help outcompete native gammarids, such as G. duebeni and G. zaddachi that have slower reproduction tempo (Pinkster et al., 1977; Savage, 1982; Sareyka et al., 2011).
Life span of G. tigrinus is about 2 months, depending on temperature. Overwintering animals may live for several months.
Population Size and Structure
Population densities of G. tigrinus vary from some individuals to extremely high numbers, depending on season, location and the invasion stage. In inland European waters, the highest density was described for reed beds of Lake Tjeukemeer, the Netherlands, where the species reached more than 20,000 individuals per m2 (Chambers, 1977). In the southeast Baltic, from 2008 to 2010, mean abundance of G. tigrinus increased from 33 to 234 ind/m2 in Vistula Lagoon, and from 7 to 95 ind/m2 in Vistula Delta. G. tigrinus have the highest biomass in Vistula Lagoon (0.48 g/m2), reaching nearly 100% frequency among other gammarid species (Dobrzycka-Krahel et al., 2013). In the northern Baltic, Estonian coastal sea, G. tigrinus reached maximum biomass in Koiguste Bay in 2004, its second year of invasion (Herkul et al., 2009). By the end of 2008, species abundance varied between 0.118 and 5150 ind/m2 and biomass from <0.001 to 12.22 g/m2, with average values of 418 ind/m2 and 0.654 g/m2, respectively. In the Gulf of Riga, abundance ranges between 5 and 100 ind/m2 (Strode et al., 2013).
Gammarid amphipods are generalist foragers, very flexible in utilising diverse food sources (Poje et al., 1988; Kotta et al., 2014). G. tigrinus filter feeds on suspended organic matter and can also directly consume zooplankton, plants, algae and detritus (Hunte and Myers, 1984; MacNeil and Prenter, 2000; Grigorovich et al., 2005; Normant et al., 2007). The species is an important aquatic shredder that prefers to ingest and digest leaves colonized by aquatic hyphomycete fungi (Barlocher and Porter, 1986; Sridhar and Barlocher, 1993; Sridhar et al., 2011).
G. tigrinus can also be described as a facultative carnivore (Savage, 2000). In Watch Lane Flash, UK, and in water bodies in the Netherlands and Germany, G. tigrinus has been noted to be a voracious predator (e.g. Schmitz, 1960; Fries and Tesch, 1965; Chambers, 1977; 1987; Savage, 1982; Pinkster et al., 1992). Predation by G. tigrinus upon other amphipods has been observed and contributes to the decline of native gammarids. Laboratory microcosm experiments show that G. tigrinus cannibalism, particularly by large size individuals upon smaller ones, may be common (MacNeil et al., 2008). G. tigrinus preys on relatively small Crangonyx pseudogracilis in Northern Ireland, and could similarly prey on it in the Great Lakes (Dick, 1996; Grigorovich et al., 2005).
In the Baltic area, G. tigrinus has often been found associated with Dreissena polymorpha beds (Radziejewska et al., 2009). Other invertebrate species frequently co-occurring with G. tigrinus are chironomid larvae, the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum and the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis (Orav-Kotta and Kotta, 2004; Kinzler and Maier, 2003; Kotta et al., 2013; 2014).
Lenz et al. (2011) collected G. tigrinus individuals from shore habitats dominated by the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, and Kotta et al. (2014) associate the species with Chara aspera macrophyte communities.
G. tigrinus survives temperatures close to 0°C and upper temperature tolerance is 32-34°C (Kipp, 2007). Survival of G. tigrinus at higher temperatures is more successful in ion-rich, polluted waters, indicating a wider physiological tolerance and higher competitive ability of the species in these habitats (Wijnhoven et al., 2003). In laboratory experiments, G. tigrinus survived after 10 h both at 30 and 32°C, while 50% of G. zaddachi individuals, a native gammarid species, died after an average of 5.6 h and 1 h, respectively. Furthermore, while 50% of all G. tigrinus individuals survived at 35°C for an average time span of 5.6 h, all G. zaddachi individuals died immediately (Lenz et al., 2011). In the Baltic area (Vistula Delta and Lagoon), the species inhabits waters where temperature varies between 11.4 and 24°C (Dobrzycka-Krahel et al., 2013).
G. tigrinus is highly euryhaline (Devin and Beisel, 2007; Jensen, 2010). In its native range, it lives in brackish waters of salinities from 4 to 20 ppt (Kelly et al., 2006b) and tolerates a range of 0 to 25 ppt (Bousfield, 1973). In Europe, the lower critical salinity level for survival is 0.2 ppt, and the upper level 7.1 ppt in the British Isles and 16-18 ppt in the rest of Europe, with physiological variations between geographically distinct populations (Ruoff, 1968; Savage, 1982). In the Baltic area, the species has been found in salinities of 0.2 to 4.9 ppt (Dobrzycka-Krahel et al., 2013).
Oxygen saturation levels below 30% are lethal to all experimental populations of amphipods. In the Back and Savannah River estuaries, Georgia, USA, G. tigrinus is especially susceptible to low dissolved oxygen levels, exhibiting mortality within 3 h of exposure to levels between 12 and 18% (Winn and Knott, 1992). Still, laboratory experiments show that G. tigrinus is more resistant to hypoxia than G. zaddachi (Sareyka et al., 2011).
Tolerance to poor water quality enables G. tigrinus to establish in areas characterized by deteriorated environmental conditions (Savage, 1996; MacNeil et al., 2001; 2007). For example, in the southern Baltic Sea, the species has successfully colonized severely eutrophicated estuaries (Szaniawska et al., 2003; Jazdzewski et al., 2004; 2005; Wawrzyniak-Wydrowska and Gruszka, 2005) and, in the Rhine estuary, deteriorated conditions promote an increase in G. tigrinus populations (Platvoet and Pinkster, 1995).
In its introduced area, the species often lives in waters with elevated ionic content due to pollution (Streit and Kuhn, 1994; Koop and Grieshaber, 2000; Wijnhoven et al., 2003; Grabowski et al., 2007a,b). G. tigrinus is able to regulate extracellular potassium ions in river waters with high potassium concentrations, and to tolerate stress levels of sodium and chloride ions (>380 mmol dm−3), making it more successful in salt-polluted rivers than other amphipods (Koop and Grieshaber, 2000). Additionally, Streit and Kuhn (1994) found that G. tigrinus is more tolerant to organophosphorus insecticides than G. pulex and G. fossarum, giving the former a survival advantage in the Rhine River. However, G. tigrinus is highly sensitive to heavy metals (Strode and Balode, 2013), cadmium (Boets et al., 2012) and excess natural organic matter (Timofeyev et al., 2006).
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Water TolerancesTop of page
|Parameter||Minimum Value||Maximum Value||Typical Value||Status||Life Stage||Notes|
|Salinity (part per thousand)||4||20||Optimum||Tolerated: 0-25 ppt|
|Water temperature (ºC temperature)||15||20||Optimum||Tolerated: 0-34°C|
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Fishes, including perch Perca fluviatilis, stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus and eel Anguilla anguilla, birds and dragonfly nymphs are known to feed on G. tigrinus. Fish can cause heavy mortality on G. tigrinus populations but, in turbid environments, G. tigrinus may escape heavy predation because benthivorous fish locate their prey visually (e.g. Kotta et al., 2010; 2013). Dikerogammarus villosus, another invasive gammarid, predates all size classes of G. tigrinus, with the smallest size classes suffering the highest predation (MacNeil et al., 2008).
In invaded waters, prevalence of parasites and epibionts (such as rotifer Embata parasitica and the protozoan Epistylis) seems to be higher in the native G. duebeni celticus than in invading amphipods, including G. tigrinus, which may increase the species invasive success (Dunn and Dick, 1998). Fungus Saprolegnia sp. affects G. tigrinus (Dieleman and Pinkster, 1977; van der Velde et al., 2000) and the parasite Maritrema subdolum (Trematoda) has been reported to occur in G. tigrinus in Poland (Rolbiecki and Normant, 2005).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
A wide geographical spread in Finnish, Estonian and Russian waters, within a short time period, probably indicates several introductions and successful establishments, rather than gradual species migration (Sareyka et al., 2011). Accordingly, Grigorovich et al. (2008) believe the natural dispersal capabilities of G. tigrinus are insufficient to account for their range expansion in the large rivers of the Upper Mississippi basin, USA.
The main human-mediated means contributing to the expansion of G. tigrinus are unintentional and consist of transport in ship ballast water (Sylvester and MacIsaac, 2010; Sareyka et al., 2011), construction of new waterways, webs of small waters and harbours at river mouths (van der Velde et al., 2000; Wooten et al., 2006), and escapes from aquaculture (Nijssen and Stock, 1966). Some other means of amphipod dispersal, such as hull fouling (Sylvester and MacIsaac, 2010) and algal (Myers, 1993) or animal (Swanson, 1984) rafting, seem to pose a low risk of G. tigrinus introduction and spread.
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Aquaculture||Escapes from aquaculture facilities||Yes||Nijssen and Stock (1966)|
|Habitat restoration and improvement||In Germany, as supplement fish feeding in polluted habitats where native gammarids disappeared||Yes||Yes||Schmitz (1960)|
|Intentional release||Semi-intentional release in the Netherlands||Yes||Yes||Nijssen and Stock (1966)|
|Interbasin transfers||Mainly in ship ballast waters||Yes||Yes||Grigorovich et al. (2005); Grigorovich et al. (2008); Kotta et al. (2013); Kotta et al. (2014)|
|Interconnected waterways||Spreading via waterways, including canals, in France, Germany and USA||Yes||Yes||Piscart et al. (2007); Grigorovich et al. (2008); Piscart et al. (2008)|
Pathway VectorsTop of page
|Floating vegetation and debris||Potential to disperse on floating seaweed||Yes||Myers (1993)|
|Host and vector organisms||Potential to disperse on aquatic animals||Yes||Swanson (1984)|
|Ship ballast water and sediment||Main mean of introduction to new areas||Yes||Yes||Grigorovich et al. (2005); Sylvester and MacIsaac (2010); Sareyka et al. (2011)|
|Ship hull fouling||Possible||Yes||Sylvester and MacIsaac (2010)|
|Water||Dispersal by water currents or through connected waterways||Yes||Yes||van der Velde et al. (2000); Wooten et al. (2006)|
Impact SummaryTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
When in high densities, G. tigrinus can cause damage to fishing gear and trapped fish (Pinkster et al., 1977).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Biodiversity
In areas where G. tigrinus and other non-native gammarids dominate, the original amphipod fauna has often been drastically changed (e.g. Pinkster et al., 1992; Jazdzewski et al., 2004; Zettler, 2008). In the Baltic Sea, for example, native gammarid species of the Vistula Lagoon G. zaddachi and G. duebeni, which were common in 1952-1956 and in 1970, have been gradually replaced by G. tigrinus and other non-indigenous gammarids, such as Pontogammarus robustoides, Dikerogammarus haemobaphes and Obesogammarus crassus (Zmudzinski, 1957; Jazdzewski, 1975; Jazdzewski et al., 2004; Grabowski et al., 2006). In the Vistula Delta, the native species G. duebeni, G. zaddachi, G. salinus and G. oceanicus, common in 1967-1971, had mostly been replaced in 1998-2000 by the non-indigenous species D. haemobaphes, P. robustoides and G. tigrinus (Jazdzewski, 1975; Jazdzewski et al., 2004). In 2008-2010, G. tigrinus was the most dominant species in nearshore zones of both Vistula Lagoon and Vistula Delta (Dobrzycka-Krahel et al., 2013), while native gammarid species went totally extinct. Similarily, following the invasion of G. tigrinus, G. salinus almost disappeared from Koiguste Bay, Estonia (Herkul et al., 2009) and G. duebeni from Watch Lane Flash, UK (Savage, 1982). In Northern Ireland, G. tigrinus may be more disadvantaged from intraguild predation by the native G. duebeni celticus than vice versa, but the native species appears more disadvantaged with respect to drift, parasitism and the interaction of the two (MacNeil et al., 2003b,c).
One of the reasons for this native gammarid retreat to occur is the fact that G. tigrinus proved to be competitively superior to the majority of native gammarids in Europe (Pinkster et al., 1992; Grabowski et al., 2006; Orav-Kotta et al., 2009; Kotta et al., 2006; 2010; Sareyka et al., 2011). Due to its ecological plasticity, aggressiveness and fast reproduction, G. tigrinus competes successfully for food and space with native gammarid species, forcing them to leave their preferred habitats and increasing exposure to fish predation (Orav-Kotta et al., 2009; Kotta et al., 2010; 2011). For example, in the Gulf of Finland, the omnivorous G. tigrinus is able to outcompete and replace native herbivorous Gammarus species (Packalén et al., 2008). In River Rhine, interspecific competitive stress caused by G. tigrinus, combined with physiological stress caused by the ion-enriched Rhine water, may have restricted the distribution of G. pulex to ion-poor ditches and brooks discharging into this river (van Riel et al., 2009). It is important to note that, for some regions, drastic changes in salinity, and not the introduction of G. tigrinus, are the most important factor causing native gammarid decline (Piscart et al., 2005; Boets et al., 2011; Kotta et al., 2014).
Being an active carnivore, G. tigrinus shows significant predatory impact on other macroinvertebrates. In Germany, the impact was noted by Fries and Tesch (1965), in the Netherlands Roos (1979) reported the species feeding on polyps of Cordylophora caspia and in Ireland G. tigrinus coexists with the native opossum shrimp Mysis relicta through mutual predation (Bailey et al., 2006). Females and recently moulted M. relicta are particularly vulnerable to predation by G. tigrinus, which has forced the species to change its microhabitat use, exposing itself more to fish predation.
G. tigrinus invasions have also been accompanied by the simultaneous introduction of alien parasites (Leppakoski, 2002). G. tigrinus has been shown to be an intermediate host to the acanthocephalan Paratenuisentis ambiguus, which definitive host is the American eel Anguilla rostrata (Samuel and Bullock, 1981; Taraschewski et al., 1987; Morozinska-Gogol, 2008; 2009). This acanthocephalan seems to have been introduced with G. tigrinus into Europe, where its final European host is A. anguilla (Thielen, 2005; Taraschewski, 2006). During the 1990s, both exotics had spread into River Rhine, with G. tigrinus dominating the amphipod fauna and P. ambiguus dominating the intestinal helminth community of local eels (Sures and Streit, 2001). However, after the inauguration of the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal in 1992 and subsequent invasion by the competitively superior D. villosus, G. tigrinus was eliminated and P. ambiguus stopped being the dominant intestinal helminth of the European eel, not being recorded since 2001 (Dick and Platvoet, 2000; Thielen, 2005). The parasite has recently been found in eels in Polish coastal waters (Morozinska-Gogol, 2008) and may also occur in other localities within G. tigrinus introduced range.
Although G. tigrinus can function as a detritivore and shred decaying leaf material, it is not able to compensate for the activity of native species, which replacement has led to a decrease of at least 66% in the rate of leaf litter recycling (van der Velde et al., 2000, Piscart et al., 2011). Furthermore, despite being a food source for commercial fish, when abundant, the species becomes included in the food web, causing changes and shifts in fish diet, which results in overall changes of the littoral food web (Kelleher et al., 1998; 2000; Grabowski et al., 2006). Recent experimental evidence indicates that G. tigrinus has a strong potential to modify benthic community structure and functioning in invaded coastal zones (Orav-Kotta et al., 2009; Kotta et al. 2010; 2011; 2013; Sareyka et al., 2011).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has high genetic variability
- Altered trophic level
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Modification of natural benthic communities
- Modification of nutrient regime
- Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Pest and disease transmission
- Interaction with other invasive species
- Rapid growth
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
G. tigrinus is considered an important fish food, especially under conditions of depletion of native food sources. In the Lithuanian coastal zone, the amphipod was found to contribute to up to 40% of the diet of some commercially important fish species (Bubinas, 1994). Several species, including perch Perca fluviatilis, stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus and eel Anguilla anguilla, feed on G. tigrinus (Daunys and Zettler, 2006). Nellis et al. (2007) considered G. tigrinus a potential food source for sturgeon in St. Lawrence estuarine transition zone harbours, Canada, where the only known concentrations of age-0 and early juveniles of St. Lawrence Atlantic sturgeon and lake sturgeon populations exist.
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Live feed
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Many species of Gammarus and related genera (Chaetogammarus, Dikerogammarus, Echinogammarus, Obesogammarus, Pontogammarus) look very similar. In all gammarids, antenna I has article 2 more than half as long as article 1, which is not thickened and body pigmented and, in the Gammarus genus, article 3 of antenna I is not longer than article 1 (Bousfield, 1958; 1973). Classification of amphipods from genus Gammarus strongly depends on life stage and gender-specific characters, such as: 1) shape of the interantennal lobe of the head; 2) setosity of the peduncular and flagellar segments of antennae I and II; 3) shape and armature of pereopods V; and 4) armature of the epimeral plates (Sexton and Cooper, 1939; Bousfield 1958; 1969; Holsinger, 1976).
Several native and introduced gammarid species occur in the same general area as G. tigrinus. For how to distinguish G. tigrinus from other Baltic species, such as G. duebeni and G. zaddachi, see Jensen (2010); for other European species see Dobson (2012) and NNSS (2014). For American gammarids, distinctions between local species have been described by Bousfield (1969) and Grigorovich et al. (2005).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Particular emphasis should be placed on preventing human-mediated dispersal of G. tigrinus, especially in high invasion risk ports (Ba et al., 2010). Water of such ports should be regularly monitored for exotic aquatic organisms that may survive there temporarily or permanently. An European surveillance network and an appropriate adaptation of monitoring strategies are recommended, with the aim to assess risks, impacts and the invasiveness of alien species, as well as the efficiency of eradication and control measures (Nehring and Klingenstein, 2005). Regulatory international measures against invasions in European Seas are discussed in Gollasch (2006).
Development of simple identification keys and leaflets are recommended, aiming to raise public awareness about G. tigrinus.
Eradication does not seem to be possible.
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
Further investigation on the distribution, reproductive success and ecological significance of G. tigrinus are needed, in order to quantitatively estimate its role in the structure and functioning of benthic communities in European waters. MacNeil and Dick (2012) recommend future studies to examine changes in interaction strengths among amphipods and mysids under rising temperature and eutrophication, which currently affect European freshwaters.
Petruck and Stoffler (2011) pointed out that G. tigrinus proposed salinity preference does not correlate with the one detected in River Lippe, Germany, which may require further investigation.
ReferencesTop of page
Arle, J., Wagner, F., 2013. Effects of anthropogenic salinisation on the ecological status of macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Werra River (Thuringia, Germany). Hydrobiologia, 701, 129-148. http://www.springerlink.com/content/1573-5117?MUD=MP doi: 10.1007/s10750-012-1265-z
Ba JiaWen, Hou ZhonGe, Platvoet, D., Zhu Li, Li ShuQiang, 2010. Is Gammarus tigrinus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) becoming cosmopolitan through shipping? Predicting its potential invasive range using ecological niche modeling. Hydrobiologia, 649, 183-194. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/1573-5117/ doi: 10.1007/s10750-010-0244-5
Bailey, R. J. E., Dick, J. T. A., Elwood, R. W., MacNeil, C., 2006. Predatory interactions between the invasive amphipod Gammarus tigrinus and the native opossum shrimp Mysis relicta. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 25(2), 393-405. doi: 10.1899/0887-3593(2006)25[393:PIBTIA]2.0.CO;2
Barlocher F, Porter CW, 1986. Digestive enzymes and feeding strategies of three stream invertebrates. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 5(1):58-66
Batie RE, 1981. Biomass, relative growth-rates and production of Gammarus tigrinus (Amphipoda, Gammaridae) and Palaemonetes pugio (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) in a tidal creek of the Rhode river watershed, Maryland. American Zoologist, 21(4):935
Berezina NA, 2007a. Expansion of the North American amphipod Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 to the Neva Estuary (easternmost Baltic Sea). Oceanologia, 49(1):129-135
Berezina, N. A., 2007b. Invasions of alien amphipods (Amphipoda: Gammaridea) in aquatic ecosystems of north-western Russia: pathways and consequences. Hydrobiologia, 590, 15-29. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/1573-5117/ doi: 10.1007/s10750-007-0753-z
Berezina, N. A., Petryashev, V. V., 2012. Invasions of higher crustaceans (Crustacea: Malacostraca) in waters of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea). Russian Journal of Biological Invasions, 3(2), 81-91. http://www.springerlink.com/content/314p0662r45123mq/ doi: 10.1134/S2075111712020038
Berndt J, 1984. [English title not available]. (Nachweis von Gammarus tigrinus Sexton fur den unteren Niederrhein). Decheniana, 137:168-169
Boets P, Lock K, Goethals PLM, 2011. Shifts in the gammarid (Amphipoda) fauna of brackish polder waters in Flanders (Belgium). Journal of Crustacean Biology, 31(2):270-277
Boets P, Lock K, Goethals PLM, Janssen CR, De Schamphelaere KAC, 2012. A comparison of the short-term toxicity of cadmium to indigenous and alien gammarid species. Ecotoxicology, 21(4):1135-1144
Bollache, L., Devin, S., Wattier, R., Chovet, M., Beisel, J.-N., Moreteau, J. C., Rigaud, T., 2004. Rapid range extension of the Ponto-Caspian amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus in France: potential consequences. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 160, 57-66.
Bousfield EL, 1958. Fresh-water amphipod crustaceans of glaciated North America. Canadian Field Naturalist, 72:55-113
Bousfield EL, 1963. New fresh-water amphipod crustaceans from Florida. National Museum of Canada Natural History Papers, 18. Canada: Queen’s Printer, 9 pp
Bousfield EL, 1969. New records of Gammarus (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from the Middle Atlantic Region. Chesapeake Science, 10(1):1-17
Bousfield EL, 1973. Shallow-water Gammaridean Amphipoda of New England. London, UK: Cornell University Press, 324 pp
Bousfield EL, 1989. Revised morphological relationships within the amphipod genera Pontoporeia and Gammaracanthus and the “glacial relict” significance of their postglacial distributions. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 46(10):1714-1725
Bubinas A, 1994. Bottom fauna in the Baltic coastal zone and its role in the diet of commercial fish. Fishery in Lithuania, 1:77-81
Bulnheim HP, 1976. [English title not available]. (Gammarus tigrinus, ein neues faunenelement der Ostseeförde Schlei). Schriften des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Schleswig-Holstein, 46:79-84
Bulnheim HP, 1980. [English title not available]. (Zum vorkommen von Gammarus tigrinus im Nord-Ostsee-Kanal). Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft, 30:67-73
Bulnheim HP, 1985. Genetic differentiation between natural populations of Gammarus tigrinus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) with reference to its range extension in European continental waters. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 102(3):273-290
Capelo JC, Garcia JV, Pereira G, 2004. Benthic macroinvertebrate diversity of the Gulf of Paria and Orinoco Delta. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment, 37:198-203
Chambers MR, 1977. The population ecology of Gammarus tigrinus in the reed beds of the Tjeukemeer, Netherlands. Hydrobiologia, 53(2):155-164
Chambers MR, 1987. The status of the alien amphipod Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton, 1939) in Friesland twenty five years after its introduction into the Netherlands. Bulletin Zoologisch Museum, 11(7):65-67
Chubarenko I, Tchepikova I, 2001. Modelling of man-made contribution to salinity increase into the Vistula Lagoon (Baltic Sea). Ecological Modelling, 138:87-100
Costello MJ, 1993. Biogeography of alien amphipods occurring in Ireland, and interactions with native species. Crustaceana, 65(3):287-299
Daunys D, Zettler ML, 2006. Invasion of the North American amphipod (Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939) into the Curonian Lagoon, south-eastern Baltic Sea. Acta Zoologica Lituanica, 16(1):20-26
Devin, S., Beisel, J. N., 2007. Biological and ecological characteristics of invasive species: a gammarid study. Biological Invasions, 9(1), 13-24. http://www.springerlink.com/content/p841540263864787/fulltext.pdf doi: 10.1007/s10530-006-9001-0
Dhur G, 1993. [English title not available]. (Etude des espèces d'invertébrés immigrées ou introduites dans la Moselle luxembourgeoise et dans les écosystèmes aquatiques qui en dépendent). Echternach, Luxembourg: Historique et répartition actuelle, Centre universitaire du Luxembourg, 213 pp
Dick JTA, 1996. Post-invasion amphipod communities of Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland: influences of habitat selection and mutual predation. Journal of Animal Ecology, 65(6):756-767
Dick, J. T. A., Platvoet, D., 2000. Invading predatory crustacean Dikerogammarus villosus eliminates both native and exotic species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 267(1447), 977-983. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2000.1099
Dieleman J, Pinkster S, 1977. Further observations on the range extension of the alien amphipod Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939, in the Netherlands during the years 1974 to 1976. Bulletin Zoologisch Museum, 6:21-24
Dobrzycka-Krahel, A., Tarala, A., Chabowska, A., 2013. Expansion of alien gammarids in the Vistula Lagoon and the Vistula Delta (Poland). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(6), 5165-5175. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10661 doi: 10.1007/s10661-012-2933-1
Dobson M, 2012. Identifying invasive freshwater shrimps and isopods. Freshwater Biological Association. UK: DEFRA, 30 pp
Ezhova E, Zmudzinski L, Maciejewska K, 2005. Long-term trends in the macrozoobenthos of the Vistula Lagoon, southeastern Baltic Sea. Species composition and biomass distribution. The Bulletin of the Sea Fisheries Institute, 164:55-73
Fries G, Tesch FW, 1965. [English title not available]. (Der Einfluss der Massenvorkommens von Gammarus tigrinus Sexton auf Fische und niedere Tierwelt in der Weser). Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft, 16:133-150
Fruget JF, Dessaix J, 2003. [English title not available]. (Changements environnementaux, dérives biologiques et perspectives de restauration du Rhône français après 200 ans d’influences anthropiques). Vertigo, 4(3):1-17
Främmande Arter, 2006. Alien species in Swedish seas (Främmande arter i Svenska hav). http://www.frammandearter.se/
Ginn TC, Waller WT, Lauer GJ, 1976. Survival and reproduction of Gammarus spp. (Amphipoda) following short-term exposure to elevated temperatures. Chesapeake Science, 17(1):8-14
Gollasch, S., 2006. Overview on introduced aquatic species in European navigational and adjacent waters. Helgoland Marine Research, 60(2), 84-89. http://www.springerlink.com/(vbc5i445bmwdkp45y4ynpj45)/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,3,13;journal,2,169;linkingpublicationresults,1:103796,1 doi: 10.1007/s10152-006-0022-y
Grabowski, M., Bacela, K., Konopacka, A., 2007a. How to be an invasive gammarid (Amphipoda: Gammaroidea) - comparison of life history traits. Hydrobiologia, 590, 75-84. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/1573-5117/ doi: 10.1007/s10750-007-0759-6
Grabowski, M., Konopacka, A., Jazdzewski, K., Janowska, E., 2006. Invasions of alien gammarid species and retreat of natives in the Vistula Lagoon (Baltic Sea, Poland). Helgoland Marine Research, 60(2), 90-97. http://www.springerlink.com/(vbc5i445bmwdkp45y4ynpj45)/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,4,13;journal,2,169;linkingpublicationresults,1:103796,1 doi: 10.1007/s10152-006-0025-8
Grigorovich IA, 1989. A guide to the identification of amphipods of fresh and brackish waters of the southwestern USSR [in Russian]. Kiev, Ukraine: Institute of Hydrobiology, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR
Grigorovich IA, Kang M, Ciborowski JJH, 2005. Colonization of the Laurentian Great Lakes by the amphipod Gammarus tigrinus, a native of the North American Atlantic Coast. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 31:333-342
Grigorovich, I. A., Angradi, T. R., Emery, E. B., Wooten, M. S., 2008. Invasion of the Upper Mississippi River system by saltwater amphipods. Fundamental and Applied Limnology, 173(1), 67-77. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/fal/2008/00000173/00000001/art00007 doi: 10.1127/1863-9135/2008/0173-0067
Gruszka P, 1995. [English title not available]. (Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 (Crustacea: Amphipoda) - nowy dla fauny Polski gatunek w estuarium Odry). In: I Konferencja Przyrodnicze aspekty badania wód estuarium Odry i wód jeziornych województwa szczecinskiego. Materialy Konferencyjne No. 7. Szczecin, Poland: Uniwersytet Szczecinski, 44
Gruszka P, 1999. The River Odra Estuary as a gateway for alien species immigration to the Baltic Sea Basin. Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica, 27(5):374-381
Gruszka P, 2002. Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton, 1939) (Crustacea, Amphipoda) - a new species in the Puck Bay (southern Baltic). In: 4th European Crustacean Conference, University of Lodz, Poland, 22-26 July 2002. Poland: Uniwersytetu Lódzkiego, 40-41
Gusev AA, Guseva DO, Rudinskaja LV, 2012. Alien species of Malacostraca and Mollusca in waters of Kalinigradskaja oblast. In: Izotova ED, ed. Problems of hydrobiology and ichthyology. Proceedings of the 1st International Internet-Conference, Kazan, Russia, 6 December 2012. Kazan, Russia: Kazan University, 25-27
Hautus T, Pinkster S, 1987. Range extension in the period 1985-1986 of the alien amphipods, Gammarus tigrinus, Sexton, 1939, and Crangonyx pseudogracilis Bousfield, 1958, in the Netherlands (Crustacea, Amphipoda). Bulletin Zoologisch Museum, 11(6):57-64
Herkul K, Kotta J, Kotta I, Orav-Kotta H, 2006. Effects of physical disturbance, isolation and key macrozoobenthic species on community development, recolonisation and sedimentation processes. Oceanologia, 48:267-282
Herkul, K., Kotta, J., 2007. New records of the amphipods Chelicorophium curvispinum, Gammarus tigrinus, G. duebeni, and G. lacustris in the Estonian coastal sea. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciencs, Biology, Ecology, 56(4), 290-296. http://www.kirj.ee/public/Ecology/2007/issue_4/bio-2007-4-6.pdf
Herkul, K., Kotta, J., Püss, T., Kotta, L., 2009. Crustacean invasions in the Estonian coastal sea. Estonian Journal of Ecology, 58(4), 313-323. http://www.kirj.ee/public/Ecology/2009/issue_4/ecol-2009-4-313-323.pdf doi: 10.3176/eco.2009.4.06
Holsinger JR, 1976. The freshwater amphipod crustaceans (Gammaridae) of North America. Cincinnati, Ohio: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 89 pp
Hunte W, Myers RA, 1984. Phototaxis and cannibalism in gammaridean amphipods. Marine Biology, 81(1):75-79
Hynes HBN, 1955. The reproductive cycle of some British freshwater Gammaridae. Journal of Animal Ecology, 24(2):352-387
Jazdzewski K, 1975. Remarks on Gammarus lacustris G. O. Sars, 1863, with description of Gammarus varsoviensis n. sp. (Crustacea, Amphipoda). Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 45:71-86
Jazdzewski K, 1980. Range extensions of some gammaridean species in European inland waters caused by human activity. Crustaceana, Supplement, 6:84-107
Jazdzewski K, Konopacka A, 2000. Immigration history and present distribution of alien crustaceans in Polish waters. In: von Vaupel Klein IC, Schram FR, eds. The biodiversity crisis and Crustacea. Proceedings of the Fourth International Crustacean Congress, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 20-24 July 1998, Volume 2. Crustacean Issues, 12:55-64
Jazdzewski K, Konopacka A, Grabowski M, 2004. Recent drastic changes in the gammarid fauna (Crustacea, Amphipoda) of the Vistula River deltaic system in Poland caused by alien invaders. Diversity and Distributions, 10:81-87
Jazdzewski, K., Konopacka, A., Grabowski, M., 2005. Native and alien malacostracan Crustacea along the Polish Baltic Sea coast in the twentieth century. Oceanological & Hydrobiological Studies, 24(Suppl. 1/2005), 195-208.
Jensen KR, 2010. NOBANIS - Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet - Gammarus tigrinus. Identification key to marine invasive species in Nordic waters. https://www.nobanis.org/globalassets/speciesinfo/g/gammarus-tigrinus/gammarus-tigrinus.pdf
Josens, G., Vaate, A. bij de, Usseglio-Polatera, P., Cammaerts, R., Cherot, F., Grisez, F., Verboonen, P., Bossche J. P. vanden, 2005. Native and exotic Amphipoda and other Peracarida in the River Meuse: new assemblages emerge from a fast changing fauna. Hydrobiologia, 542, 203-220.
Kelleher, B., Bergers, P. J. M., Brink, F. W. B. van den, Giller, P. S., Velde, G. van der, Vaate, A. B. de, 1998. Effects of exotic amphipod invasions on fish diet in the Lower Rhine. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 143(3), 363-382.
Kelleher, B., Velde, G. van der, Giller, P. S., Vaate, A. bij de, 2000. Dominant role of exotic invertebrates, mainly Crustacea, in diets of fish in the lower Rhine River. In: The Biodiversity Crisis and Crustacea: Proceedings of the Fourth International Crustacean Congress, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 20-24 July 1998, A.A. Balkema. 35-46.
Kelly DW, MacIsaac HJ, Heath DD, 2006a. Vicariance and dispersal effects on phylogeographic structure and speciation in a widespread estuarine invertebrate. Evolution, 60(2):257-267
Kelly, D. W., Muirhead, J. R., Heath, D. D., MacIsaac, H. J., 2006b. Contrasting patterns in genetic diversity following multiple invasions of fresh and brackish waters. Molecular Ecology, 15(12), 3641-3653. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=mec doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.03012.x
Kerckhof, F., Haelters, J., Gollasch, S., 2007. Alien species in the marine and brackish ecosystem: the situation in Belgian waters. Aquatic Invasions, 2(3), 243-257. http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2007/AI_2007_2_3_Kerckhof_etal.pdf doi: 10.3391/ai.2007.2.3.9
Ketelaars HAM, 1993. [English title not available]. (Die Makro-Invertebratenbesiedlung von künstlichem Substrat in den Flüssen Maas und Rhein im Jahre 1991). Wasser Abwasser, 134:533-541
Ketelaars HAM, Frantzen NMLHF, 1995. One decade of benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring in the River Meuse. Netherlands Journal of Aquatic Ecology, 29(1):121-133
Kinzler W, Maier G, 2003. Asymmetry in mutual predation: possible reason for the replacement of native gammarids by invasives. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 157:473-481
Kipp RM, 2007. Gammarus tigrinus, Sexton 1939. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida, USA: US Geological Survey. https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=2650
Koop JHE, Grieshaber MK, 2000. The role of ion regulation in the control of the distribution of Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton) in salt-polluted rivers. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 170(1):75-83
Kotta J, 2005. Gammarus tigrinus arrived in the Gulf of Riga in July 2003. ICES Report of Benthos Ecology Working Group, 19-22 April 2005. Copenhagen, Denmark, 14 pp
Kotta, J., Kotta, I., Simm, M., Lankov, A., Lauringson, V., Põllumäe, A., Ojaveer, H., 2006. Ecological consequences of biological invasions: three invertebrate case studies in the north-eastern Baltic Sea. Helgoland Marine Research, 60(2), 106-112. http://www.springerlink.com/(vbc5i445bmwdkp45y4ynpj45)/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,6,13;journal,2,169;linkingpublicationresults,1:103796,1 doi: 10.1007/s10152-006-0027-6
Kotta, J., Orav-Kotta, H., Herkül, K., 2010. Separate and combined effects of habitat-specific fish predation on the survival of invasive and native gammarids. Journal of Sea Research, 64(3), 369-372. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1385110110000766 doi: 10.1016/j.seares.2010.05.006
Kotta, J., Orav-Kotta, H., Herkül, K., Kotta, I., 2011. Habitat choice of the invasive Gammarus tigrinus and the native Gammarus salinus indicates weak interspecific competition. Boreal Environment Research, 16(Suppl. A), 64-72. http://www.borenv.net/
Kotta, J., Pärnoja, M., Katajisto, T., Lehtiniemi, M., Malavin, S. A., Reisalu, G., Panov, V. E., 2013. Is a rapid expansion of the invasive amphipod Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 associated with its niche selection: a case study in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. Aquatic Invasions, 8(3), 319-332. http://www.aquaticinvasions.net/2013/AI_2013_3_Kotta_etal.pdf doi: 10.3391/ai.2013.8.3.08
Kotta, J., Torn, K., Reisalu, G., Veber, T., 2014. Relationships between mechanical disturbance and biomass of the invasive amphipod Gammarus tigrinus within a charophyte-dominated macrophyte community. Marine Ecology, 35(s1), 11-18. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0485 doi: 10.1111/maec.12073
Lenz, M., Gama, B. A. P. da, Gerner, N. V., Gobin, J., Gröner, F., Harry, A., Jenkins, S. R., Kraufvelin, P., Mummelthei, C., Sareyka, J., Xavier, E. A., Wahl, M., 2011. Non-native marine invertebrates are more tolerant towards environmental stress than taxonomically related native species: results from a globally replicated study. Environmental Research, 111(7), 943-952. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935111001186 doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2011.05.001
Leppakoski E, 2002. Harmful non-native species in the Baltic Sea - an ignored problem. In: Schernewski G, Schiewer U, eds. Baltic coastal ecosystem: structure, function and coastal zone management. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 253-275
MacNeil C, Bigsby E, Dick JTA, Hynes HBN, Hatcher MJ, Dunn AM, 2003a. Temporal changes in the distribution of native and introduced freshwater amphipods in Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 157(3):379-395
MacNeil C, Dick JTA, Elwood RW, 2007. The trophic ecology of freshwater Gammarus spp. (Crustacea: Amphipoda): problems and perspectives concerning the functional feeding group concept. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 72:349-364
MacNeil C, Dick JTA, Elwood RW, Montgomery WI, 2001. Coexistence among native and introduced freshwater amphipods (Crustacea); habitat utilization patterns in littoral habitats. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 151(4):591-607
MacNeil C, Dick JTA, Hatcher MJ, Dunn AM, 2003b. Differential drift and parasitism in invading and native Gammarus spp. (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Ecography, 26:467-473
MacNeil, C., Dick, J. T. A., 2012. Differential predatory and interference interactions between native and invasive freshwater amphipods and a co-occurring mysid (Crustacea). Hydrobiologia, 683, 35-42. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/1573-5117/ doi: 10.1007/s10750-011-0938-3
MacNeil, C., Dick, J. T. A., Hatcher, M. J., Terry, R. S., Smith, J. E., Dunn, A. M., 2003c. Parasite-mediated predation between native and invasive amphipods. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 270(1521), 1309-1314. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2003.2358
MacNeil, C., Platvoet, D., Dick, J. T. A., 2008. Potential roles for differential body size and microhabitat complexity in mediating biotic interactions within invasive freshwater amphipod assemblages. Fundamental and Applied Limnology, 172(3), 175-182. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/fal/2008/00000172/00000003/art00001 doi: 10.1127/1863-9135/2008/0172-0175
MacNeil, C., Prenter, J., 2000. Differential microdistributions and interspecific interactions in coexisting native and introduced Gammarus spp. (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Journal of Zoology, 251(3), 377-384. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2000.tb01088.x
Martin A, Diaz YJ, 2007. Biodiversity of peracarid crustaceans in the Orinoco River Delta, Venezuela. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 55:87-102
Massard JA, Gaby G, 1992. A new record of Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 in a former arm of the Moselle between Luxembourg and Germany (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Bulletin de la Societe des Naturalistes Luxembourgeois, 93:195-198
Messiaen, M., Lock, K., Gabriels, W., Vercauteren, T., Wouters, K., Boets, P., Goethals, P. L. M., 2010. Alien macrocrustaceans in freshwater ecosystems in the eastern part of Flanders (Belgium). Belgian Journal of Zoology, 140(1), 30-39.
Morozinska-Gogol J, 2008. The first record of Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Acanthocephala, Tenuisentidae) in Poland. Oceanologia, 50(2):275-279
Myers AA, 1993. Dispersal and endemicity in gammaridean Amphipoda. Journal of Natural History, 27:901-908
Nehring S, Klingenstein F, 2005. Alien species in the Wadden Sea - a challenge to act. Wadden Sea Newsletter, 31:13-16
Nellis P, Munro J, Hatin D, Desrosiers G, Simons RD, Guilbard F, 2007. Macrobenthos assemblages in the St. Lawrence estuarine transition zone and their potential as food for Atlantic sturgeon and lake sturgeon. In: Munro J, ed. Anadromous sturgeons: habitats, threats, and management. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 56:105-128
Nijssen H, Stock JH, 1966. The amphipod, Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939, introduced in the Netherlands (Crustacea). Beaufortia, 13:197-206
NNSS, 2014. Non Native Species Secretariat of Great Britain. www.nonnativespecies.org
Normant M, Feike M, Szaniawska A, Graf G, 2007. Adaptation of Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 to new environments - some metabolic investigations. Thermochimica Acta, 458:107-111
Orav-Kotta H, Kotta J, 2004. Food and habitat choice of the isopod Idotea baltica in the northeastern Baltic Sea. Hydrobiologia, 514:79-85
Orav-Kotta, H., Kotta, J., Herkül, K., Kotta, I., Paalme, T., 2009. Seasonal variability in the grazing potential of the invasive amphipod Gammarus tigrinus and the native amphipod Gammarus salinus (Amphipoda: Crustacea) in the northern Baltic Sea. Biological Invasions, 11(3), 597-608. http://www.springerlink.com/content/e27317unp4444219/fulltext.html doi: 10.1007/s10530-008-9274-6
Packalén, A., Korpinen, S., Lehtonen, K. K., 2008. The invasive amphipod species Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton 1939) can rapidly change littoral communities in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea). Aquatic Invasions, 3(4), 405-412. http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2008/AI_2008_3_4_Packalen_etal.pdf doi: 10.3391/ai.2008.3.4.6
Petruck A, Stoffler U, 2011. On the history of chloride concentrations in the River Lippe (Germany) and the impact on the macroinvertebrates. Limnologica, 41(2):143-150
Pienimäki M, Helavuori M, Leppäkoski E, 2004. First findings of the North American amphipod Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 along the Finnish coast. Memoranda pro Societas Fauna et Flora Fennica, 80:17-19
Pinkster S, 1975. The introduction of the alien amphipod Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in the Netherlands and its competition with indigenous species. Aquatic Ecology, 9(3):131-138
Pinkster S, 1978. Amphipoda. In: Illies J, ed. Limnofauna Europaea (2nd edition). Stuttgart/New York/Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, 244-253.
Pinkster S, Dieleman J, Platvoet D, 1980. The present position of Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939, in the Netherlands, with the description of a newly discovered amphipod species Crangonyx pseudogracilis Bousfield, 1858 (Crustacea, Amphipoda). Bulletin Zoologisch Museum, 7(4):33-38
Pinkster S, Scheepmaker M, Platvoet D, Broodbakker N, 1992. Drastic changes in the amphipod fauna (Crustacea) of Dutch inland waters during the last 25 years. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 61(4):193-204
Pinkster S, Smit H, Brandse-de Jong N, 1977. The introduction of the alien amphipod Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939, in the Netherlands and its competition with indigenous species. Crustaceana, Supplement, 4:91-105
Piscart C, Manach A, Copp GH, Marmonier P, 2007. Distribution and microhabitats of native and non-native gammarids (Amphipoda, Crustacea) in Brittany, with particular reference to the endangered endemic sub-species Gammarus duebeni celticus. Journal of Biogeography, 34:524-533
Piscart C, Mermillod-Blondin F, Maazouzi C, Merigoux S, Marmonier P, 2011. Potential impact of invasive amphipods on leaf litter recycling in aquatic ecosystems. Biological Invasions, 13(12):2861-2868
Piscart, C., Maazouzi, C., Marmonier, P., 2008. Range expansion of the North American alien amphipod Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 (Crustacea: Gammaridae) in Brittany, France. Aquatic Invasions, 3(4), 449-453. http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2008/AI_2008_3_4_Piscart_etal.pdf doi: 10.3391/ai.2008.3.4.16
Piscart, C., Moreteau, J. C., Beisel, J. N., 2005. Biodiversity and structure of macroinvertebrate communities along a small permanent salinity gradient (Meurthe River, France). Hydrobiologia, 551(1), 227-236. http://www.tcd.ie/Centre_for_the_Environment/watertechnology/documents/salinity%20and%20macros.pdf
Platvoet D, Pinkster S, 1985. The present position of the alien amphipods Gammarus tigrinus and Crangonyx pseudogracilis in the Netherlands (Crustacea, Amphipoda). Bulletin Zoologisch Museum, 10:125-128
Platvoet D, Pinkster S, 1995. Changes in the amphipod fauna (Crustacea) of the Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt estuary due to the ’Delta plan’ coastal engineering works. Netherlands Journal of Aquatic Ecology, 29:5-30
Platvoet, D., Dick, J. T. A., MacNeil, C., Riel, M. C. van, Velde, G. van der, 2009. Invader-invader interactions in relation to environmental heterogeneity leads to zonation of two invasive amphipods, Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky) and Gammarus tigrinus Sexton: amphipod pilot species project (AMPIS) report 6. Biological Invasions, 11(9), 2085-2093. http://www.springerlink.com/content/f6r0667150m2838x/fulltext.html doi: 10.1007/s10530-009-9488-2
Poje GV, Riordan SA, O'Connor JM, 1988. Food habits of the amphipod Gammarus tigrinus in the Hudson River and the effects of diet upon its growth and reproduction. In: Smith CL, ed. Fisheries Research in the Hudson River. Albany, New York, USA: State University of New York Press, 255-270
Radziejewska, T., Fenske, C., Wawrzyniak-Wydrowska, B., Riel, P., Wozacute˜niczka, A., Gruszka, P., 2009. The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the benthic community in a coastal Baltic lagoon: another example of enhancement?. Marine Ecology, 30(s1), 138-150. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mae doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0485.2009.00313.x
Rolbiecki, L., Normant, M., 2005. The first record of parasites in Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 - a recent newcomer to the Gulf of Gdansk. Oceanologia, 47(2), 283-287. http://www.iopan.gda.pl/oceanologia/472rolbi.pdf
Roos PJ, 1979. Two-stage life cycle of a Cordylophora population in the Netherlands. Hydrobiologia, 62:231-239
Rudolph K, 1994. [English title not available]. (Erstnachweis des Amphipoden Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 (Crustacea: Gammaridea) im Peenestrom und Achterwasser (südliche Ostseeküste)). Naturschutzarbeit in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, 37(2):23-29
Ruoff K, 1968. [English title not available]. (Experimentelle Untersuchungen über den in die Weser eingebürgerten amerikanischen Bachflohkrebse Gammarus tigrinus Sexton). Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft, 19(2-3):134-158
Samuel G, Bullock WL, 1981. Life cycle of Paratenuisentis ambiguous (Acanthocephala, Tenuisentidae). Journal of Parasitology, 67(2):214-217
Sareyka, J., Kraufvelin, P., Lenz, M., Lindström, M., Tollrian, R., Wahl, M., 2011. Differences in stress tolerance and brood size between a non-indigenous and an indigenous gammarid in the northern Baltic Sea. Marine Biology, 158(9), 2001-2008. http://www.springerlink.com/content/4r7j4817434rk1jg/ doi: 10.1007/s00227-011-1708-5
Savage AA, 1982. The survival and growth of Gammarus tigrinus Sexton (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in relation to salinity and temperature. Hydrobiologia, 94(3):201-212
Savage AA, 2000. Community structure during a 27-year study of the macroinvertebrate fauna of a chemically unstable lake. Hydrobiologia, 421(1):115-127
Savage, A. A., 1996. Density dependent and density independent relationships during a twenty-seven year study of the population dynamics of the benthic macroinvertebrate community of a chemically unstable lake. Hydrobiologia, 335(2), 115-131. doi: 10.1007/BF00015273
Schmitz W, 1960. [English title not available]. (Die Einburgerung von Gammarus tigrinus Sexton auf dem europaischen Kontinent). Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 57:223-225
Sexton EW, Cooper LHN, 1939. On a new species of Gammarus (G. tigrinus) from Droitwich district. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 23(2):543-551
Sridhar KR, Barlocher F, 1993. Seasonal-changes in microbial colonization of fresh and dried leaves. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 128(1):1-12
Sridhar KR, Beaton M, Barlocher F, 2011. Fungal propagules and DNA in feces of two detritus-feeding amphipods. Microbial Ecology, 61(1):31-40
Streit B, Kuhn K, 1994. Effects of organophosphorous insecticides on autochthonous and introduced Gammarus species. Water Science and Technology, 29(3):233-240
Strode E, Balode M, 2013. Toxico-resistance of Baltic amphipod species to heavy metals. Crustaceana, 86(7-8):1007-1024
Strode, E., Berezina, N. A., Kalnins, M., Balode, M., 2013. New records of the amphipods Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 and Pontogammarus robustoides G.O. Sars, 1894 in Latvian waters of the Baltic Sea. BioInvasions Records, 2(1), 63-68. http://www.reabic.net/journals/bir/2013/1/BIR_2013_1_Strode_etal.pdf
Swanson GA, 1984. Dissemination of amphipods by waterfowl. Journal of Wildlife Management, 48:988-991
Sylvester, F., MacIsaac, H. J., 2010. Is vessel hull fouling an invasion threat to the Great Lakes?. Diversity and Distributions, 16(1), 132-143. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ddi doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2009.00622.x
Szaniawska A, Lapucki T, Normant M, 2003. The invasive amphipod Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939, in Puck Bay. Oceanologia, 45(3):507-510
Szöcs, E., Coring, E., Bäthe, J., Schäfer, R. B., 2014. Effects of anthropogenic salinization on biological traits and community composition of stream macroinvertebrates. Science of the Total Environment, 468/469, 943-949. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969713009728 doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.058
Taraschewski, H., Moravec, F., Lamah, T., Anders, K., 1987. Distribution and morphology of two helminths recently introduced into European eel populations: Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda, Dracunculoidea) and Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Acanthocephala, Tenuisentidae). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 3(3), 167-176. doi: 10.3354/dao003167
Thielen F, 2005. [English title not available]. (Der Einfluss einwandernder Amphipodenarten auf die Parasitozonose des Europa ischen Aals (Anguilla anguilla)). DPhil Thesis. Karlsruhe, Germany: University of Karlsruhe
Timofeyev, M. A., Shatilina, Z. M., Kolesnichenko, A. V., Bedulina, D. S., Kolesnichenko, V. V., Pflugmacher, S., Steinberg, C. E. W., 2006. Natural organic matter (NOM) induces oxidative stress in freshwater amphipods Gammarus lacustris Sars and Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton). Science of the Total Environment, 366(2/3), 673-681. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V78-4JHMRRK-2&_user=3891418&_handle=V-WA-A-W-VE-MsSWYWW-UUW-U-AAZZCAYUUW-AAZVUEYYUW-YVBDZWYA-VE-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=08%2F01%2F2006&_rdoc=24&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%235836%232006%23996339997%23627774!&_cdi=5836&view=c&_acct=C000028398&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=3891418&md5=75ba886f4c6ba89723c1d1bfda525dc4 doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.02.003
Trebitz, A. S., West, C. W., Hoffman, J. C., Kelly, J. R., Peterson, G. S., Grigorovich, I. A., 2010. Status of non-indigenous benthic invertebrates in the Duluth-Superior Harbor and the role of sampling methods in their detection. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 36(4), 747-756. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B984D-51519SW-1&_user=10&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2010&_rdoc=19&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_origin=browse&_zone=rslt_list_item&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%2359068%232010%23999639995%232695773%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=59068&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=28&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=5b34d4ffda6f99c74640071bf8e49f8a&searchtype=a doi: 10.1016/j.jglr.2010.09.003
van der Velde, G., Rajagopal, S., Kelleher, B., Muskó, I. B., Vaate, A. bij de, 2000. Ecological impact of crustacean invaders: General considerations and examples from the Rhine River. The Biodiversity Crisis and Crustacea: Proceedings of the Fourth International Crustacean Congress, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 20-24 July 1998, 3-33.
van Maren MJ, 1978. Distribution and ecology of Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 and some other amphipod Crustacea near Beaufort (North Carolina, U.S.A.). Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 48(1):45-56
van Riel MC, Healy EP, van der Velde G, bij de Vaate A, 2007. Interference competition among native and invader amphipods. Acta Oecologica, 31(3):282-289
van Riel, M. C., van der Velde, G., bij de Vaate, A., 2009. Interference competition between alien invasive gammaridean species. Biological Invasions, 11(9), 2119-2132. http://www.springerlink.com/content/j60r56382t534g26/fulltext.html doi: 10.1007/s10530-009-9486-4
Vercauteren T, Wouters K, Van de Poel D, 1996. First record of Gammarus tigrinus Sexton 1939 (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in Belgium. (Eerste melding van de tijgervlokreeft (Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939) in België). Berichten over de macrofauna en de biologische kwaliteit van de oppervlaktewateren in de provincie Antwerpen, 11. Antwerp, Belgium: Provinciaal Instituut voor Hygiëne, 1-9
Wawrzyniak-Wydrowska B, Gruszka P, 2005. Population dynamics of alien gammarid species in the River Odra estuary. Hydrobiologia, 539:13-25
Wijnhoven, S., Riel, M. C. van, Velde, G. van der, 2003. Exotic and indigenous freshwater gammarid species: physiological tolerance to water temperature in relation to ionic content of the water. Aquatic Ecology, 37, 151-158.
Winn RN, Knott DM, 1992. An evaluation of the survival of experimental populations exposed to hypoxia in the Savannah River estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 88(2-3):161-179
Wooten MS, Johnson BR, Emery EB, 2006. Temporal variation in Ohio River macroinvertebrates: a historical comparison of rock basket sampling (1965-1971 and 2002). Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 21:561-574
Zettler ML, 1995. [English title not available]. (Erstnachweis von Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in der Darss-Zingster-Boddenkette und seine derzeitige Verbreitung an der deutschen Ostseeküste). Archiv der Freunde der Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg, 34:137-140
Zettler ML, 2001. Some malacostracan crustacean assemblages in the southern and western Baltic Sea. Rostocker Meeresbiologische Beiträge, 9:127-143
Zettler ML, 2008. Long-term changes of a littoral amphipod community in the Stettin lagoon. (Veränderungen einer litoralen Amphipoda-Gemeinschaft am Beispiel einer Langzeitstudie im Oderhaff). Lauterbornia, 62:27-32
Zmudzinski L, 1957. Zoobenthos of the Vistula lagoon. (Zoobentos Zalewu Wislanego). Prace Morskiego Instytutu Rybackiego, 9:453-500
Bailey R J E, Dick J T A, Elwood R W, MacNeil C, 2006. Predatory interactions between the invasive amphipod Gammarus tigrinus and the native opossum shrimp Mysis relicta. Journal of the North American Benthological Society. 25 (2), 393-405. DOI:10.1899/0887-3593(2006)25[393:PIBTIA]2.0.CO;2
Batie RE, 1981. Biomass, relative growth-rates and production of Gammarus tigrinus (Amphipoda, Gammaridae) and Palaemonetes pugio (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) in a tidal creek of the Rhode river watershed, Maryland. In: American Zoologist, 21 (4) 935.
Berezina N A, Petryashev V V, 2012. Invasions of higher crustaceans (Crustacea: Malacostraca) in waters of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea). Russian Journal of Biological Invasions. 3 (2), 81-91. http://www.springerlink.com/content/314p0662r45123mq/ DOI:10.1134/S2075111712020038
Bousfield EL, 1958. Fresh-water amphipod crustaceans of glaciated North America. In: Canadian Field Naturalist, 72 55-113.
Bousfield EL, 1963. New fresh-water amphipod crustaceans from Florida. In: National Museum of Canada Natural History Papers, 18 Canada: Queen's Printer. 9 pp.
Bousfield EL, 1969. New records of Gammarus (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from the Middle Atlantic Region. In: Chesapeake Science, 10 (1) 1-17.
Bousfield EL, 1973. Shallow-water Gammaridean Amphipoda of New England., London, UK: Cornell University Press. 324 pp.
Bulnheim HP, 1976. [English title not available]. (Gammarus tigrinus, ein neues faunenelement der Ostseeförde Schlei)). In: Schriften des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins für Schleswig-Holstein, 46 79-84.
Bulnheim HP, 1980. [English title not available]. (Zum vorkommen von Gammarus tigrinus im Nord-Ostsee-Kanal). In: Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft, 30 67-73.
Bulnheim HP, 1985. Genetic differentiation between natural populations of Gammarus tigrinus (Crustacea, Amphipoda) with reference to its range extension in European continental waters. In: Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 102 (3) 273-290.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Capelo JC, Garcia JV, Pereira G, 2004. Benthic macroinvertebrate diversity of the Gulf of Paria and Orinoco Delta. In: RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment, 37 198-203.
Costello MJ, 1993. Biogeography of alien amphipods occurring in Ireland, and interactions with native species. In: Crustaceana, 65 (3) 287-299.
Daunys D, Zettler ML, 2006. Invasion of the North American amphipod (Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939) into the Curonian Lagoon, south-eastern Baltic Sea. In: Acta Zoologica Lituanica, 16 (1) 20-26.
Dhur G, 1993. [English title not available]. (Etude des espèces d'invertébrés immigrées ou introduites dans la Moselle luxembourgeoise et dans les écosystèmes aquatiques qui en dépendent)., Echternach, Luxembourg: Historique et répartition actuelle, Centre universitaire du Luxembourg. 213 pp.
Dick J T A, Platvoet D, 2000. Invading predatory crustacean Dikerogammarus villosus eliminates both native and exotic species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 267 (1447), 977-983. DOI:10.1098/rspb.2000.1099
Dick JTA, 1996. Post-invasion amphipod communities of Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland: influences of habitat selection and mutual predation. In: Journal of Animal Ecology, 65 (6) 756-767.
Dobrzycka-Krahel A, Tarała A, Chabowska A, 2013. Expansion of alien gammarids in the Vistula Lagoon and the Vistula Delta (Poland). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 185 (6), 5165-5175. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10661 DOI:10.1007/s10661-012-2933-1
Ezhova E, Zmudzinski L, Maciejewska K, 2005. Long-term trends in the macrozoobentos of the Vistula Lagoon, southeastern Baltic Sea: species composition and biomass distribution. In: The bulletin of the Sea Fisheries Institute, 164 (1) 55-73.
Grigorovich I A, Angradi T R, Emery E B, Wooten M S, 2008. Invasion of the Upper Mississippi River system by saltwater amphipods. Fundamental and Applied Limnology. 173 (1), 67-77. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/fal/2008/00000173/00000001/art00007 DOI:10.1127/1863-9135/2008/0173-0067
Grigorovich IA, Kang M, Ciborowski JJH, 2005. Colonization of the Laurentian Great Lakes by the amphipod Gammarus tigrinus, a native of the North American Atlantic Coast. In: Journal of Great Lakes Research, 31 333-342.
Gruszka P, 1995. [English title not available]. (Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 (Crustacea: Amphipoda) - nowy dla fauny Polski gatunek w estuarium Odry). In: I Konferencja Przyrodnicze aspekty badania wód estuarium Odry i wód jeziornych województwa szczecinskiego. 7 Szczecin, Poland: Uniwersytet Szczecinski. 44.
Gruszka P, 1999. The River Odra Estuary as a gateway for alien species immigration to the Baltic Sea Basin. In: Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica, 27 (5) 374-381.
Gusev AA, Guseva DO, Rudinskaja LV, 2012. Alien species of Malacostraca and Mollusca in waters of Kalinigradskaja oblast. In: Problems of hydrobiology and ichthyology [Proceedings of the 1st International Internet-Conference, Kazan, Russia, 6 December 2012], [ed. by Izotova ED]. Kazan, Russia: Kazan University. 25-27.
Herkül K, Kotta J, 2007. New records of the amphipods Chelicorophium curvispinum, Gammarus tigrinus, G. duebeni, and G. lacustris in the Estonian coastal sea. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciencs, Biology, Ecology. 56 (4), 290-296. http://www.kirj.ee/public/Ecology/2007/issue_4/bio-2007-4-6.pdf
Herkül K, Kotta J, Püss T, Kotta L, 2009. Crustacean invasions in the Estonian coastal sea. Estonian Journal of Ecology. 58 (4), 313-323. http://www.kirj.ee/public/Ecology/2009/issue_4/ecol-2009-4-313-323.pdf DOI:10.3176/eco.2009.4.06
Josens G, Vaate A bij de, Usseglio-Polatera P, Cammaerts R, Cherot F, Grisez F, Verboonen P, Bossche J P vanden, 2005. Native and exotic Amphipoda and other Peracarida in the River Meuse: new assemblages emerge from a fast changing fauna. Hydrobiologia. 203-220.
Kotta J, Pärnoja M, Katajisto T, Lehtiniemi M, Malavin S A, Reisalu G, Panov V E, 2013. Is a rapid expansion of the invasive amphipod Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 associated with its niche selection: a case study in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea. Aquatic Invasions. 8 (3), 319-332. http://www.aquaticinvasions.net/2013/AI_2013_3_Kotta_etal.pdf DOI:10.3391/ai.2013.8.3.08
MacNeil C, Dick J T A, 2012. Differential predatory and interference interactions between native and invasive freshwater amphipods and a co-occurring mysid (Crustacea). Hydrobiologia. 35-42. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/1573-5117/ DOI:10.1007/s10750-011-0938-3
Martin A, Diaz YJ, 2007. Biodiversity of peracarid crustaceans in the Orinoco River Delta, Venezuela. In: Revista de Biologia Tropical, 55 87-102.
Messiaen M, Lock K, Gabriels W, Vercauteren T, Wouters K, Boets P, Goethals P L M, 2010. Alien macrocrustaceans in freshwater ecosystems in the eastern part of Flanders (Belgium). Belgian Journal of Zoology. 140 (1), 30-39.
Nijssen H, Stock JH, 1966. The amphipod, Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939, introduced in the Netherlands (Crustacea). In: Beaufortia, 13 197-206.
Packalén A, Korpinen S, Lehtonen K K, 2008. The invasive amphipod species Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton 1939) can rapidly change littoral communities in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea). Aquatic Invasions. 3 (4), 405-412. DOI:10.3391/ai.2008.3.4.6
Pienimäki M, Helavuori M, Leppäkoski E, 2004. First findings of the North American amphipod Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 along the Finnish coast. In: Memoranda pro Societas Fauna et Flora Fennica, 80 17-19.
Pinkster S, 1978. Amphipoda. In: Limnofauna Europaea, [ed. by Illies J]. Stuttgart/New York/ Amsterdam, Swets & Zeitlinger. 244-253.
Pinkster S, Dieleman J, Platvoet D, 1980. The present position of Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939, in the Netherlands, with the description of a newly discovered amphipod species Crangonyx pseudogracilis Bousfield, 1858 (Crustacea, Amphipoda). In: Bulletin Zoologisch Museum, 7 (4) 33-38.
Pinkster S, Smit H, Brandse-de Jong N, 1977. The introduction of the alien amphipod Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939, in the Netherlands and its competition with indigenous species. In: Crustaceana, 4 91-105.
Piscart C, Maazouzi C, Marmonier P, 2008. Range expansion of the North American alien amphipod Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 (Crustacea: Gammaridae) in Brittany, France. Aquatic Invasions. 3 (4), 449-453. DOI:10.3391/ai.2008.3.4.16
Piscart C, Manach A, Copp GH, Marmonier P, 2007. Distribution and microhabitats of native and non-native gammarids (Amphipoda, Crustacea) in Brittany, with particular reference to the endangered endemic sub-species Gammarus duebeni celticus. In: Journal of Biogeography, 34 524-533.
Piscart C, Moreteau J C, Beisel J N, 2005. Biodiversity and structure of macroinvertebrate communities along a small permanent salinity gradient (Meurthe River, France). Hydrobiologia. 551 (1), 227-236. http://www.tcd.ie/Centre_for_the_Environment/watertechnology/documents/salinity%20and%20macros.pdf
Platvoet D, Dick J T A, MacNeil C, Riel M C van, Velde G van der, 2009. Invader-invader interactions in relation to environmental heterogeneity leads to zonation of two invasive amphipods, Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky) and Gammarus tigrinus Sexton: amphipod pilot species project (AMPIS) report 6. Biological Invasions. 11 (9), 2085-2093. http://www.springerlink.com/content/f6r0667150m2838x/fulltext.html DOI:10.1007/s10530-009-9488-2
Rudolph K, 1994. [English title not available]. (Erstnachweis des Amphipoden Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 (Crustacea: Gammaridea) im Peenestrom und Achterwasser (südliche Ostseeküste)). In: Naturschutzarbeit in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, 37 (2) 23-29.
Sareyka J, Kraufvelin P, Lenz M, Lindström M, Tollrian R, Wahl M, 2011. Differences in stress tolerance and brood size between a non-indigenous and an indigenous gammarid in the northern Baltic Sea. Marine Biology. 158 (9), 2001-2008. http://www.springerlink.com/content/4r7j4817434rk1jg/ DOI:10.1007/s00227-011-1708-5
Savage AA, 2000. Community structure during a 27-year study of the macroinvertebrate fauna of a chemically unstable lake. In: Hydrobiologia, 421 (1) 115-127.
Schmitz W, 1960. [English title not available]. (Die Einburgerung von Gammarus tigrinus Sexton auf dem europaischen Kontinent). In: Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 57 223-225.
Sexton EW, Cooper LHN, 1939. On a new species of Gammarus (G. tigrinus) from Droitwich district. In: Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 23 (2) 543-551.
Trebitz A S, West C W, Hoffman J C, Kelly J R, Peterson G S, Grigorovich I A, 2010. Status of non-indigenous benthic invertebrates in the Duluth-Superior Harbor and the role of sampling methods in their detection. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 36 (4), 747-756. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B984D-51519SW-1&_user=10&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2010&_rdoc=19&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_origin=browse&_zone=rslt_list_item&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%2359068%232010%23999639995%232695773%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=59068&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=28&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=5b34d4ffda6f99c74640071bf8e49f8a&searchtype=a DOI:10.1016/j.jglr.2010.09.003
van Maren MJ, 1978. Distribution and ecology of Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 and some other amphipod Crustacea near Beaufort (North Carolina, U.S.A.). In: Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 48 (1) 45-56.
Zettler ML, 1995. [English title not available]. (Erstnachweis von Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939 (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in der Darss-Zingster-Boddenkette und seine derzeitige Verbreitung an der deutschen Ostseeküste). In: Archiv der Freunde der Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg, 34 137-140.
Zettler ML, 2001. Some malacostracan crustacean assemblages in the southern and western Baltic Sea. In: Rostocker Meeresbiologische Beiträge, 9 127-143.
ContributorsTop of page
23/09/14 Original text by:
Ekaterina Shalaeva, Consultant, UK
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/