Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Alysicarpus vaginalis
(alyce clover)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Alysicarpus vaginalis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • alyce clover
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. vaginalis is an annual or perennial herbaceous legume, considered to be of paleotropical origin but introduced throughout the neotropics, which is now widespread across tropical regions around the globe, both in the wild and cultivated...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover); habit, with seed pods. Mokolii, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. April, 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionAlysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover); habit, with seed pods. Mokolii, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. April, 2005.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 3.0
Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover); habit, with seed pods. Mokolii, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. April, 2005.
HabitAlysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover); habit, with seed pods. Mokolii, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. April, 2005.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 3.0
Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover); habit, with flowers.
TitleHabit
CaptionAlysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover); habit, with flowers.
Copyright©Agnes Rinehart/Lauren Gutierrez-2012/via flickr - CC BY-ND 2.0
Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover); habit, with flowers.
HabitAlysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover); habit, with flowers.©Agnes Rinehart/Lauren Gutierrez-2012/via flickr - CC BY-ND 2.0
Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover); habit, with flowers.
TitleHabit
CaptionAlysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover); habit, with flowers.
Copyright©Lauren Gutierrez-2010/via flickr - CC BY-ND 2.0
Alysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover); habit, with flowers.
HabitAlysicarpus vaginalis (alyce clover); habit, with flowers.©Lauren Gutierrez-2010/via flickr - CC BY-ND 2.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC.

Preferred Common Name

  • alyce clover

Other Scientific Names

  • Alysicarpus nummularifolius (L.) DC.
  • Hedysarum vaginale L.

International Common Names

  • English: alyceclover; buffalo clover; oneleaf clover; one-leaf clover
  • Spanish: Trebol alicia
  • French: Alysicarpus
  • Chinese: lian jia dou

Local Common Names

  • Bahamas: false moneywort
  • Cuba: maní cimarrón
  • Indonesia: brobos (Javanese); gudé oyod (Javanese); tebalan (Javanese)
  • Italy: trifoglio d'Alice
  • Malaysia: akar seleguri
  • Myanmar: than-ma-naing-kyauk-ma-naing
  • Philippines: banig-usa (Tagalog); mani-manian (Tagalog)
  • Puerto Rico: yerba de contrabando
  • Thailand: thua lisongna
  • Vietnam: cây me dât; cây the the

EPPO code

  • ALZNU (Alysicarpus nummularifolius)
  • ALZVA (Alysicarpus vaginalis)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

A. vaginalis is an annual or perennial herbaceous legume, considered to be of paleotropical origin but introduced throughout the neotropics, which is now widespread across tropical regions around the globe, both in the wild and cultivated as a cover and green manure crop, fodder, and hay crop (Duke, 1981; Lewis et al., 2005; Wagner et al., 2014). The species reproduces by seeds, one per pod, and requires little cultivation or care after seeding (Duke, 1981). It is listed as naturalized, an agricultural weed, environmental weed, and weed in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). According to the Geographical Atlas of World Weeds (Holm et al., 1979), it is a widespread weed, and listed as a ‘principal weed’ (high priority threat to crops) in Thailand, ‘common weed’ (very widespread and requiring constant effort but not a serious crop threat) in Hawaii, the Philippines, and Taiwan, and ‘present as a weed’ (priority rank unknown) in Sri Lanka, Fiji, India, New Guinea, west Polynesia, Trinidad, and the USA (Holm et al., 1979). It is known to be invasive to Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). The species variant in Madagascar corresponds with var. vaginalis, as it is not covered with long pale brownish hairs, and may be native to the island but not endemic (Puy et al., 2002).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Genus: Alysicarpus
  •                                 Species: Alysicarpus vaginalis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The genus Alysicarpus is a member of the large, economically important pea family Fabaceae, or Leguminoseae, and consists of 25-30 species spanning Africa, India, Indo-China, Malesia, China, east Asia, Japan, and Australia, with most of the endemic species in India (Lewis et al., 2005). The name derives from the Greek words ‘hylysis’ meaning chain, and ‘carpos’, meaning fruit, in reference to the segments of the pods (Lewis et al., 2005). Alysicarpus species are used for livestock fodder, medicine, green manure as a cover crop, and as famine food (Lewis et al., 2005).

Description

Top of page

Erect or spreading to prostrate perennial herbs, or self-regenerating summer annual in Florida. Woody at base, stems 10-60 cm long, often rooting at nodes. Leaflets broadly to narrowly oblong-elliptic, sometimes a few of them lanceolate, 1-6.5 cm long, 0.3-2(-2.6) cm wide, gradually more bract-like toward apex of branches. Flowers subsessile, in leaf-opposed inflorescences up to 10 cm long; calyx persistent in fruit, the teeth narrowly deltate, 3-4 mm long; corolla orange, pinkish buff or reddish to purple, ca. 6 mm long.

Fruit pods 1.2-2.5 cm long, reticulate-veined, breaking into 4-7 segments, with slightly raised borders between the segments, each segment 2.5-3 mm long, puberulent with uncinate hairs. Wings mauve, keel magenta, mauve or green with purple tip. Seeds yellowish, speckled brown or entirely yellow-brown to brown, up to ca. 1.5-1.7 mm long (Duke, 1981; Wagner et al., 2014). 

Plant Type

Top of page
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of page

A. vaginalis is native to Africa, Asia, Malesia, and Australia (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012) and introduced to South America, the West Indies and the United States, naturalizing in many of these places (Halim and Pengelly, 1992). While A. vaginalis occurs across East Africa, it is uncommon in West Africa (Duke, 1981) and is not included in Flora Europaea (Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2014). A. vaginalis may be one of the four Alysicarpus species in Madagascar that are possibly native, although none are endemic (Puy et al., 2002).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNative
ComorosPresent
EswatiniPresentNative
GabonPresentNative
KenyaPresentNative
MadagascarPresent, Widespread
MauritiusPresentNative
-RodriguesPresent
MozambiquePresentNative
NigerPresentNative
NigeriaPresentNative
RéunionPresentNative
Sierra LeonePresentNative
South AfricaPresentNative
SudanPresentNative
TanzaniaPresentNative
-Zanzibar IslandPresentNative
TogoPresentNative
UgandaPresentNative
ZambiaPresentNative
ZimbabwePresentNative

Asia

CambodiaPresentNative
ChinaPresentNative
-FujianPresentNative
-GuangdongPresentNative
-GuangxiPresentNative
-HainanPresentNative
-YunnanPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
IndonesiaPresentNative
-JavaPresentNative
JapanPresentNative
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNative
LaosPresentNative
MalaysiaPresentNative
MyanmarPresentBago, Mandalay, Mon, Sagaing, Shan, Yangon
NepalPresentNative
OmanPresentNative
PakistanPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentNative
Sri LankaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresentNative
YemenPresentNative

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced
BahamasPresentIntroduced
BarbadosPresentIntroduced
BelizePresent
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-SabaPresentIntroduced
-Sint EustatiusPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
British Virgin IslandsPresentGuana, Tortola, Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
DominicaPresentIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
GrenadaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedIncluding Carriacou
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MartiniquePresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentChiapas
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced
PanamaPresentIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroduced
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBequia, St. Vincent
Sint MaartenPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedSt. Croix, St. John, St. Thomas
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedKaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Maui, Hawai`i.

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNative
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentCaroline Islands - Belau (Babeldaob, Ngerekebesang, Oreor, Ulebsechel), Pohnpei (Pohnpei), Truk Islands (Moen, Parem), Yap Islands (Gagil Tamil, Yap)
GuamPresent
NauruPresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentPagan, Saipan, Tinian
Papua New GuineaPresentNative

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedSanta Cruz; Original citation: Bolivia Checklist (2014)
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GoiasPresentIntroduced
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroduced
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroduced
-ParanaPresentIntroduced
-PiauiPresentIntroduced
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced
-TocantinsPresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentMunicipios Caucasia, Olaya, Turbo.
EcuadorPresentIntroducedGuayas
French GuianaPresentIntroduced
GuyanaPresentIntroduced
SurinamePresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedBolivar, Delta Amacuro

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

A. vaginalis is of paleotropic origin, but has been introduced to the neotropics and is now naturalized in many places. The species has a history of cultivated use as a forage, cover and green manure crop in Asia and India (Duke, 1981; Halim and Pengelly, 1992; Hanelt et al., 2001), and has also been valued in Ayurveda medicine (Hanelt et al., 2001; Quattrocchi, 2012). It was introduced to the USA in 1910 and has proven adaptable to areas near the Gulf of Mexico (Purdue NewCROP, 2014).

In the West Indies, A. vaginalis was present in Jamaica by 1837; although Macfadyen included it in his flora on Jamaica, he reported it to be “naturalized in West Indies and Guiana”; however, the species may not have been introduced to Puerto Rico until the turn of the twentieth century, as it was not included in Bello’s flora (Bello Espinosa, 1881) but was observed by Britton around 40 years later to occur in fields, waste and cultivated grounds in Puerto Rico, and by that time “nearly throughout the West Indies, except the Bahamas” (Britton and Wilson, 1924).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

Because A. vaginalis was widely introduced to tropical regions outside of its native range as a fodder, cover and soil improvement crop, it is now considered an agricultural and environmental weed, with the potential to threaten native ecosystems (Randall, 2012), and is known to be invasive to Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). It can tolerate a wide range of non-native distribution, can occur in both dry and moist areas with a wide range of annual rainfall (910-4290 mm), and requires little attention after seeding as it has the ability to self-reseed (Duke, 1981; Hanelt et al., 2001). The risk of introduction for A. vaginalis is moderate based on these invasive traits, but more data and research is needed.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

Chromosome count for the species is 2n=16, 20 (Duke, 1981; Wagner et al., 2014).

Environmental Requirements

Ranging from subtropical moist through tropical dry to west forest climate zones, A. vaginalis can tolerate high annual rainfall, including annual precipitations of 9.1-42.9 dm, but requires at least 3 dm over 4 months, and mean annual temperature ranges of 18.3-27.4 C. It requires 9-12 consecutive frost-free months and during each of those months rainfall of at least 60 mm. It requires a tropical to suptropical climate, and will grow at 0-1380 m altitudes in many tropical areas. Preferred soil types are clay loams and sandy soils, but the species can grow in most cultivated soil and reportedly tolerates coralline sands to clays, heavy soil and weed competition; usually growing in soils with mean pHs of 5.5-8.7 but withstanding low pH and poor soils, and being able to tolerate more acidic soil pH than most legume forage plants (Duke, 1981; Halim and Pengelly, 1992). In Colombia, A. vaginalis is found in both humid tropical and secondary tropical forests at altitudes of 0-1000 m (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014). In Bolivia the species occurs in lowland rainforest and dry-to-semideciduous forest climates at altitudes between 0 and 500 m (Bolivia Checklist, 2014).

Despite its tolerance of high rainfall, A. vaginalis cannot tolerate waterlogging and requires well-drained soils. Throughout the Asian region it is a common lawn weed and appears adapted to frequent defoliation and grazing; in such conditions it behaves as a perennial, in contrast to plants in seasonally dry climates, where it usually behaves as an annual (Halim and Pengelly, 1992).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 28

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration03number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall9104290mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

A. vaginalis spreads by seeds (Duke, 1981). Dispersal by humans is primarily through intentional introduction, as it has been cultivated around the world for environmental purposes and as a forage crop, but it is likely to have unintentionally escaped from cultivation resulting in naturalizing in non-native environments such as the West Indies, South America, and the USA (Duke, 1981; Hanelt et al., 2001). Other dispersal agents include livestock, who graze upon the species (Duke, 1981). It can also spread abiotically by water, as it often grows on sandy coastlines (Quattrocchi, 2012, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionSpecies widely cultivated in agricultural settings as a forage and cover crop and soil improver Yes Yes Duke (1981); Hanelt et al. (2001)
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes Duke (1981); Hanelt et al. (2001)
ForageSpecies cultivated as fodder and forage crop for livestock. Yes Yes Duke (1981); Hanelt et al. (2001)
Habitat restoration and improvementSpecies cultivated in agricultural settings as a soil improver Yes Yes Duke (1981); Hanelt et al. (2001)
Medicinal useSpecies is used in Ayurveda and SE Asian medicine Yes Duke (1981); Hanelt et al. (2001); Quattrocchi (2012)

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Land vehiclesSpecies cultivated in agricultural settings thus possibly spread by machinery and vehicle tires Yes Yes Duke (1981); Hanelt et al. (2001)
Machinery and equipmentSpecies cultivated in agricultural settings thus possibly spread by machinery and vehicle tires Yes Yes Duke (1981); Hanelt et al. (2001)
Soil, sand and gravel Yes Yes Duke (1981); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014); Hanelt et al. (2001); Quattrocchi (2012)
WaterSpecies is known to grow in coastal areas and sandy beaches Yes Yes Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014); Quattrocchi (2012)

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

Top of page

A. vaginalis has been valued for use as a cover and forage crop, environmental soil improver, as well as a source for traditional medicine, and has as a consequence spread across tropical and subtropical regions around the world (Duke, 1981; Halim and Pengelly, 1992; Hanelt et al., 2001). However, it has the potential to negatively impact the environment due to its invasive traits which include broad distribution range, multiple vectors for seed dispersal, and seed viability of over a year. Further research on the invasiveness of the species is recommended.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page
Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact mechanisms
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

A. vaginalis is mainly grown as a forage crop, for hay and soil improvement, and also as a pasture plant (Duke, 1981; Hanelt et al., 2001). In India the species is used both as dry and green forage, in Florida for grazing, and in the Philippines it has been described as the best forage legume (Duke, 1981). It has been used as a cover crop in Papua New Guinea and in rubber plantations in Java, and also as a hay crop in the USA (Halim and Pengelly, 1992). A. vaginalis is used in Ayurvedic medicine in southeast Asia (Hanelt et al., 2001), and in folk medicine a decoction of the species’ roots has been reportedly used to treat coughs in Java, while in Vietnam an infusion of powdered seeds is used against dysentery and colics (Duke, 1981; Halim and Pengelly, 1992). In China the whole plant has been used medicinally for treating sword wounds and bone fractures (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). Nutritionally, A. vaginalis has been reported to contain the equivalent nutritive value to superfood alfalfa (Medicago sativa) (Duke, 1981).

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Soil improvement

Materials

  • Green manure

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

Top of page

Further research is needed to assess the invasiveness of this species. While currently it is reported to be invasive to Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012), the combination of invasive traits and its continued cultivation in all tropical regions of the world warrant a review of invasive status. Other recommended areas for research include prevention and control methods, important particularly for areas surrounding plantations and land where the species is cultivated.

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Bolivia Checklist, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13

Britton NL; Wilson P, 1924. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin islands, Volume V, Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences, New York.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Duke JA, 1981. Handbook of legumes of world economic importance. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 345 pp.

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Forzza R, 2010. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Halim RA; Pengelly BC, 1992. Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA) No. 4: Forages [ed. by Mannetje L't, \Jones, R. M.]., The Netherlands: Pudoc, Wageningen University, 42-44.

Hanelt P; Buttner R; Mansfeld R, 2001. Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (except Ornamentals). Berlin, Germany: Springer.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herbenger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Kress WJ; Defilipps RA; Farr E; Kyi DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 45:1-590.

Lewis GP; Schrire B; Mackinder B; Lock M, 2005. Legumes of the world. Richmond, USA: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 577 pp.

Lock JM; Simpson K, 1991. Legumes of West Asia. A Check List. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

MacFadyen J, 1837. The flora of Jamaica: A description of the plants of that island. London, UK: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green & Longman, 351 pp.

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Panama Checklist, 2014. Flora of Panama Checklist, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/PAC

Paraguay Checklist, 2014. Paraguay Checklist. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/Paraguay

Peru Checklist, 2014. The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PEC

Purdue NewCROP, 2014. New Crop Resource Online Program website., USA: Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Purdue University. https://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/default.html

Puy DJdu; Labat JN; Rabevohitra R; Villiers JF; Bosser J; Moat J, 2002. The Leguminosae of Madagascar. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, 737 pp.

Quattrocchi U, 2012. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology [ed. by Quattrocchi, U.]. London, UK: CRC Press Inc., 3960 pp.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2014. Flora Europaea. Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution,. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Tornabene MW; Weitzman A; Lorence DH, 2012. Flora of Micronesia website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Duke J A, 1981. Handbook of legumes of world economic importance. New York, USA; London, UK: Plenum Press. xi + 345pp.

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Forzza R, 2010. List of species of the Flora of Brazil. (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil)., http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

Kress WJ, Defilipps RA, Farr E, Kyi DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. In: Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 45 1-590.

Lock J M, Simpson K, 1991. Legumes of West Asia: a check-list. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. xi + 263 pp.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Puy DJdu, Labat JN, Rabevohitra R, Villierhttp://s JF, Bohttp://shttp://ser J, Moat J, 2002. The Leguminohttp://sae of Madagahttp://scar., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardenhttp://s. 737 pp. http://s

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website., Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Tornabene MW, Weitzman A, Lorence DH, 2012. Flora of Micronesia website., Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Contributors

Top of page

12/5/2014 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: