Avena fatua (wild oat)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Habitat List
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Impact Summary
- Threatened Species
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Avena fatua L. (1753)
Preferred Common Name
- wild oat
International Common Names
- Spanish: avena loca; avena silvestre; avena silvestre comun; ballueca
- French: folle avoine
- Portuguese: balanco
Local Common Names
- Brazil: aveia-brava; aveia-fatua
- Germany: Flug-Hafer; Wind-Hafer
- Italy: avena matta; avena selvatica
- Japan: chahiki; karasumugi
- Netherlands: oot; wilde haver
- Poland: owies gluchy
- Sweden: fyghavre
- Turkey: yabani yulaf
- AVEFA (Avena fatua)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Monocotyledonae
- Order: Cyperales
- Family: Poaceae
- Genus: Avena
- Species: Avena fatua
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Many subspecies of A. fatua requiring different climatic and soil conditions have been identified. Maillet (1980) sampled six forms of A. fatua abundant in France and Yamaguchi (1982) divided the common form of A. fatua in Japan into four groups. Scholz (1991) also distinguished different varieties of A. fatua (ssp. fatua, septentrionalis, meridionalis and aemulans). In Germany, Siebert and Brix (1984) found the following subspecies: pilosissima, cinerea, pilosa, superba, glabrata and intermedia. Several subspecies of A. fatua are known to occur in the Netherlands: pilosissima, intermedia, hybrida and glabrata (Zonderwijk, 1974). The following subspecies have been sampled by Korniak (1985) in Poland: A. fatua ssp. fatua (pilosissima), intermedia, glabrata and vilis. Initial studies on wild oat varieties in Jiangsu, China, indicated two varieties of A. fatua (A. fatua var. glabrescens and A. fatua var. glabrata) and four ecotypes, which have different coloured husks (Zhang et al., 1999).
Avena fatua and other Avena species are universally referred to as 'wild oats'. Other species of Avena are not as widespread as A. fatua, but are also troublesome in some countries. They include A. sterilis or A. sterilis ssp. sterilis (syn. A. macrocarpa) (wild red oat), A. ludoviciana or A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana (winter wild oat), A. strigosa (bristle pointed oat) and A. barbata (syn. A. wiestii) (slender oat).
Species which are very seldom listed in the literature are A. nodipilosa, A. magna, A. byzantina, A. pilosa, A. ventricosa, A. clauda, A. longiglumis, A. alba, A. carophylla, A. flavescens, A. nuda, A. pratensis and A. pubescens.
DescriptionTop of page
The inflorescence of A. fatua is a loose, open panicle with 2 to 3-flowered pedicelled spikelets. As a specific trait of Avena species, lemmas have 2 to 3 awns arising from the back, which are mostly dark-coloured, bent and 3 to 4 cm long (Holm et al., 1977). Each of the 2 to 3 florets has an oval abscission scar at its base, causing them to fall separately.
Grains are 6 to 8 mm long and usually of mass 11 to 18 mg, but grains of mass 25 mg may also be found. Increasing seed mass enhances competitiveness and seed production (Peters, 1985). Without interference A. fatua can produce more than 20 tillers and 1500 seeds per plant (Morrow and Gealy, 1982), but in crop stands only 1 to 5 tillers and 200 (50 to 1000) seeds per plant are reached (Hanf, 1990).
The height of wild oat lines is related to climate and the number of tillers is correlated with the USA state of origin (Somody et al., 1980a). Morphological characteristics of A. fatua selections can also vary within relatively narrow geographical limits (Somody et al., 1981a).
In a study by Yang et al. (1999) that looked at the genomic structure of A. fatua, a translocation not previously observed in reports on other hexaploid Avena species was found. If this translocation is found to be unique to A. fatua, then this information, combined with more traditional morphological data, will add support to the view that A. fatua is genetically distinct from other hexaploid Avena species.
Plant TypeTop of page
Grass / sedge
DistributionTop of page
In addition to the countries shown on the distribution map, A. fatua has been noted as present in all European regions except Faroes, Spitzbergen and Crete (Rocha Afonso, 1980), and present in all USA states except Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, North and South Carolina, Mississippi, Rhode Island and Tennessee (USDA, 2003). It has become a real problem in the grain growing regions of Australia and the distribution and infestation of A. fatua has been described as parallel to those in China (Tang and Lamerle, 1996).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|South Africa||Present, Widespread|
|-Rajasthan||Present||Original citation: Anon, 1979|
|Taiwan||Present||Original citation: Taiwan Sugar Research Institute, undated|
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Present, Widespread|
|Union of Soviet Socialist Republics||Present||Original recorded location: Former USSR-in-Europe|
|North Macedonia||Present, Localized|
|Russia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Central Russia||Present, Localized||Original citation: Jones and (1976)|
|United Kingdom||Present, Widespread|
|United States||Present, Widespread|
|-New South Wales||Present, Widespread|
|-Western Australia||Present, Widespread|
|New Zealand||Present, Widespread|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
In recent times, A. fatua has become one of the most important weeds in the USA, Canada and the UK (Sharma, 1979). Since the 1960s this species has spread widely, e.g. in Finland (Erviö, 1984), Norway (Synnes, 1984), Germany (Kulp and Cordes, 1986; Petzoldt, 1986), Poland (Korniak, 1985), Italy (Speranza et al., 1990), former Yugoslavia (Shala, 1987), the former Czechoslovakia (Koblihova, 1989) and India (Mustafee, 1989). Increasing infestation may be caused by seed importation (Erviö, 1984), prolonged cereal cropping or new production technology (Bachthaler, 1985). Milijic (1980) pointed out that growing wheat in rotation with other annual field crops, as opposed to monoculture, and high fertilization result in an increase in abundance of A. fatua. In contrast to these findings, A. fatua declined in the Netherlands because the area of spring cereals planted decreased and control of A. fatua was encouraged by the government (Naber, 1977).
HabitatTop of page
Growth and viability are not restricted by low temperatures, although A. fatua has its origin in the relatively arid climate of Asia. The species seems to be troublesome wherever cereals are grown in locations with an annual rainfall of 375 to 750 mm (Holm et al., 1977). Avena fatua is also common in other rotation crops, on pasture, in vineyards and on wasteland (Häfliger and Scholz, 1981). It is especially common in the following crops: wheat, barley, rye, oats, rice, maize, potatoes, oilseed rape, sugarbeet, sugarcane, sorghum, cotton, tea, peas, lentils, alfalfa, soyabeans, flax and sunflowers.
Yamaguchi (1982) divided the common forms of A. fatua into four groups according to habitat: accessions from high latitude (Canada, German Federal Republic and Hokkaido, Japan); those from the urban waste land of southern Japan comprising relatively tall plants; those from cultivated fields and the rural waste land of southern Japan, Korea, Australia and Mexico; those with relatively short culms from cereal fields in Japan. In Spain evaluation of the occurrence of A. fatua has suggested that it is prevalent in areas with cooler, wetter climates (Recasens et al., 1996). In former Yugoslavia and Spain, it is noted that, in contrast to other Avena species, A. fatua prefers higher altitudes and is only occasionally present near the coast (Lozanovski et al., 1980; Recasens et al., 1990).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Avena sativa (oats)||Poaceae||Main|
|Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet)||Chenopodiaceae||Other|
|Brassica napus var. napus (rape)||Brassicaceae||Other|
|Camellia sinensis (tea)||Theaceae||Other|
|Cicer arietinum (chickpea)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (globe artichoke)||Asteraceae||Other|
|Glycine max (soyabean)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Helianthus annuus (sunflower)||Asteraceae||Other|
|Hordeum vulgare (barley)||Poaceae||Main|
|Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris (lentil)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Linum usitatissimum (flax)||Other|
|Medicago sativa (lucerne)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Oryza sativa (rice)||Poaceae||Main|
|Pisum sativum (pea)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)||Poaceae||Other|
|Secale cereale (rye)||Poaceae||Main|
|Solanum tuberosum (potato)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)||Poaceae||Other|
|Triticum aestivum (wheat)||Poaceae||Main|
|Zea mays (maize)||Poaceae||Main|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Germination and Dormancy
In the northern hemisphere, A. fatua germinates mainly in spring and to a lesser extent in autumn (Jones, 1976; Davies, 1985; Wilson, 1985). It has been reported to germinate over a wide range of temperatures (5-30°C), with optimum germination around 15°C (Koch and Hurle, 1978; Fernandez-Quintanilla et al., 1990) and 20°C (Hassanein et al., 1996). The rate of germination was greatest at 20°C while greatest plumule length and seedling dry weights were achieved at 25°C (Hassanein et al., 1996). However, Murdoch (1983) indicated an optimum soil temperature for germination of only 4-8°C and a maximum temperature of 17°C. These differences in germination requirements are most likely the result of variability between locally adapted ecotypes.
It is known that the awn of the A. fatua seed twists into a helix on drying and untwists when wet, thereby drilling the seed into the soil (Stinson and Peterson, 1979). The geniculate awn is necessary for self-burial. Rain was not required for self-burial and self-burial was not impeded by the presence of straw on the soil surface (Somody et al., 1985). Germination is inhibited by direct or diffused light (Froud-Williams, 1985; Sawhney et al., 1986) but is enhanced by ethylene (Adkins and Ross, 1981), nitrate (Adkins et al., 1984; Saini et al., 1986) and ammonium (Agenbag et al., 1989). Seeds of the summer annual species generally have long, strong primary dormancy, whereas seeds of species that can over-winter have short, weak primary dormancy (Fykse, 1984). Primary dormancy may be broken after a few days or several months (Symons et al., 1987). The duration of dormancy also depends on the temperature at the time of ripening (Sawhney et al., 1985; Adkins and Simpson, 1988), on day length and on genotype (Somody et al., 1980a; Armstrong and Adkins, 1998). Even the grain location in relation to the panicle and, therefore, time of maturity are known to be factors influencing dormancy (Kojic and Canak, 1980). Murdoch et al. (1996) found that dormancy was induced in late spring as a result of soil temperatures being greater than 20°C and water potentials being between -10 and -100 kPa, whereas the dormancy was relieved during autumn and winter (temperatures below 20°C and soil at field capacity). Hou et al. (1997) examined the water uptake patterns in dormant and non-dormant seeds of A. fatua and found that non-dormant seeds absorbed water much more rapidly during imbibition than dormant seeds. Significant differences were also found in the sensitivity of water distribution in A. fatua seeds to the phytochrome germination effect (Hou et al., 1997). The rate and sequence of embryo/scutellum hydration were the important factors in initiating dormancy release. Seed dormancy may be broken by wounding (Foley, 1987) or by treating the air-dry seed with ammonia (Cairns and Villiers, 1986). Seeds can enter into weak secondary dormancy but viability is often lost (Parasher and Singh, 1985).
It is difficult to generalize the dormancy behaviour of A. fatua because of the many interacting environmental factors, high genetic variability and ecotypic variation (Holm et al., 1977). Fennimore et al. (1998) found that backcrossed generations of A. fatua with high and low dormancy displayed a generation-by-germination-temperature interaction. At the lower temperatures the more dormant generations were favoured but as the temperature increased, the generation with lower dormancy displayed higher germination. This, it was concluded, may play an adaptive role allowing the wild oat to persist in diverse ecosystems. Martinez-Ghersa et al. (2000) reported changes in dormancy and germination traits in seeds of A. fatua in different agricultural systems, suggesting an adaptive value for invasion of plants into specific human disturbed habitats. A recent paper by Foley and Fennimore (1998), in which the current knowledge on seed dormancy is summarized, includes information on A. fatua. Several models to help explain the presence of competition and dormancy in A. fatua have also been created (Damgaard, 1998; Fennimore et al., 1999; Foley et al., 1999).
Gibberellic acid is not the primary regulator of seed dormancy in A. fatua but rather it is the after-ripening that is crucial for dormancy release (Fennimore and Foley, 1998). Previously, Foley and Lang (1996) found that after-ripening removes the restriction of germination whereas fructose circumvents it. Gibberellic acid and fructose were tried to see if germination of excised embryos was apparent (Myers et al., 1997). They found that fructose and gibberellic acid both had little effect on the germination and early development in after-ripened embryos but induced germination in dormant seeds. Seedlings resulting from after-ripened seed treated with both fructose and gibberellic acid also grew larger than untreated seedlings. Johnson et al. (1996) found that the expression of cDNAs of dormant and non-dormant A. fatua seeds was modulated by gibberellic acid.
Phosphorous has been found to influence the dormancy and germination of A. fatua (Quick et al., 1997). As phosphorous levels decrease, nutrients accumulate, the water content decreases and dormancy is onset. As the phosphorous levels rise, dormancy is relieved and germination occurs. Other chemicals for relieving dormancy have been examined. Cranston et al. (1996) found that A. fatua germinates after exposure to ethylene. Carmona and Murdoch (1998) found that sodium azide damaged and often killed seeds of A. fatua at pH 4, but actually increased germination at pH 6.2. Carmona and Murdoch (1996) investigated the response of A. fatua to different temperatures and germination-stimulating substances. They found that A. fatua did not respond to thiourea, ethephon and hydrogen potassium, potassium nitrate or sodium azide when subjected to constant or alternating temperatures greater than 10°C. However, they found that when the temperature was reduced to 3-10°C, sodium azide and potassium nitrate relieved dormancy. McIntyre et al. (1996) found germination of A. fatua to be promoted by 50 or 100 mM KNO3 if the adaxial surface of the caryopsis was pierced. They suggested this was due to the KNO3 acting osmotically to increase water uptake.
Cranston et al. (1999) used differential display of mRNAs from embryos of A. fatua caryopses to isolate an mRNA more abundant in non-dormant than dormant caryopses during early imbibition. Increased abundance of this mRNA during early germination and in actively growing tissues indicates that the respective protein is associated with rapid cell elongation, cell division and growth.
Murdoch et al. (1998) further discussed the annual dormancy cycle and germinability of buried seeds of A. fatua.
Barralis and Chadoeuf (1987) recognized that A. fatua belonged to a group of weed species with a high annual rate of seed bank decline (about 80% per year) but that on average successful germination and seedling emergence accounted for only 15% of the annual seed bank losses. Koch and Hurle (1978) reported seed viability of between 3 and 8 years. In field experiments Miller and Nalewaja (1983) found that seed viability declined by 80% shortly after burial but 1-7% of the seed was still viable after 9 years of burial. Miller and Nalewaja (1990) found some viable seeds after 14 years, but 20% were non-viable after 7 months. Conn (1990) reported that less than 1% of seeds were viable after 5 years. Demo (1999a) concluded that viability was related to soil conditions, and that seeds were viable longer in the soil than under laboratory conditions. In field trials in Western Australia, Peltzer and Matson (2002), showed an 80% seed bank decline after 1 year.
Attempts to characterize the influence of soil burial depth on A. fatua viability and longevity have produced unclear and confounding results. Conn and Farris (1987) found that viability was higher for seeds buried at 15 cm than at 2 cm. Hsiao et al. (1983) showed that mortality of seeds on the soil surface is very high, particularly when they are exposed to freezing temperatures. In contrast to these findings, Miller and Nalewaja (1990) indicated a higher seed loss with increasing depth of burial. At depths of 6 cm, Pickering and Raju (1996) reported greater mortality than at 1-2 cms, with seedling emergence being poor and delayed. They attributed this mortality to parasitization of seeds by the soil microbes. Murdoch (1983) found similar germination totals at depths of 2.5-23 cm after 19 months in the soil. However, less than 2% of seeds which germinated at 23 cm were able to emerge. The depth from which seed will germinate is greatest with large seeds, with A. fatua germinating from up to 25 cm below the surface (Fykse, 1984). Seed size affects not only emergence rate, but also growth rate and therefore the competitiveness of the plant (Peters, 1985). A. fatua plants produce fewer panicles when established from seed emerging from 2 cm depth than from seed emerging from 10 cm depth (Somody et al., 1981b).
Growth and Crop Competition
A. fatua forms a large root system with a high uptake of phosphorus and nitrogen (Haynes et al., 1991). Nitrogen and root competition are therefore very important determinants of yield impact in cereals (Satorre and Snaydon, 1992). The timing of fertilizer application may also result in the promotion of A. fatua amongst crops (Kirkland and Beckie, 1998; Dastgheib et al., 1998, 1999). The addition of fertilizer to a wheat crop in New Zealand resulted in increased densities of A. fatua (Dastgheib et al., 1998, 1999) but vigour decreased (Dastgheib et al., 1998). In glasshouse trials, Freedom et al. (1998) explored the influence of fertilization and atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment on ecosystem carbon dioxide and H2O exchanges in single and multiple-species grassland microcosms. In further studies, O'Donnell and Adkins (2001) examined the influence of carbon dioxide enrichment, temperature increase and soil moisture level on A. fatua and wheat.
The competition of A. fatua with winter cereal crops has been assessed in China. Results (Qian, 1996) indicated that the cereal crops were generally more competitive than the wild oats with the competition beginning at the tillering stage, increasing during growth with the maximum occurring at the shooting and heading stages. For the crops it was intraspecific competition that was the most significant whereas for wild oats it was the interspecific competition that was the more significant (Qian, 1996). In Cundinmarca (Columbia) the competitive effect of eight successive cohorts of wild oats in wheat was assessed and the earliest emerging cohorts were shown to be the strongest competitors (Marquez et al., 1996).
Competition was also studied by Lanning et al. (1997) who investigated the suppression of wild oats by wheat and barley growth by lowering the amount of light available to the A. fatua plants. They found that barley was a much better competitor with wild oats than wheat as one half of the wild oat biomass and seed were produced. High positive correlations were evident between light penetration and wild oat growth. In China, an analysis of the interactions of three weeds on wheat was examined (Li, 1996). It was seen that A. fatua had the greatest impact of the three weed species on wheat. Increasing the density of A. fatua by one plant/m² decreased the wheat yield by 2.92 kg/667 m² (see additional notes on crop competitiveness under Economic Impact).
See additional notes under Habitat.
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Mean annual rainfall||250||1000||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
A. fatua has relatively large seeds, the majority of which fall close to the parent plant. There are no reports of natural dispersal by wind or water, though this must occur to some extent. Movement by animals is similarly not discussed in the literature.
The dispersal and spread of A. fatua is closely associated with the cultivation of cereal crops around the world. In a study examining weed dispersal within fields, patches of A. fatua typically advanced by 1-3 m in a single year with some movement of up to 30 m noted (Wheeler et al., 2001). Movement was in the direction of cultivation and harvesting. Movement over longer distances is most likely the result of importation of contaminated grain.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||weeds/seeds||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||weeds/seeds||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page
A. fatua shows a high competitive ability and is often more competitive than Alopecurus myosuroides (Farahbakhsh et al., 1987), Galium aparine (Wilson and Wright, 1990) or wheat (Martin and Field, 1988). Shoot biomass and competitiveness are enhanced by ploughing and high levels of fertilization with nitrogen (Bozic, 1986) and phosphorus (Konesky et al., 1989). Competition between cereals and A. fatua occurs predominantly below ground (Satorre and Snaydon, 1992). Crop yield response depends on time of emergence and density (Farahbakhsh and Murphy, 1986). In cereals, competition starts mainly at the two-node stage and reduces the number of crop tillers (Morishita and Thill, 1988). However, a study by Dhaliwal (1998) found that when mixed with A. fatua, all barley cultivars being tested displayed improved growth characteristics. O'Donovan et al. (1999b) also found that each year wild oat seed yield and shoot dry weight decreased as barley plant density increased.
Many damage threshold levels have been estimated for various crops. For cereals the following have been reported: eight A. fatua plants/m² caused 14% yield reduction and 5.5% less protein content in wheat (Wimschneider et al., 1990); 100 panicles/m² reduced the yield of winter wheat by 34% and of spring wheat by 40% (Rola, 1987); 60 plants/m² caused an average yield loss of 0.5 t/ha in about 100 wheat trials (Meinert, 1983); wheat yield loss was below 1% up to 3 plants of A. fatua/m², reached 2.2% at 5 plants and was 50-60% at 100 plants (Walia et al., 1998); infestations ranging from 8 to 662 seedlings/m² in the spring resulted in yield reductions varying from 0 to 72% in spring barley (Wilson and Peters, 1982; Weaver and Ivany, 1998); 10 culms diminished spring barley yield by 0.08-0.15 t/ha (Korolova et al., 2000); 17-30% reduction in winter wheat yields was caused by 8-16 A. fatua plants/m², although with fewer than 8 plants/m² yield reductions were not significant (Pardo and Encina, 1977); 1% yield loss was measured in cereals for each A. fatua plant/m² (Wilson and Wright, 1990); the damage threshold in spring barley is around 10 A. fatua plants/m² (Murdoch et al., 1988); no yield loss was observed with 4 A. fatua plants/m² in wheat and with 15 plants/m² in cultivated oats (Mondragon et al., 1989). In contrast to the majority of reports, Kiec (1997) found that planting densities of 0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 pcs/m² in crops of spring wheat had no effect on crop yield or other triticale variables. In the case of sugarbeet, Mesbah et al. (1995) found that one A. fatua plant/m of row reduced yield by 14%, but in mixed density with 0.8 Sinapis arvensis, yield (plants/m of row) was reduced by 29%. For maize, 9 or 27 A. fatua plants/m of row reduced maize grain yield by 14 or 25%, respectively, whereas 3 plants/m of row caused no significant yield reduction (Castillo and Ahrens, 1986). In field trials using peas, A. fatua was shown to cause significant reductions in total yield and also a reduction in seeds per pod (Wright and Baloch, 1999).
Variations in the yield reduction potential of A. fatua as evidenced above are inevitable and are the result of site to site, climatic and genetic variation. An analysis of the economic benefits of integrated weed management approaches for the control of A. fatua in northern New South Wales, Australia, reinforced the idea that strategies that directly reduce seed production and seed bank populations yield the greatest economic benefit (Jones and Medd, 1997). Crop competition and bioeconomic decision support models have been developed for A. fatua control. A decision model of Cousens et al. (1986) predicts that the highest long-term benefits will be obtained when A. fatua is controlled at a density of 2-3 seedlings/m². Jones and Medd (2000) convincingly identify the shortcomings of A. fatua control strategies that simply attempt to minimise yield impacts in a single year and advocate population based management that attempts to reduce the soil seed bank over a longer term.
The continuous and widespread use of herbicides for the control of A. fatua has frequently resulted in the evolution of herbicide resistance and A. fatua is listed as the second most herbicide resistance prone weed in the world (Heap, 2003). Herbicide resistant populations of A. fatua have been reported in Australia, Canada, Belgium, Chile, France, South Africa, the UK and USA (Heap, 2003) and resistance to at least five herbicide modes of action has been documented. In Canada, where the problem is most severe, upwards of 2 million acres of cropland are infested with herbicide resistant A. fatua. In a recent survey in Saskatchewan, Canada, over one half of fields had populations of A. fatua resistant to either ACC'ase or ALS-inhibiting herbicides (Beckie et al., 2002).
Only a few data are available concerning the long-term effect of A. fatua as a host for cereal pests and diseases. Rauber (1977) and Sharma and van den Born (1978) found no obvious differences in susceptibility between A. fatua and A. sativa. Nevertheless, Madariaga and Scharen (1985) reported that Septoria tritici [Mycosphaerella graminicola] on A. fatua was not pathogenic to wheat. In a study by Barlow et al. (1999) results indicated that A. fatua was a poor host for the tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus).
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Amaranthus pumilus (seabeach amaranth)||NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species||California||Competition - monopolizing resources||US Fish and Wildlife Service (2008)|
|Streptanthus glandulosus subsp. niger (Tiburon jewelflower)||USA ESA listing as endangered species||California||Competition - strangling||US Fish and Wildlife Service (2010a)|
|Verbesina dissita (big-leaved crownbeard)||National list(s); USA ESA listing as threatened species||California||Competition - monopolizing resources||US Fish and Wildlife Service (2010b)|
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts tourism
- Reduced amenity values
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition - strangling
- Pest and disease transmission
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Fodder/animal feed
- Gene source for disease resistance
- Gene source for drought resistance
- Poisonous to mammals
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Because of its vigour, growth habit and large spikelets, A. fatua looks similar to cultivated oat (A. sativa). However, A. sativa has a denser panicle, the spikelets have only 0 to 1 awn and the florets do not readily separate and shed (Hanf, 1990). The most common of the other wild oat species is A. sterilis, which differs in the florets not separating from each other but falling as a cluster of 2 to 5 florets. Avena ludoviciana is very similar to A. sterilis and is sometimes treated as a sub-species, differing in size with spikelets mostly below 30 mm, while those of a typical A. sterilis plant are over 30 mm. Of other species occurring as weeds, A. strigosa has spikelets that are glabrous and do not separate, while A. barbata has lemmas ending in two distinct bristles, 3 to 7 mm long. In Ethiopia the most common wild oat species, A. vaviloviana, is distinguished by having bristles 1 to 3 mm long on the lemmas and the spikelets are more slender with very narrow abscission scars at the base of each floret (Stroud and Parker, 1989).
For separation of these and other species, additional characters including the abscission scars at the base of each floret, details of the lemma, awn and caryopses etc. are described by e.g. Edgar (1980), Lyshede (1987) and Scholz (1991). Detailed identification keys are provided by Raju (1990) and Scholz (1991).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Physical and Cultural Control
There are some effective non-chemical methods for controlling A. fatua. These are mainly soil cultivation and crop rotation. The most effective non-chemical control was achieved by the shallowest cultivation possible, carried out as late as possible (Zorner et al., 1984). Tine cultivation, besides favouring increase of an uncontrolled population, results in a faster population decline than ploughing (Wilson and Cussans, 1983).
Depth of burial and crop rotation influence the seed bank (Froud-Williams, 1987). Peters (1991) found no viable seeds after 3 years of intensive soil tillage. Under zero tillage the numbers of A. fatua are generally reduced, but the control of surviving plants with herbicides can be less effective (Bowren, 1983). Summer treatment of soil after cereal harvest (stubble ploughing, summer deep tillage and spring seed-bed preparation), which buries A. fatua seeds, can create good conditions for weed seed germination and help to markedly reduce weed seed banks (Demo, 1999). Palys et al. (1999) reported that direct sowing and no ploughing caused the greatest increases in the densities of A. fatua in a faba bean/winter wheat/spring barley rotation prior to harvest. Post-harvest soil cultivation can promote weed seed germination and emerged weeds can be controlled with glyphosate prior to drilling. This treatment combined with a pre- or post-emergence herbicide programme resulted in reduced numbers and a decline in A. fatua over a 4-year period (Hutcheon et al., 1998).
Straw burning kills many seeds and reduces the dormancy of survivors (Ivens, 1978; Moss, 1985). In contrast, stubble cultivations have a smaller effect on the germination of A. fatua (Cussans et al., 1987). Delayed sowing results in a consistently high degree of A. fatua control but can also result in significant losses in grain yield and quality (Hunter, 1983).
In many cases farmers have had to seek alternative methods in their control of A. fatua. In a study on the LIFE pilot farm in the UK, the presence of the wild oats in such abundance caused a switch to spring cropping of oilseed rape and peas in addition to a ley period of 1 year grass-clover mix (Davies et al., 1997). In cereal crops, reducing the seed bank of weed seeds is the optimum control method. This can be done through changes in the crop sequences (Malik et al., 1996).
Schoofs and Entz (2000) reported forage systems (e.g. triticale) were at least as effective as the sprayed wheat control in suppressing wild oat.
In contrast to these indirect control methods there are only a few non-chemical measures for direct control of A. fatua. Mechanical methods are mostly less successful because of the large seed and dense root system (Koch and Hurle, 1978). Nevertheless, harrowing or hoeing may break dormancy and therefore increase late emergence (Raju et al., 1988). A. fatua and other grasses are not susceptible to thermal control methods (Ascard, 1995). However, a flame weeder used in an onion crop resulted in 31-93% control of A. fatua (Mojzis, 2002). Tsuruuchi (1986) reported that emergence of A. fatua in wheat and barley can be reduced by flooding. Soil solarization is used in Israel, the USA, Italy and India (Arora and Yaduraju, 1998) to control A. fatua as well as other weeds and pests (Cartia, 1985).
Composting has been found to kill weed seeds (Tompkins et al., 1998). In an experiment conducted using feedlot manure containing 12 weed species of which A. fatua was one, composting reduced the viability drastically within two weeks and killed all seeds within four weeks (Tompkins et al., 1998).
Olson et al. (1999) found that shoot extracts and living tissue extracts from wheat (Triticum aestivum) resulted in a significant decrease in total biomass, pigment, carbohydrate and protein content of A. fatua. In a field trial in Pakistan, sorghum water extract reduced the density and biomass of A. fatua by 22-27% (Cheema et al., 2002). Parthenin, a natural extract from Parthenuim hysterophorus reduced germination of A. fatua and inhibited shoot and root growth (Batish et al., 2002). In a study on the allelopathic effects of Triticum speltoides (a wild relative of wheat), one out of 17 accessions were found to reduce the radicle length of A. fatua by 50% (Hashem and Adkins, 1998).
Enhanced crop competition can also reduce the growth and yield reduction effect of A. fatua. Increasing the sowing rate of five varieties of barley improved the competitiveness of all varieties as evidenced by reduced wild oat shoot dry matter and seed production and, in some cases, improved barley yields (O'Donovan et al., 2000a). In field trials in Canada, hybrid rape varieties were twice as competitive against A. fatua as open-pollinated varieties (Zand and Beckie, 2002). Xue and Stougaard (2002) showed that the combined effects of large seed size and increased wheat sowing rate could decrease A. fatua biomass and seed production by 20%.
A commercially available smoke-water solution has also been shown to stimulate the germination of A. fatua (Adkins and Peters, 2001).
Few papers have been published concerning biological approaches for controlling A. fatua. They are resultant of fungal infections such as those by Erysiphe graminis f.sp. avenae (Sabri and Clark, 1996; Sabri et al., 1997), Puccinia coronata (Chong and Seaman, 1996, 1997; Salmeron-Zamora et al., 1996; Johnston et al., 2000), P. coronata f.sp. avenae (Carsten et al., 2000), P. graminis (Harder and Anema, 1993), P. recondita (Pfleeger et al., 1999), Pyrenophora (Kastanias and Chrysayi Tokousbalides, 2000), nematodes (Riley and McKay, 1991) or hydroxamic acids that have allelopathic effects (Perez, 1990). A. fatua is generally susceptible to the same range of parasites as cultivated oats (Sharma and van den Born, 1978). Research into fungal pathogens for the biological control of A. fatua is occurring in many countries including Vietnam (Hetherington et al., 1996), Australia, USA, Netherlands, Japan and South Africa (McRae, 1998).
A. fatua has been confirmed, via virological analysis, to be a natural host plant for the Oat blue dwarf virus (Vacke, 1998). The majority of host plants identified in this study exhibited characteristic symptoms of the infection. Another pathogen, Drechslera avenacea, was identified and isolated and found to be specific to A. fatua over wheat (Zhang and Li, 1996) and has been investigated as a potential bioherbicidal organism for A. fatua (Hetherington et al., 2002). Chong and Seaman (1997) isolated 101 virulence phenotypes from 189 isolates from A. fatua and commercial field oats in Manitoba and Ontario, Canada. Hot dry weather was seen to slow the infection of the fungus.
The effect of Erysiphe graminis f.sp. avenae on the photosynthesis and respiration of A. fatua was studied by Sabri et al. (1997). It was evident from these studies that E. graminis [Blumeria graminis] reduced levels of photosynthesis and chlorophyll. In a comparison of wild oats with cultivated crops in their tolerance to B. graminis it was seen that the wild oats were significantly more tolerant, due to the lower sensitivity of their metabolism to B. graminis (Sabri and Clarke, 1996).
The ant species Messor barbarus has been shown to preferentially predate A. fatua seeds (Detrain and Pasteels, 2000).
Herbicide weed control of A. fatua has been found to be more effective than cultural control (Stevenson et al., 2000a) and many herbicides have been successfully used (Milne, 1997). Good levels of control are given by herbicides belonging to the urea family (e.g. isoproturon or chlorotoluron) and phenoxypropionates (e. g. diclofop-methyl). In a review by Fisher and May (2000), advice is given for the chemical control of A. fatua, along with a list of new herbicide registrations for 2000. Zahradnicek and Kohout (1996) also examined various graminicides for use against wild oats in sugarbeet crops.
Many selective herbicides sprayed alone, in mixtures or sequences are known for their high efficacy against A. fatua. These include the following: atrazine (Stork, 1998), benzoylprop-ethyl, chlorsulfuron, chlorotoluron, clethodim (Szilvasi, 1996), clodinafop, cycloxydim, diclofop-methyl (Balyan and Malik, 1996; Koscelny and Peeper, 1997; Troccoli et al., 1997; Fayed et al., 1998), difenzoquat, diflufenican, dimethenamid + trifluralin (Soliman et al., 1998), fenoxaprop-ethyl (Koscelny and Peeper, 1997; Fayed et al., 1998; Mathiassen and Kudsk, 1998), flamprop-isopropyl (Fayed et al., 1998), fluazifop-P-butyl, fluoroglycofen (Lueschen et al., 1997; Hutchinson et al., 1999), flucarbazone sodium (Kirkland et al., 2001), haloxyfop-P-ethoxyethyl, imazamox (Lueschen et al., 1997; Hutchinson et al., 1999), imazamethabenz (Hsiao et al., 1996; Koscelny and Peeper, 1997; Wille et al., 1998), isoproturon (Angiras and Vinod Sharma, 1996; Balyan and Malik, 1996; Pandey et al., 1996), linuron, linuron + monolinuron + fluazifop-butyl (Soliman et al., 1998), methabenzthiazuron, oxyfluorfen (Arnold et al., 1998), pendimethalin (Pandey et al., 1996), pirifenop-N-butyl, propaquizafop (Gimenez-Espinosa et al., 1997; Gimenez Espinosa et al., 1999), pyridate (Gimenez Espinosa et al., 1999), quizalofop-ethyl, rimsulfuron, sethoxydim, sulfometuron (Arnold et al., 1998), sulfonylaminocarbonyl, triazolinone (Santel et al., 1999; Scoggan et al., 1999), terbutryn (Balyan and Malik, 1996; Fayed et al., 1998), tralkoxydim (Balyan and Malik, 1996; Fayed et al., 1998; Belles et al., 2000; Stevenson et al., 2000b), tri-allate and tria-allate sulfoxide (Kern et al., 1996) and trifluralin (Lueschen et al., 1997; Scursoni and Satorre, 1997).
Several herbicides derivatives have been examined for potential use in wild oat control. A herbicide called CGA184927 (2-proponyl(R)-2-(4-(5-chloro-3-fluoro-2-pyridinyloxy)-phenoxy)-propionate/5-chloro-8-quinolinoxyacetic acid-1-methylhexylester) was evaluated in its efficacy of A. fatua control (Blackshaw and Harker, 1996). It was evident that CGA184927 is sensitive to environmental conditions as the application rate needed to produce >90% control over several years varied from 22 to 90 g/ha. This herbicide was also compatible in tank mixes with bromoxynil, clopyralid and 2,4-D ester, whereas tank mixing with metsulfuron or dicamba reduced the effectiveness in controlling wild oats. Examination of other derivatives found that derivatives of 2-[4-(3,5-dichloro-2-pyridyloxy) phenoxy] propionamidoxyacetic acid to show selectivity between oats and wheat and N-ethyl-2-[4-(3,5-dichloro-2-pyridyloxy) phenoxy] propionamidoxyacetamide to have a higher herbicidal action than diclofop-methyl while retaining similar selectivity (Matsumoto et al., 1996).
A new cyclohexanedione herbicide, tepraloxydim, provided effective control of A. fatua in broadleaf crops in Poland (Stachecki and Krawczyk, 2002). A new additive, consisting of the pyrimidine allopurinol and molybdenum trioxide, formulated in 50% monolaurate, was found to boost the activity of sulfosulfuron used mainly for the control of wild oats (A. fatua). This increased activity led to the effective control of wild oat populations which are not normally controlled by the herbicide (Cairns et al., 2001)
Chao et al. (1997) examined whether the efficacy of imazamethabenz could be improved when applied to the tillers of wild oats plants. They found that the presence of tillers neither improved nor decreased the efficacy of imazamethabenz. Hsiao et al. (1996) found that when imazamethabenz was tank mixed with 1 and 2% ammonium sulphate, the phytotoxicity of the herbicide was increased when applied to A. fatua at the 2 to 3 or 3 to 4 leaf stage. If ammonium sulphate was applied at 10%, the phytotoxicity of the herbicide was reduced. There was also a difference in effects of ammonium sulphate on the herbicide toxicity according to application method (Hsiao et al., 1996).
The uptake of some herbicides is also influenced by temperature and moisture levels, which may be important for the successful control of A. fatua (Olson et al., 1999). Control of A. fatua was greater when the temperature after application of MON 37500 (1-(2-ethylsulfonylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-ylsulfonyl)-3-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)urea) was 25/23°C or soil moisture was at full pot capacity compared to when the temperature was at 5/3°C or soil moisture was at one-third pot capacity (Olson et al., 2000). Holm et al. (2000) found the optimal graminicide rate depended on the level of A. fatua infestation and the best time to control A. fatua depended upon the type of graminicide. Xie et al. (1996) found that water stress influenced the phytotoxicity of herbicides. Adkins et al. (1998) examined the efficacy of glyphosate on wild oats in relation to soil moisture content, irradiance, temperature and relative humidity and found that the efficacy was greatest under well-watered, warm (30/25°C) and humid (>92/90%) conditions and was not altered by irradiance. Xie et al. (1996) also found that in A. fatua, fenoxaprop-ethyl and imazamethabenz-methyl absorption is affected by temperature and irradiance. There was an increase in absorption with higher temperatures of 30/20°C and under 70% shading, the phytotoxicity of both the herbicides was enhanced. Sharma et al. (1996) also examined herbicide application and found that the distribution of the herbicides was dependent on the content and concentration of the surfactant and the surface characteristics of the herbicide droplets.
The uptake of diclofop-methyl in A. fatua was higher after root application compared to foliar application, whereas the uptake of fenoxaprop-p-ethyl after foliar application was lower than that for diclofop but greater if applied to the roots (Dahroug, 1996). The translocation of these herbicides was faster from roots to shoots.
Stevenson et al. (2000b) found that the efficiency of tralkoxydim in controlling A. fatua in Canada was affected by the rate of herbicide application, water volume, spray mixture pH, diurnal application time and sodium bicarbonate concentration of the water source. At Scott, the negative effects of tralkoxydim rates lower than 200 g/ha applied with 50 or 1000 L of water per hectare on wild oat fresh weight were most apparent when applications were made in the morning, especially with an unbuffered spray mixture. However, at Saskatoon, spray mixture pH or time of application did not modify the effects of tralkoxydim rate and water volume on wild oat fresh weight.
When plants are stressed the phytotoxic effects of herbicides are often diminished. A study in Canada (Xie et al., 1997a) demonstrated that when A. fatua was subjected to drought conditions or drought and high temperatures, the reduction in phytotoxicity was most evident following fenoxaprop and diclofop applications. Flamprop and imazamethabenz also had reduced phytotoxicity but to a lesser degree. It appeared that imazamethabenz was mostly affected by high temperatures, whereas fenoxaprop was mostly affected by drought. However, the combination of both drought and high temperatures was sufficient to markedly reduce the efficacy of all herbicides examined.
The phytotoxicity of herbicides can be increased by the addition of surfactants (Xie et al., 1997b); ammonium sulphate ([NH4]2SO4) in the case of fenoxaprop; sodium bisulphate (NaHSO4) for imazamethabenz (Xie et al., 1997b); methylated seed oil and urea ammonium nitrate with quizalofop (Stougaard, 1997) and specific temperatures (Xie et al., 1997a, b). The combination of methylated seed oil and urea ammonium nitrate with quizalofop enabled greater than 90% control when the quizalofop was applied at the lowest level of 20 g/ha (Stougaard, 1997).
Alternative methods to broadscale spraying to control weeds have been examined. In the UK patch spraying to control wild oats in wheat crops have been developed (Lutman et al., 1998).
Herbicide resistance has evolved in response to intense selection pressure (a result of high herbicide application frequencies and efficacy) (Morrison et al., 1996). O'Donovan et al. (2000a) found that the evolution of resistance was positively correlated with the number of triallate or difenzoquat applications over a 9 year period. To delay the onset of herbicide resistance, repeated usage of the same herbicide or group (mode of action) should be avoided and wherever possible, integrated use of alternative control strategies is recommended (Morrison et al., 1996).
Herbicide resistance has been reported in A. fatua to the following active ingredients: tri-allate in Canada (Thai et al., 1985; Morrison and Devine, 1994; Blackshaw et al., 1996; Kern et al., 1996; Beckie and Jana, 2000; O'Donovan et al., 1996, 2000b) and the USA (O'Donovan et al., 1994; Davidson et al., 1996; Kern et al., 1997), diclofop-methyl in America (Seefeldt et al., 1996b, 1998), Australia (Powles and Holtum, 1990; Mansooji et al., 1992), Canada (Devine et al., 1993) and in South Africa (Malik et al., 1996), difenzoquat in Canada (O'Donovan et al., 2000b), sethoxydim in Canada (Maurice and Billett, 1991), fluazifop in Australia (Mansooji et al., 1992), fenoxaprop-ethyl (Devine et al., 1993; Cavan and Moss, 1997), and imazamethabenz in Canada (Heap, 1997; Friesen et al, 2000) and America (El-Antri and Nalewaja, 1997), flamprop and fenoxaprop-P in Canada (Friesen et al., 2000), imazamethabenz-methyl (Nandula and Messersmith, 2000), and difenzoquat (O'Donovan et al., 1994; Kern et al., 1996; Rashid et al., 1997), diallate (Kern et al., 1996), tralkoxydim (Marshall et al., 1996; El-Antri and Nalewaja, 1997; Cocker et al., 2000) in the USA and EPTC (Rashid et al., 1997). Up-to-date records of the extent of herbicide resistant A. fatua populations are given by Heap (2003).
Several surveys have been conducted across Canada to assess the distribution of herbicide resistant A. fatua (Beckie et al., 1998, 1999b; Beckie and Juras, 1998). Resistance to aryloxyphenoxypropionic acids has been reported in France (Letouze et al., 1997) and the UK (Cocker et al., 2000) and resistance to phenylureas has also been reported in France (Letouze et al., 1997) with some resistant populations surviving more than 100 times the normally lethal dose. Murray et al. (1996) tried to elucidate the inheritance of aryloxypenoxypropionate resistance in different populations exhibiting different cross-resistance patterns and found that the resistance in both populations is encoded at the same gene locus.
In Montana, USA, triallate resistance was surveyed and found to constitute 94% of all patches/areas in 1993 but this declined to 77% in 1995 (Davidson et al., 1996). Management strategies were said to have an important role in the pattern of dispersal. Blackshaw et al. (1996) examined triallate resistant populations in Alberta, Canada, and found that they could be controlled by atrazine, ethalfluralin, fenoxaprop-p, flamprop, imazamethabenz and tralkoxydim but that integrated weed management practices should also be implemented. Kern et al. (1997) examined several triallate resistant lines of A. fatua to determine the effects on wax and lipid biosynthesis. They found that by greenhouse application of tri-allate, the epicuticular waxes were dramatically reduced as were the elongated fatty acid fractions in susceptible varieties (also reported in Rashid et al., 1997) but not resistant varieties. However, treatment with tri-allate sulfoxide reduced the in vivo concentrations of elongated fatty acids equally in the resistant and susceptible lines. This infers that tri-allate sulfoxide is more inhibitory towards fatty acid elongases than tri-allate. This is turn suggests that in vivo tri-allate sulfoxidation is necessary for herbicidal action and so reduced rates of tri-allate sulfoxidation can confer resistance. Rashid et al. (1997) also examined the effect of tri-allate and difenzoquat on the fatty acid chains. They found results similar to those by Kern et al. (1997) for tri-allate whereas the difenzoquat did not cause any change in the fatty acid composition of susceptible or resistant lines, hence suggesting that fatty acid biosynthesis is not involved in cross-resistance to this herbicide.
Having fallow in the crop rotations slowed the rate of evolution of tri-allate resistance in wild oat (Beckie and Jana, 2000). Resistance was not detected in herbicide untreated continuous spring wheat cultivar Neepawa and wheat-fallow plots and herbicide treated wheat-fallow plots. While resistance was not detected in herbicide treated continuous spring wheat cultivar Neepawa plots in 1996, 3% of the seeds screened in 1997 and 14% of the seeds in 1998 were resistant. In 1996, 53.9 and 98.7% of wild oat plants had dormant seeds in the Neepawa and wheat-fallow rotations, respectively. The enhanced dormancy of seed selected by fallow treatment may also have contributed to delaying the evolution of resistance in wheat-fallow.
Mechanisms of resistance in A. fatua for diclofop were examined (Seefeldt et al., 1996b). It was evident that resistance could not be attributed to differential absorption, translocation or metabolism of diclofop, nor membrane plasmalemma repolarisation. Cross-resistance to fenoxaprop was also more likely in diclofop-resistant biotypes (Seefeldt et al., 1996b). Baerg et al. (1996) found that tribenuron antagonized diclofop control, which was attributed to a reduction by tribenuron in the basipetal translocation of diclofop to meristematic regions of A. fatua.
Multiple herbicide resistance in A. fatua is not rare. Friesen et al. (2000) reported resistance to imazamethabenz, flamprop and fenoxaprop-P in three Avena populations in the north-west agricultural region of Manitoba, Canada. The evolution of herbicide resistance in the absence of direct selection (cross resistance) is a very serious development as producers with resistance to multiple herbicides in A. fatua are left with a very limited number of herbicide options for selective control in crops commonly grown in western Canada (Friesen et al., 2000).
Cavan et al. (2001) utilised a model to predict the time required to develop field resistance of A. fatua to aryloxyphenoxypropionate (AOPP) and cyclohexanedione (CHD) herbicides in a number of field situations. The model predicts that plough cultivation could delay the development of resistance relative to tine cultivation and that herbicide rotation can dramatically increase the times required for field resistance to develop in a tine cultivation system. Resistance can be delayed for at least 66 years if three herbicides, each with a different mode of action, are rotated and each herbicide causes 90% mortality in a tine cultivation system.
Tri-allate and tri-allate sulfoxide pytotoxicity have been evaluated by comparing the metabolism occurring during growth. Tri-allate metabolised 12 times slower than the resistant populations tested, although the end result was the same. However, tri-allate sulfoxide was metabolised rapidly in both the susceptible and resistant lines (Kern et al., 1996). It was therefore concluded that resistance to tri-allate is the result of reduced rate of formation of the sulfoxide from tri-allate. O'Donovan et al. (1996) developed a bioassay for determining triallate resistance in A. fatua where routine samples suspected of resistance are collected.
Modes of resistance to herbicides are largely unknown. In A. fatua the mechanism to the pre-emergent thiocarbamate herbicide tri-allate was examined (Kern et al., 1998). It was found that the metabolism of tri-allate was more than 12-fold slower in the resistant than the susceptible seedlings, suggesting there is a slower rate of tri-allate activation (and slower accumulation) in resistant plants. From this study it was also found that resistance occurs prior to the conversion of tri-allate sulfoxidation to metabolites and that tri-allate sulfoxidation requires two enzymes, both of which need mutations to confer this resistance. Studies to determine the application timing on the efficiency of herbicides on wild oats populations suggested that efficacy was governed by growth stage, weed demographics and environmental considerations (Stougaard et al., 1997).
Diclofop can infer differences in the membrane transport and the plasma membrane potential of resistant and susceptible biotypes (Renault et al., 1997). Further evaluation of this showed no differences between herbicide resistant and susceptible biotypes in plasma membrane lipid structure or lipoxygenase (LOX) activity (Renault et al., 1997).
The resistance of A. fatua to herbicides is likely to spread rapidly and become a serious problem if farmers do not quickly adopt measures to check its development (Davis, 1992). A study by Greenwood et al. (1999) found that several populations of A. fatua exhibited resistance to different herbicides and at different rates. Investigations into the evolution of herbicide resistance among several populations of A. fatua and A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana in England, UK, concluded that hybridization had occurred between the species and that resistance had spread from one population to another (Cavan et al., 1998). Rotational strategies for weed control are also likely to be effective in delaying or minimizing the development of herbicide resistance (Martin and Felton, 1993). A survey across northern New South Wales, Australia, identified A. fatua resistance to aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides and methods were given to manage herbicide resistant wild oats (Storrie and Edwards, 1998).
The widespread evolution of resistance to herbicides for the selective control of A. fatua highlights the need for integrated weed management strategies that do not rely on herbicides alone. Beckie et al. (2001) discuss proactive and reactive strategies for the management and containment of herbicide-resistant weeds. They suggest greater awareness and consideration of the relative risks of different modes of action to select for resistance, effective herbicide mixtures and the incorporation of management practices that reduce weed seed production and spread. Jones and Medd (1997) estimate the economic benefit associated with an integrated weed management approach for wild oats (A. fatua and A. ludoviciana) in Australia, involving fallow, herbicide and crop rotational options and suggest a population based approach to the control of A. fatua which goes beyond efforts to minimise the effect of A. fatua in any single year. This study and those by Scursoni et al. (1999) and O' Donovan et al. (1999b), confirm the importance of strategies which prevent seed production and deplete the seed bank.
In a Russian study by Dudkin (1999), it was concluded that mechanical soil treatments and crop rotations resulted in reduction of A. fatua by depleting the seed bank. Watson et al. (1999) found that the seed bank of A. fatua in the UK was reduced in integrated and conventional wheat after beans during a 7 year rotation. The occurrence of A. fatua in Canada was also effectively suppressed in cereal fields that had previously contained Medicago sativa in crop rotations (Ominski et al., 1999). Inclusion of 75% or more cereals in a crop rotation study by Derylo (1997) resulted in decreased barley yields and increased weed infestation, both in numbers and dry weight of A. fatua. Catch crops reduced weed infestation in spring barley but could not completely compensate for the effect of less desirable crop rotations. Young et al. (1996) writes one of the more thorough reviews on integrated weed management that examines control strategies for A. fatua.
Within a barley crop, A. fatua was controlled by a combination of applying trifluralin herbicide (there was no effect of time of application) and conventional planting rather than deep planting pattern (Scursoni and Satorre, 1997). Experiments conducted into the control of A. fatua in rape crops in Canada showed that if high density plantings were used, low rates of quizalofop were required to reduce A. fatua seed production (O'Donovan et al., 1996). Angiras and Vinod Sharma (1996) also examined combinations of bi-directional sowing, row orientation and row spacing in combination with isoproturon for weed control in wheat.
Extracts from the residues of crops were trialed to determine whether they had any influence on the control of weed species. Although they were found to control other species, A. fatua was not affected (Moyer and Huang, 1997).
Analysis of the various control strategies for the management of wild oats for economic evaluation has determined that out of all the control strategies examined, the most economically beneficial ones are those which involve the removal of the weed seed and the reduction of seed in the soil seed bank (Jones and Medd, 1997). In the UK an ECO-tillage project involving soil preparation to encourage weed germination followed by application of glyphosate prior to drilling has resulted in >50% reduction of the use of herbicides compared to conventional systems with a decline in the numbers and levels of A. fatua over a 4 year period (Hutcheon et al., 1998).
ReferencesTop of page
Abdur Rashid, Johnson CI, Khan AA, O'Donovan JT, 1997. Effects of triallate and difenzoquat on fatty acid composition in young shoots of susceptible and resistant Avena fatua populations. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 57(1):79-85; 15 ref.
Adkins SW, Tanpipat S, Swarbrick JT, Boersma M, 1998. Influence of environmental factors on glyphosate efficacy when applied to Avena fatua or Urochloa panicoides. Weed Research (Oxford), 38(2):129-138; 20 ref.
Agenbag GA, Villiers OT de, De Villiers OT, 1989. The effect of nitrogen fertilizers on the germination and seedling emergence of wild oat (A. fatua L.) seed in different soil types. Weed Research Oxford, 29(4):239-245.
Aibar J, Ochoa MJ, Sopena JM, Lorente M, Zaragoza C, 1988. Wild oat (Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana (Dur) Nym., Avena fatua L.) herbicide evaluation in Aragon (Spain). ITEA, Informacion Tecnica Economica Agraria, 19(79):57-64
Angiras NN, Vinod Sharma, 1996. Influence of row orientation, row spacing and weed-control methods on physiological performance of irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 41(1):41-47; 5 ref.
Arnold GW, Weeldenberg JW, Leone J, 1998. Herbicide control of exotic annual plant species in Acacia acuminata-Eucalyptus loxephleba woodland in south-western Australia and effects on native ground flora. Plant Protection Quarterly, 13(1):39-43; 7 ref.
Arora A, Yaduraju NT, 1998. High-temperature effects on germination and viability of weed seeds in soil. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 181(1):35-43.
Ascard J, 1995. Thermal weed control by flaming: biological and technical aspects. Rapport - Institution for Lantbruksteknik, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Agricultural Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, No. 200:188 pp.
Bachthaler G, 1985. Changes in the weed population of Bavaria. Comparison of the results of regional evaluations for the survey periods 1948-1955 and 1970-1980. Bayerisches Landwirtschaftliches Jahrbuch, 62(1):60-75.
Bahraini-Nejad B, Khajehpour MR, 1999. Chemical control of weeds in winter wheat with postemergence herbicides. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 3(3):75-91; 28 ref.
Balyan RS, Malik RK, 1996. Effect of spray volume on herbicide efficacy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research, 26(4):249-257.
Barlow VM, Godfrey LD, Norris RF, 1999. Population dynamics of Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Miridae) on selected weeds in comparison with alfalfa. Journal of Economic Entomology, 92(4):846-852; 33 ref.
Batish DR, Singh HP, Kohli RK, Saxena DB, Shalinder Kaur, 2002. Allelopathic effects of parthenin against two weedy species, Avena fatua and Bidens pilosa. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 47(2):149-155; 29 ref.
Beckie HJ, Hall LM, Tardif FJ, 2001. Impact and management of herbicide-resistant weeds in Canada. The BCPC Conference: Weeds, 2001, Volume 1 and Volume 2. Proceedings of an international conference held at the Brighton Hilton Metropole Hotel, Brighton, UK, 12-15 November 2001, 747-754; 16 ref.
Beckie HJ, Juras LT, 1998. Saskatchewan grain elevator weed survey. Herbicide-resistant wild oat and green foxtail in 1997. Weed Survey Series Publication, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, No. 98-4:vii + 22 pp.; 16 ref.
Beckie HJ, Kelner DJ, Acker RCvan, Thomas AG, 1998. Manitoba weed survey of herbicide-resistant wild oat in 1997. Weed Survey Series Publication, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, No. 98-5:vii + 25 pp.; 19 ref.
Beckie HJ, Thomas AG, LTgFre A, Kelner DJ, Acker RCvan, Meers S, 1999. Nature, occurrence, and cost of herbicide-resistant wild oat (Avena fatua) in small-grain production areas. Weed Technology, 13(3):612-625; 26 ref.
Beckie HJ, Thomas AG, Stevenson FC, 1999. Saskatchewan weed survey of herbicide-resistant wild oat in 1997. Saskatchewan weed survey of herbicide-resistant wild oat in 1997., vii + 32 pp.; Weed Survey Series Publication 99-4, 22 ref.
Cairns ALP, Smit G, Smit JJ, 2001. Enhancement of sulfosulfuron activity by a new additive. The BCPC Conference: Weeds, 2001, Volume 1 and Volume 2. Proceedings of an international conference held at the Brighton Hilton Metropole Hotel, Brighton, UK, 12-15 November 2001, 683-688; 7 ref.
Carmona R, Murdoch AJ, 1996. Interactions of temperature and dormancy-reliving compounds on weed seed germination. Revista Brasileira de Sementes, 18(1):88-97.
Carsten LD, Johnston MR, Douglas LI, Sands DC, 2000. A field trial of crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) as a biocontrol agent of wild oats on San Clemente Island. Biological Control, 19(2):175-181; 14 ref.
Cavan G, Cussans J, Moss S, 2001. Managing the risks of herbicide resistance in wild oat. Weed Science, 49(2):236-240.
Cavan G, Moss SR, 1997. Herbicide resistance and gene flow in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides) and wild-oats (Avena spp.). 1997 Brighton crop protection conference: weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 17-20 November 1997., Volume 1:305-310; 14 ref.
Cheema ZA, Iqbal M, Ahmad R, 2002. Response of wheat varieties and some rabi weeds to allelopathic effects of sorghum water extract. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 4(1):52-55; 16 ref.
Citron G, Rameau C, Orlando D, 1996. Study on the efficacy of new cereal herbicides. Seizieme Conference du COLUMA. Journees internationales sur la lutte contre les mauvaises herbes, Reims, France, 6-8 December 1995. Paris, France: Association Nationale pour la Protection des Plantes, Tome 2, 563-577.
Cocker KM, Coleman JOD, Blair AM, Clarke JH, Moss SR, 2000. Biochemical mechanisms of cross-resistance to aryloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione herbicides in populations of Avena spp. Weed Research (Oxford), 40(4):323-334; 17 ref.
Cranston HJ, Johnson RR, Chaverra ME, Dyer WE, 1999. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a sar-like monomeric GTP-binding protein in Avena fatua L. Plant Science (Limerick), 145(2):75-81; 25 ref.
Cranston HJ, Kern AJ, Gerhardt SA, Dyer WE, 1996. Wound-induced ethylene and germination of embryos excised from dormant Avena fatua L. caryopses. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 157(2):153-158; 27 ref.
Dastgheib F, Kumar K, Goh KM, 1998. Effects of crop residues and management practices on weeds in a wheat crop in Canterbury. Proceedings of Annual Conference Agronomy Society of New Zealand, 28:17-20.
Dastgheib F, Kumar K, Goh KM, 1999. Weed infestations in wheat cropping systems as affected by crop residues and their management practices. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, 16(4):395-407.
Davidson RM, Maxwell BD, Malchow WE, Brown H, ed. , Cussans GW, ed, Devine MD, ed., Duke SO, ed., Fernandez-Quintanilla C, ed., Helweg A, ed., Labrada RE, ed., Landes M, ed., Kudsk P, ed., Streibig JC, 1996. Spatial and temporal patterns of herbicide resistant wild oats. Proceedings of the Second International Weed Control Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, 25-28 June 1996. Slagelse, Denmark: Department of Weed Control and Pesticide Ecology, Volumes 1-4, 1375-1380.
Davis RC, 1992. Agrichemical industry initiatives to combat development of herbicide resistance. Proceedings of the 1st International Weed Control Congress Melbourne, Australia; Weed Science Society of Victoria, Vol. 2:144-147
Demo M, 1999. Regulation of soil weed infestations in the half-vesture period using non-chemical methods. Acta Horticulturae et Regiotecture, 2(1):4-9.
Derylo S, 1997. Effect of stubble intercrop and cereal crop rotation on the yielding and weed infestation of spring barley. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie Sklodowska, Sectio E Agriculture, 52:69-76.
Devi KT, Singh PK, Debjyoti Bhattacharyya, 2016. Three new additions to the grass (Poaceae) flora of Manipur, India. Plant Science Today, 3(3):272-281. http://horizonepublishing.com/journals/index.php/PST/article/view/237/157
Devine MD, Hall JC, Romano ML, Marles MAS, Thomson LW, Shimabukuro RH, 1993. Diclofop and fenoxaprop resistance in wild oat is associated with an altered effect on the plasma membrane electrogenic potential. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 45(3):167-177
Dhaliwal BK, 1998. Competition studies between spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars and wild oats (Avena fatua L.). Indian Journal of Ecology, 25(1):18-31.
El-Antri M, Nalewaja JD, 1997. Differential response of wild oat to imazamethabenz, and tralkoxydim. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 62(3a):767-775; 36 ref.
Fayed TB, Sabry SRS, Aboul-Ela SH, 1998. Effect of wild oat (Avena fatua) herbicides on weed density, wheat grain yield, and yield components. Annals of Agricultural Science (Cairo), 43(1):173-188; 17 ref.
Fennimore SA, Foley ME, 1998. Genetic and physiological evidence for the role of gibberellic acid in the germination of dormant Avena fatua seeds. Journal of Experimental Botany, 49(318):89-94; 21 ref.
Fennimore SA, Nyquist WE, Shaner GE, Doerge RW, Foley ME, 1999. A genetic model and molecular markers for wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seed dormancy. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 99(3/4):711-718; 28 ref.
Fernandez-Quintanilla C, Gonzalez Andujar JL, Appleby AP, 1990. Characterization of the germination and emergence response to temperature and soil moisture of Avena fatua and A. sterilis. Weed Research (Oxford), 30(4):289-295
Firbank LG, Manlove RJ, Mortimer AM, Putwain PD, 1984. The management of grass weeds in cereal crops, a population biology approach. Comptes rendus du 7eme colloque international sur l'ecologie, la biologie et la systematique des mauvaises herbes Paris, France; COLUMA/EWRS, Vol.1:375-384
Fisher S, May M, 2000. Weed control in 1999 and comments for 2000. British Sugar Beet Review, 68(1):26-30.
Foley ME, Black M, ed. , Bradford KJ, ed., Vazquez Ramos J, 1999. Genetic model for dormancy in wild oat. Seed biology: advances and applications. Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Seeds, Merida, Mexico, 1999, 323-327.
Foley ME, Fennimore SA, 1998. Genetic basis for seed dormancy. W-168 symposium on seed biology and technology: applications and advances, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, 13-16 August, 1997. Seed Science Research, 8(2):173-182.
Foley ME, Lang GA, 1996. Carbohydrate metabolism as a physiological regulator of seed dormancy. Plant Dormancy: Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Wallingford, UK: CABI International, 245-256.
Freedom AL, Koch GW, Field CB, 1998. Influence of fertilization and atmospheric CO2 enrichment on ecosystem CO2 and H2O exchanges in single- and multiple-species grassland microcosms. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 40(2):147-157.
Froud Williams RJ, 1985. Dormancy and germination of arable grass-weeds. Aspects of Applied Biology, 9:9-18.
Garcia-Baudin JM, Salto Jaudenes T, 1978. Distribution and importance of Avena spp. as weeds in Spain. Proceedings of the Mediterranean Herbicide Symposium, Madrid, 1978. Ministerio de Agricultura. Madrid Spain, Vol. 2:376-390
GimTnez-Espinosa R, Prado Rde, 1997. Use of new herbicides in chickpea. 1997 Brighton crop protection conference: weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 17-20 November 1997., Volume 2:879-884; 3 ref.
Greenwood M, Gemmell J, Sinclair W, Marshall G, Mortimer AM, Putwain PD, 1999. Extent of resistance of ACCase inhibiting herbicides in UK populations of wild oat (Avena sp.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). 1999 Brighton crop protection conference: weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 15-18 November 1999., Volume 2:563-564; 1 ref.
Hallgren E, 1997. Summary: recent papers from weed research and herbicide testing 1996. Vaxtodling Institutionen for Vaxtodlingslara Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, No. 53.
Hamilton KA, Murray GA, Thill DC, Shafii B, 1997. Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) establishment as affected by light quantity and quality beneath spring wheat and wild oat canopies. Journal of Applied Seed Production, 15:63-70; 25 ref.
Hamilton KA, Thill DC, Murray GA, Shafii B, 1998. Competitive effects of spring wheat and wild oat on Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) seed yield. Journal of Applied Seed Production, 16:59-65; 27 ref.
Hassanein EE, Kholosy AS, Abd-Alla MMS, Ibrahim HM, 1996. Effect of temperature degrees on seed germination and seedling vigour of different wild oat species. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 34(4):1373-1380; 9 ref.
Heap I, 2003. The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. http://www.weedscience.com.
Hetherington S, Auld B, Priest M, Smith H, van Tuat N, van Du P, 1996. Preliminary surveys and pathogenicity testing of fungi isolated from the annual grass weeds Avena spp, Lolium rigidum. Bioherbicide Paper Plant Protection Research Institute, No. 1.
Hetherington SD, Smith HE, Scanes MG, Auld BA, 2002. Effects of some environmental conditions on the effectiveness of Drechslera avenacea (Curtis ex Cooke) Shoem.: a potential bioherbicidal organism for Avena fatua L. Biological Control, 24(2):103-109; 18 ref.
Hsiao AI, Liu SH, Quick WA, 1996. Effect of ammonium sulfate on the phytotoxicity, foliar uptake, and translocation of imazamethabenz in wild oat. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 15(3):115-120; 27 ref.
Hsiao AI, Quick WA, 1983. The induction and breakage of seed dormancy in wild oats. In: Smith p, ed. Proceedings, wild oat symposium Canadian Plains Research Centre, University of Regina Regina Canada, 173-185
Hutcheon JA, Stride CD, Wright KJ, Champion GT, 1998. Manipulation of weed seedbanks in reduced tillage systems for sustainable weed control. Weed seedbanks: determination, dynamics and manipulation, Oxford, UK, 23-24 March 1998. Aspects of Applied Biology, 51:249-254.
Hutchinson PJS, White RH, Morrison RA, Christianson K, 1999. Imidazolinone-tolerant wheat: status of herbicide and crop development. Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA, 8-11 March 1999, 52:174.
Johnson RR, Cranston HJ, Chaverra ME, Dyer WE, 1996. Analysis of cDNA clones for differentially expressed genes in dormant and non-dormant wild oat (Avena fatua L.) embryos. Plant dormancy: physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology., 293-300; 15 ref.
Johnston MR, Carsten LD, Douglas L, Sands DC, 2000. Epidemic development and virulence in 1995-1998 of Puccinia coronata, a potential biocontrol agent of wild oats on San Clemente Island. Biological Control, 17(3):250-257; 17 ref.
Jones DP, ed. , 1976. Wild oats in world agriculture. An interpretative review of world literature. Wild oats in world agriculture. An interpretative review of world literature. Agricultural Research Council. London UK, 296pp.
Jones HD, Smith SJ, Desikan R, Plakidou-Dymoock S, Lovegrove A, Hooley R, 1998. Heterotrimeric G proteins are implicated in gibberellin induction of
Jones R, Medd R, 1997. Economic analysis of integrated management of wild oats involving fallow, herbicide and crop rotational options. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 37(6):683-91; 19 ref.
Kang BH, Kwon YW, Lee HK, 1996. Current status and problem of exotic weeds in Korea. Import and export of agricultural products and plant quarantine. '96 International Symposium, Seoul, Korea Republic, 19 May 1996., 101-128; 30 ref.
Karnachuk RA, Golovatskaya IF, 1998. Effect of light spectral composition on the hormonal balance, growth, and photosynthesis in plant seedlings. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 45(6):805-813; [translated from ^italic~Fiziologiya Rastenii^breve~^roman~ (1998) ^italic~45^roman~ (6) 925-934 (Ru)]; 42 ref.
Kern AJ, Colliver CT, Maxwell BD, Fay PK, Dyer WE, 1996. Characterization of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) populations and an inbred line with multiple herbicide resistance. Weed Science, 44(4):847-852; 18 ref.
Kern AJ, Peterson DM, Myers TM, Wright JL, Miller EK, Colliver CC, Jasieniuk MA, Maxwell BD, Jackson LL, Dyer WE, 1998. Reduced rates of herbicide metabolism confer tri-allate resistance in Avena fatua. Pesticide Science, 52(2):191-193; 10 ref.
Kiec J, 1998. Changes in the occurrence of Avena fatua L. in fields in south-eastern Poland. Acta Agrobotanica, 51(1-2):93-99.
Kirkland KJ, 1996. Use of incorporated and non-incorporated granular trifluralin for annual grass control in barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and canola (Brassica napus). Weed Technology, 10(4):907-913; 24 ref.
Konesky DW, Siddiqi MY, Glass ADM, Hsiao AI, 1989. Genetic differences among barley cultivars and wild oat lines in endogenous seed nutrient levels, initial nitrate uptake rates, and growth in relation to nitrate supply. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 12(1):9-35
LetouzT A, Gasquez J, Vaccara D, Orlando D, Leterrier JL, Roy C, Bouvard-Derieux E, 1997. Development of new reliable quick tests and state of grass-weed herbicide resistance in France. 1997 Brighton crop protection conference: weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 17-20 November 1997., Volume 1:325-330; 7 ref.
Li FN, 1996. Study of combined damage of several weeds and resulting yield losses in wheat. Plant Protection, 22(2):44-46.
Li Y, Yue M, Wang XL, Hu ZD, 1999. Competition and sensitivity of wheat and wild oat exposed to enhanced UV-B radiation at different densities under field conditions. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 41(1):47-55.
Lueschen WE, Oelke EA, Levorson EJ, LeGare DG, 1997. Weed control in herbicide resistant canola. Proceedings North Central Weed Science Society, Louisville, Kentucky, USA, 9-11 December, 1997: volume 52., 7-10.
Lutman PJW, 1997. Competitive effects of weeds in linseed. 1997 Brighton crop protection conference: weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 17-20 November 1997., Volume 2:833-838; 9 ref.
Malik RK, Brown H (ed. ), Cussans GW (ed.), Devine MD (ed.), Duke SO (ed.), Fernandez-Quintanilla C (ed.), Helweg A (ed.), Labrada RE (ed.), Landes M (ed.), Kudsk P, Streibig JC (ed.), 1996. Herbicide resistant weed problem in developing World and methods to overcome them. Proceedings of the 2nd International Weed Control Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 665-673.
Mansooji AM, Holtum JAM, Boutsalis P, Matthews JM, Powles SB, 1992. Resistant to aryloxyphenoxy propionate herbicides in two wild oat species (Avena fatua and Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana). Weed Science, 40(4):599-605
Marshall G, Gemmell J, Kirkwood RC, Leach GE, Bryan IB, Hadfield ST, Jutsum AR, Brown H, ed. , Cussans GW, ed., Devine MD, ed., Duke SO, ed., Fernandez-Quintanilla C, ed., Helweg A, ed., Labrada RE, ed., Landes M, ed., Kudsk P, ed., Streibig JC, 1996. Possible mechanisms conferring selectivity to tralkoxydim. Proceedings of the Second International Weed Control Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, 25-28 June 1996. Slagelse, Denmark: Department of Weed Control and Pesticide Ecology, Vol 1-4, 833-838.
Matsumoto K, Ide K, Hayase Y, Takahashi T, Takeda R, Hayashi Y, 1996. Selective herbicidal activity of 3,5-dichloropyridyloxyphenoxypropionamidoxyacetic acid derivatives between wheat and wild oat. Journal of Pesticide Science, 21(2):165-170; 15 ref.
Medd RW, Dowling P, ed. , 1996. Wild oats - what is the problem? Plant Protection Quarterly, 11(1):183-184.
Miller SD, Nalewaja JD, 1983. Wild oat seed longevity and production. Proceedings, North Central Weed Control Conference, 1983, 80.
Milroy SP, Turner DW, Goodchild NA, 1990. Competition in binary mixtures of three grass weed species and their impact on wheat yield. Symposium on integrated weed management in cereals. Proceedings of an EWRS symposium, Helsinki, Finland Wageningen, Netherlands; European Weed Research Society, 211-217
Morrison IN, Friesen LF, Brown H, ed. , Cussans GW, ed., Devine MD, ed., Duke SO, ed., Fernandez-Quintanilla C, ed., Helweg A, ed., Labrada RE, ed., Landes M, ed., Kudsk P, ed., Streibig, JC, 1996. Herbicide resistant weeds: mutation, selection, misconception. Proceedings of the Second International Weed Control Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, 25-28 June 1996. Slagelse, Denmark: Department of Weed Control and Pesticide Ecology, Vol. 1-4, 377-385.
Mßrquez MJ, Salas AJ, Fuentes DCL, Plaza TGA, 1996. Assessment of competition impact from different cohorts of wild oats (Avena fatua) on the yields of a commercial wheat crop (Triticum aestivum). Agronomi^acute~a Colombiana, 13(1):30-39; 11 ref.
Murdoch AJ, Champion GT, ed. , Grundy AC, ed., Jones NE, ed., Marshall EJP, ed., Froud Williams RJ, 1998. Weed seedbanks: determination, dynamics and manipulation, Oxford, UK, 23-24 March 1998. Aspects of Applied Biology, 51:119-126.
Murdoch AJ, Roberts EH, Brown H, ed. , Cussans GW, ed., Devine MD, ed., Duke SO, ed., Fernandez-Quintanilla C, ed., Helweg A, ed., Labrada RE, ed., Landes M, ed., Kudsk P, ed., Streibig JC, 1996. Dormancy cycle of Avena fatua seeds in soil. Proceedings of the Second International Weed Control Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, 25-28 June 1996. Slagelse, Denmark: Department of Weed Control and Pesticide Ecology, Vol. 1-4, 147-152.
Naber H, 1977. Decline of wild oats in the Netherlands. Proceedings of the EWRS Symposium on Different Methods of Weed Control and their Integration, Uppsala, 1977. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Protection Serv., Volume 1, 203-212.
Naber H, Medd RW, Oedzes B, Brown H, ed, Cussans GW, ed, Devine MD, ed, Duke SO, ed, Fernendez-Quintanilla C, ed, Helweg A, ed, Labrada RE, ed, Landes M, ed, Kudsk P, ed. , Streibig JC, 1996. Eradication versus manipulation: a case study involving Avena fatua in the Netherlands. In 'Proceedings of the Second International Weed Control Congress', Copenhagen, Denmark, 25-28 June 1996. Slagelsa, Denmark: Department of Weed Control and Pesticide Ecology, Vol. 1-4, 1307-1312.
Nandula VK, Messersmith CG, 2000. Mechanism of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) resistance to imazamethabenz-methyl. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 68(3):148-155; 15 ref.
O'Donnell CC, Adkins SW, 2001. Wild oat and climate change: the effect of CO concentration, temperature, and water deficit on the growth and development of wild oat in monoculture. Weed Science, 49(5):694-702; many ref.
O'Donovan J, 1996. Computerised decisison support systems: aids to rational and sustainable weed management. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 76:3-7.
O'Donovan JT, Abdur Rashid, Nguyen Hvan, Newman JC, Aziz Khan, Johnson CI, Blackshaw RE, Harker KN, 1996. A seedling bioassay for assessing the response of wild oat (Avena fatua) populations to triallate. Weed Technology, 10(4):931-935; 17 ref.
O'Donovan JT, Baig MN, Newman JC, 2000. Persistence of herbicide resistance in wild oat (Avena fatua L.) populations after cessation of triallate or difenzoquat use. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 80(2):451-453; 9 ref.
O'Donovan JT, Harker KN, Clayton GW, Hall LM, 2000. Wild oat (Avena fatua) interference in barley (Hordeum vulgare) is influenced by barley variety and seeding rate. Weed Technology, 14(3):624-629; 24 ref.
O'Donovan JT, Newman JC, Blackshaw RE, Harker KN, Derksen DA, Thomas AG, 1999. Growth, competitiveness, and seed germination of triallate/difenzoquat-susceptible and -resistant wild oat populations. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 79(2):303-312; 24 ref.
O'Donovan JT, Newman JC, Harker KN, Blackshaw RE, McAndrew DW, 1999. Effect of barley plant density on wild oat interference, shoot biomass and seed yield under zero tillage. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 79(4):655-662; 24 ref.
Olson BLS, Al-Khatib K, Stahlman P, Isakson PJ, 2000. Efficacy and metabolism of MON 37500 in Triticum aestivum and weedy grass species as affected by temperature and soil moisture. Weed Science, 48(5):541-548; 34 ref.
Ortiz A, Romero C, Vargas A, 1981. Chemical control of wild oats (Avena fatua) and volunteer barley (Hordeum vulgare) in pea crops (Pisum sativum). Resumenes XIII Seminario de la Sociedad Colombiana de Control de Malezas y Fisiologia Vegetal y VIII Reunion Asociacion Latinoamericana de Fisiologia Vegetal, Cali, 1981., 11
Palys E, Podstawka-Chmielewska E, Kwiatkowska J, 1999. Weed infestation of a canopy in a three-plot rotation on the rendzina depending on the manner of cultivation. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sk
Pandey J, Sharma R, Singh RP, Chander S, 1996. Effect of time and method of isoproturon application on weeds and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 41(4):573-576.
Pardo del C F, Encina R G, 1977. Effect of the presence of Avena fatua in winter wheats. Control de Malezas; Resultados de la Investigacion y Nuevos Herbicidas, 1976-77. Sociedad Chilena de Control de Malezas. Santiago Chile, 36-37
Paterson JG, Boyd WJR, Goodchild NA, 1976. Vernalization and photoperiod requirement of naturalized Avena fatua and Avena barbata Pott ex Link in Western Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology, 13(1):265-272
Peltzer SC, Matson PT, 2002. How fast do the seedbanks of five annual cropping weeds deplete in the absence of weed seed input?. 13th Australian Weeds Conference: weeds "threats now and forever?", Sheraton Perth Hotel, Perth, Western Australia, 8-13 September 2002: papers and proceedings, 553-555; 12 ref.
Pfleeger TG, Mundt CC, Luz MAda, 1999. Effects of wheat leaf rust on interactions between wheat and wild oats planted at various densities and proportions. Canadian Journal of Botany, 77(11):1669-1683; 49 ref.
Pomilio AB, Leicach SR, Grass MY, Ghersa CM, Santoro M, Vitale AA, 2000. Constituents of the root exudate of Avena fatua grown under far-infrared-enriched light. Phytochemical Analysis, 11(5):304-308; 20 ref.
Qian X, 1996. A survey on the existence of competition from wild oat in fields of winter cereals in north Jiangsu province. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University, 19(3):17-22.
Qiang S, Liu JW, 1996. The ecological analysis of the characteristics of weed vegetation of the summer crop fields in the south and north of Anhui Province. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University, 19(2):17-21.
Raju MVS, Hsiao AI, McIntyre GI, 1988. Seed dormancy in Avena fatua. IV. Further observations on the effect of mechanical injury on water uptake and germination in different pure lines. Botanical Gazette, 149(4):419-426
Rashid A, O'Donovan JT, Khan AA, Blackshaw RE, Harker KN, Pharis RP, 1998. A possible involvement of gibberellin in the mechanism of Avena fatua resistance to triallate and cross-resistance to difenzoquat. Weed Research (Oxford), 38(6):461-466; 19 ref.
Rauber R, 1977. The importance of biotic factors for the long-term development and limitation of wild oat populations (Avena fatua L.). Proceedings of the EWRS Symposium on Different Methods of Weed Control and their Integration, Uppsala, 1977., Volume 1:29-36
Recasens J, Aibar J, Forn R, Riba F, Taberner A, Izquierdo J, Ochoa MJ, Zaragoza C, 1990. Distribution and abundance of the species of the genus Avena L. As weeds in winter cereals in the north east of Spain. Symposium on integrated weed management in cereals. Proceedings of an EWRS symposium, Helsinki, Finland, 4-6 June 1990 Wageningen, Netherlands; European Weed Research Society, 77-83
Renault S, Amit Shukla, Giblin EM, MacKenzie SL, Devine MD, 1997. Plasma membrane lipid composition and herbicide effects on lipoxygenase activity do not contribute to differential membrane responses in herbicide-resistant and -susceptible wild oat (Avena fatua L.) biotypes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45(8):3269-3275; 45 ref.
Rocha Afonso ML, 1980. Avena L. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb Da, eds. Flora Europea, Vol. 5. Alismataceae to Orchidaceae (Monocotyledones). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 206-208.
Rola J, 1990. Dynamics of weed populations on light soils in Poland. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, Sonderheft, 12:97-100.
Rooney JM, 1990. Competition between winter wheat and different forms of Avena fatua L. Symposium on integrated weed management in cereals. Proceedings of an EWRS symposium, Helsinki, Finland Wageningen, Netherlands; European Weed Research Society, 205-210
Rydahl P, 2000. PC-Plant Protection - factors in weed control that affect the treatment intensity index. Proceedings of the 17th Danish Plant Protection Conference II, Site-specific crop protection, decision support, pests-disease, ear blight. Tjele, Denmark: Danmarks JordbrugsForskning, DJF Report, Markbrug, 77-86.
Sabri N, Clarke DD, 1996. The relative tolerances of wild and cultivated oats to infection by Erysiphe graminis f.sp. avenae. I. The effects of infection on vegetative growth and yield. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 49(6):405-421; 15 ref.
Sabri N, Dominy PJ, Clarke DD, 1997. The relative tolerances of wild and cultivated oats to infection by Erysiphe graminis f.sp. avenae: II. The effects of infection on photosynthesis and respiration. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 50(5):321-335; 23 ref.
Salmer=n-Zamora JJ, Huerta-Espino J, Leonard KJ, Ochocki GE, 1996. Distribution and virulence of Puccinia coronata in Mexico in 1993-1994. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatologi^acute~a, 14(2):114-127; 3 ref.
Santel HJ, Bowden BA, Sorensen VM, Mueller KH, 1999. Flucarbazone-sodium - a new herbicide for the selective control of wild oat and green foxtail in wheat. 1999 Brighton crop protection conference: weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 15-18 November 1999., Volume 1:23-28; 2 ref.
Sawhney R, Hsiao AI, Quick WA, 1986. The influence of diffused light and temperature on seed germination of three genetically nondormant lines of wild oats (Avena fatua) and its adaptive significance. Canadian Journal of Botany, 64(9):1910-1915
Schoofs A, Entz MH, 2000. Influence of annual forages on weed dynamics in a cropping system. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 80(1):187-198.
Schweitzer K, Mullin B, Wichman D, Nelson J, 1988. Survey of weeds in conservation and conventionally tilled grain fields in Montana. Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science, Vol. 41:133-143
Scoggan AC, Santel HJ, Wollam JW, Rudolph RD, 1999. BAY MKH 6561: a new herbicide for grass and broadleaf weed control in cereals. 1999 Brighton crop protection conference: weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 15-18 November 1999., Volume 1:93-98.
Seefeldt SS, Fuerst EP, Gealy DR, Amit Shukla, Irzyk GP, Devine MD, 1996. Mechanisms of resistance to diclofop of two wild oat (Avena fatua) biotypes from the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Weed Science, 44(4):776-781; 16 ref.
Seefeldt SS, Fuerst EP, Irzyk GP, Gealy DR, Shukla A, Hoffman D, Brewster BD, Brown H, ed. , Cussans GW, ed., Devine MD, ed., Duke SO, ed., Fernandez-Quintanilla C, ed., Helweg A, ed., Labrada RE, ed., Landes M, ed., Kudsk P, ed., Streibig JC, 1996. Diclofop-resistant Avena fatua from the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Proceedings of the Second International Weed Control Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark, 25-28 June 1996, Vol 1-4, 511-516.
Sharma SD, Kirkwood RC, Whateley TL, 1996. Effect of non-ionic nonylphenol surfactants on surface physicochemical properties, uptake and distribution of asulam and diflufenican. Weed Research (Oxford), 36(3):227-239; 35 ref.
Shimabukuro RH, Hoffer BL, Biewer KA, Davis DG, 1999. Physiological responses of resistant and susceptible plants to diclofop-methyl and its antagonism by 2,4-D and antioxidants. Physiologia Plantarum, 107(1):68-76; 47 ref.
Shukla A, Dupont S, Devine MD, 1997. Resistance to ACCase-inhibitor herbicides in wild oat: evidence for target site-based resistance in two biotypes from Canada. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 57(2):147-155; 27 ref.
Singh G, Singh OP, 1996. Response of late-sown wheat (Triticum aestivum) to seeding methods and weed-control measures in flood-prone areas. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 41:237-242.
Soliman FS, Sabra FS, El-Deeb ST, 1998. Effect of herbicide combinations on growth, yield and yield components of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Alexandria Journal of Agricultural Research, 43(1):81-93; 15 ref.
Somody CN, Nalewaja JD, Miller SD, 1980. Daylength and temperature effects on wild oats growth and dormancy. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference. 1980, Volume 35. USA: North Dakota State Univ.
Somody CN, Nalewaja JD, Miller SD, 1980. Variation in wild oat. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference, 1979. 1980, Vol. 34, 50-51. USA: North Dakota State Univ.
Somody CN, Nalewaja JD, Miller SD, 1981. Wild oat competition and various cropping practices. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference, 1981. 1981, Volume 36, 34-35. USA: North Dakota State Univ.
Spandl E, Durgan BR, Miller DW, 1997. Wild oat (Avena fatua) control in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) with reduced rates of postemergence herbicides. Weed Technology, 11(3):591-597; 16 ref.
Speranza M, Govi G, Catizone P, 1990. Crop management and weed flora of cereals in Italy. Symposium on integrated weed management in cereals. Proceedings of an EWRS symposium, Helsinki, Finland, 4-6 June 1990 Wageningen, Netherlands; European Weed Research Society, 163-171
Stevenson FC, Johnston AM, Brandt SA, Townley-Smith L, 2000. An assessment of reduced herbicide and fertilizer inputs on cereal grain yield and weed growth. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 15(2):60-67.
Stougaard RN, Maxwell BD, Harris JD, 1997. Influence of application timing on the efficacy of reduced rate postemergence herbicides for wild oat (Avena fatua) control in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare). Weed Technology, 11(2):283-289; 19 ref.
Szilvasi S, 1996. Clethodim: a new gramicidal active ingredient for postemergence weed control in sugarbeet in France. Seizieme Conference du COLUMA. Journees internationales sur la lutte contre les mauvaises herbes, Reims, France, 6-8 December 1995. Paris, France: Association Nationale pour la Protection des Plantes, Tome 2, 539-545.
Tang ShunXue, Zhuang JiaJan, Wen YuXiang, Ai SA, Li HongJie, Xu Jia, 1997. Identification of introgressed segments conferring disease resistance in a tetrageneric hybrid of Triticum, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Avena. Genome, 40(1):99-103; 19 ref.
Tooley JA, Froud Williams RJ, Boatman ND, Holland JM, Boatman ND, ed. , Davies DHK, ed., Chaney K, ed., Feber R, ed., de Snoo GR, ed., Sparks TH, 1999. Weed seed predation in arable field margins by carabid beetles (Carabidae: Coleoptera). Field margins and buffer zones: ecology, management and policy. Conference held at Leicester, UK, on 20-22 September 1999. Aspects of Applied Biology, 54:211-216.
Troccoli A, Codianni P, Ronga G, Gallo A, Fonzo Ndi, 1997. Agronomical performance among farro species and durum wheat in a drought-flat land environment of Southern Italy. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 178(4):211-217; 15 ref.
Tsuruuchi T, 1986. Studies on weeds in upland wheat and barley fields in Nagasaki Prefecture. VI. Influence of summer flooding on the survival of some winter weed seeds in soil. Nagasaki Agic. and For. Exp. Sta. Nagasaki, Japan. Report of the Kyushu Branch of the Crop Science Society of Japan 1986, No. 53, 45-47.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. In: Purple Amole (Chlorogalum purpureum). Five-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 33 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1996.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Verbesina dissita (Big-leaved crownbeard). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 38 pp.. https://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3559.pdf
USDA, 2003. National Resources Conservation Service, Plant Database (http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi).
Uzun A, 1979. Chemical tests against weeds growing among wheat in south-east Anatolia. Turkey, Zirai Mucadele ve Zirai Karantina Genel Mudurlugu, Arastirma Dairesi Baskanligi: Plant protection research annual (report).: Zirai mucadele arastirma yilligi., 147-148, 151
Van der Puy D, 1986. Wild oats. One of the worst weeds. Crops and Soils Magazine, 38(9):13-14.
Walia US, Dhaliwal BK, Brar LS, Dhaliwal GS, ed. , Arora R, ed., Randhawa NS, ed., Dhawan AK, 1998. Competitive interactions between wheat and wild oats in relation to wild oats population density. Ecological agriculture and sustainable development: Volume 1. Proceedings of an International Conference on Ecological Agriculture: Towards Sustainable Development, Chandigarh, India, 15-17 November, 1997, 430-434.
Watson SJ, Murdoch AJ, Park JR, 1999. Seed bank depletion of wild oat and cleavers in integrated arable farming systems. 1999 Brighton crop protection conference: weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 15-18 November 1999., Volume 2:569-570; 3 ref.
Wheeler HC, Miller PCH, Perry NH, Lutman PJW, Hull RI, 2001. A map-based system for patch spraying weeds - system control. The BCPC Conference: Weeds, 2001, Volume 1 and Volume 2. Proceedings of an international conference held at the Brighton Hilton Metropole Hotel, Brighton, UK, 12-15 November 2001, 847-852; 6 ref.
Wille MJ, Thill DC, Price WJ, 1998. Wild oat (Avena fatua) seed production in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) is affected by the interaction of wild oat density and herbicide rate. Weed Science, 46(3):336-343; 37 ref.
Wilson BJ, Cussans GW, 1983. Population models in strategic planning for control of Avena fatua. 10th International Congress of Plant Protection 1983. Volume 3. Proceedings of a conference held at Brighton, England, 20-25 November, 1983. Plant protection for human welfare. British Crop Protection Council Croydon UK, 174
Wimschneider W, Bachthaler G, Fischbeck G, 1990. Competitive effects of Avena fatua L. (wild oats) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as a basis for effective weed control. Weed Research (Oxford), 30(1):43-52
Xie HS, Hsiao AI, Quick WA, 1997. Effect of environment on wild oat (Avena fatua) control with imazamethabenz or fenoxaprop tank-mixed with additives or MCPA. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 16(2):63-67; 28 ref.
Xie HS, Hsiao AI, Quick WA, 1997. Influence of drought on graminicide phytotoxicity in wild oat (Avena fatua) grown under different temperature and humidity conditions. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 16(4):233-237; 31 ref.
Xie HS, Hsiao AI, Quick WA, Hume JA, 1996. Influence of water stress on absorption, translocation and phytotoxicity of fenoxaprop-ethyl and imazamethabenz-methyl in Avena fatua. Weed Research (Oxford), 36(1):65-71; 31 ref.
Yamaguchi H, Sasaki T, 1985. Ecogenetical studies on wild oats. II. Variations of the growing period, plant height, number of spikelets and caryopsis size in natural populations in Japan. Weed Research, Japan, 30(1):35-41
Zahradnfcek J, Kohout V, 1996. Some information from the beet season of 1995 and ongoing problems in the production of sugarbeet and sugar. Listy Cukrovarnicke^acute~ a R^hacek~epar^hacek~ske^acute~, 112(2):31-36; 11 ref.
Zhang SM, Li YW, Feng ZH, Gao Lian Yi, 1999. Study on varieties and biological characteristics of wild oats in rice-wheat continuous cropping regions. Jiangsu Agricultural Sciences, 6:38-41.
Zhang ZJ, Li YH, 1996. Isolation, cultivation and pathogenesis studies of a biological control agent for wild oats. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 12(4):171-173.
Abdul Waheed, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Jakhar G S, Hayatullah Tareen, 2009. Weed community dynamics in wheat crop of district Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 41 (1), 247-254. http://www.pjbot.org
Aibar J, Ochoa M J, Sopeña J M, Lorente M, Zaragoza C, 1988. Wild oat (Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana (Dur) Nym., Avena fatua L.) herbicide evaluation in Aragon (Spain). (Evaluacion de los herbicidas contra la avena loca (Avena sterilis subsp. ludoviciana (Dur) Nym., Avena fatua L.) en Aragon.). ITEA, Información Técnica Económica Agraria. 19 (79), 57-64.
Alhaithloul H A A S, 2019. Prevalence study of weeds in some economic orchards trees. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 7 (4), 512-518. https://www.asianjab.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/4-AJAB-2019-05-226.pdf
Belien J M, Salembier J F, Himme M van, 1983. Sugarbeet. Weed control in sugarbeet. Control of annual and perennial grasses, pre- or post-emergence? (Betteraves sucrières. Lutte contre les adventices en culture betteravière. Lutte contre les graminées annuelles et vivaces, en pré- ou postémergence?). Revue de l'Agriculture. 36 (3), 735-739.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Chatzivassiliou E K, Boubourakas I, Drossos E, Eleftherohorinos I, Jenser G, Peters D, Katis N I, 2001. Weeds in greenhouses and tobacco fields are differentially infected by Tomato spotted wilt virus and infested by its vector species. Plant Disease. 85 (1), 40-46. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.1.40
Chen T B, Lin C, 1989. Phytocoenological features and control strategies of weeds. In: Proceedings, 12th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. [Proceedings, 12th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference.], Taipei, Taiwan: Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society. 73-78.
Costa J C, 1988. Morphological study of wild oats in Portugal. (Types morphologiques des folles avoines au Portugal.). In: VIIIe Colloque International sur la Biologie, l'Écologie et la Systématique des Mauvaises Herbes. [VIIIe Colloque International sur la Biologie, l'Écologie et la Systématique des Mauvaises Herbes.], Paris, France: A.N.P.P. 315-323.
Dąbkowska T, Sygulska P, 2013. Variations in weed flora and the degree of its transformation in ecological and extensive conventional cereal crops in selected habitats of the Beskid Wyspowy Mountains. Acta Agrobotanica. 66 (2), 123-136. DOI:10.5586/aa.2013.029
Dangwal L R, Antima Sharma, Amandeep Singh, Rana C S, Tajinder Singh, 2011. Weed flora of S.R.T. Campus Badshahi Thaul Tehri Garhwal (H.N.B. Garhwal Central University, Uttarakhand), India. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 17 (4), 387-396. http://www.wssp.org.pk/174-10.pdf
Devi K T, Singh P K, Debjyoti Bhattacharyya, 2016. Three new additions to the grass (Poaceae) flora of Manipur, India. Plant Science Today. 3 (3), 272-281. http://horizonepublishing.com/journals/index.php/PST/article/view/237/157 DOI:10.14719/pst.2016.3.3.237
Fazal Hadi, Muhammad Ibrar, 2015. Ecology of weeds in wheat crops of Kalash valley, district Chitral, Hindukush Range, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 21 (3), 425-433. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-21-3-2015/11.%20PJWSR-06-2015.pdf
Fetch T G Jr, Fetch J M, Xue A, 2011. Races of Puccinia graminis on barley, oat and wheat in Canada in 2006. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 33 (1), 54-60. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content˜db=all˜content=a931117323˜frm=titlelink
He YunHe, Qiang Sheng, 2014. Analysis of farmland weeds species diversity and its changes in the different cropping systems. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 20 (4), 786-794. http://agrojournal.org/20/04-09.pdf
Ihsan Ullah, Wazir S M, Ayesha Farooq, Khan S U, Zahid Hussain, 2011. Identification of common weeds and its distribution pattern in wheat fields of FR Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 17 (4), 407-416. http://www.wssp.org.pk/174-12.pdf
Ito D, Miller Z, Menalled F, Moffet M, Burrows M, 2012. Relative susceptibility among alternative host species prevalent in the Great Plains to Wheat streak mosaic virus. Plant Disease. 96 (8), 1185-1192. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-11-0746-RE
Kazi B R, Buriro A H, Kubar R A, Jagirani A W, 2007. Weed spectrum frequency and density in wheat, (Triticum aestivum L.) under Tandojam conditions. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 13 (3/4), 241-246. http://wssp.org.pk/
Khan I, Marwat K B, Khan I A, Haidar Ali, Dawar K, Khan H, 2011. Invasive weeds of southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 17 (2), 161-174. http://www.wssp.org.pk/PJWSR-17-2-161-174.pdf
Khan R U, Wazir S M, Muhammad Subhan, Saad Ullah, Hidayat Ullah, Aysha Farooq, Farheen Jaffar, Shazia, Shah I A, Mustafa Kamal, 2012. Weed flora of sugarcane in district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 18 (4), 541-552. http://www.wssp.org.pk/article.htm
Lish J M, Thill D C, Callihan R H, 1986. Wild oat control in no-tillage spring barley. In: Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science. [Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science.], 128-129.
Manole T, Chireceanu C, Teodoru A, 2017. Current status of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, 1868 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Romania. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica. 143-148. http://www.acta-zoologica-bulgarica.eu/downloads/acta-zoologica-bulgarica/2017/supplement-9-143-148.pdf
Marwat K B, Zahid Hussain, Bakhtiar Gul, Muhammad Saeed, Siraj-ud-Din, 2006. Survey on weed problems in wheat crop in district Mardan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 12 (4), 353-358. http://wssp.org.pk/
McCully W G, Wiese A F, 1984. Controlling wild oat on roadsides. In: Proceedings, Southern Weed Science Society, 37th annual meeting. [Proceedings, Southern Weed Science Society, 37th annual meeting.], 287-289.
McNeil W K, Peeper T F, 1979. Post grazing wild oat control in winter wheat. In: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society. [Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society.], 42.
Milanova S, Boneva P, Grigorova P, Valkova M, 2007. Weed survey in central north Bulgaria. In: European Weed Research Society, 14th EWRS Symposium, Hamar, Norway, 17-21 June 2007 [European Weed Research Society, 14th EWRS Symposium, Hamar, Norway, 17-21 June 2007.], [ed. by Fløistad E]. Doorwerth, Netherlands: European Weed Research Society. 217. http://www.ewrs-symposium2007.com
Milroy S P, Turner D W, Goodchild N A, 1990. Competition in binary mixtures of three grass weed species and their impact on wheat yield. In: Symposium on integrated weed management in cereals. Proceedings of an EWRS symposium, Helsinki, Finland. [Symposium on integrated weed management in cereals. Proceedings of an EWRS symposium, Helsinki, Finland.], Wageningen, Netherlands: European Weed Research Society. 211-217.
Naber H, 1977. Decline of wild oats in the Netherlands. In: Proceedings of the EWRS Symposium on Different Methods of Weed Control and their Integration, Uppsala, 1977. [Proceedings of the EWRS Symposium on Different Methods of Weed Control and their Integration, Uppsala, 1977.], 203-212.
Naoy C, Șarpe N, 1987. Weed control with herbicides in winter wheat crops. (Combaterea cu erbicide a buruienilor din cultura grîului de toamnă.). Contributii ale Cercetării Știiņtifice la Dezvoltarea Agriculturii. 123-133.
Recasens J, Aibar J, Forn R, Riba F, Taberner A, Izquierdo J, Ochoa M J, Zaragoza C, 1990. Distribution and abundance of the species of the genus Avena L. As weeds in winter cereals in the north east of Spain. In: Symposium on integrated weed management in cereals. Proceedings of an EWRS symposium, Helsinki, Finland, 4-6 June 1990. [Symposium on integrated weed management in cereals. Proceedings of an EWRS symposium, Helsinki, Finland, 4-6 June 1990.], Wageningen, Netherlands: European Weed Research Society. 77-83.
Rola J, 1990. Dynamics of weed populations on light soils in Poland. (Dynamik von Unkrautpopulationen auf leichten Böden in Polen.). In: Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 97-100.
Schweitzer K, Mullin B, Wichman D, Nelson J, 1988. Survey of weeds in conservation and conventionally tilled grain fields in Montana. In: Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science. [Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science.], 133-143.
Slonovschi V, 1982. Contributions to the knowledge of grades of weediness in agricultural crops on the Moldavian Plain. (Contributii la cunoasterea gradului de imburuienare a culturilor agricole din Cimpia Moldovei.). Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova. 148-152.
Speranza M, Govi G, Catizone P, 1990. Crop management and weed flora of cereals in Italy. In: Symposium on integrated weed management in cereals. Proceedings of an EWRS symposium, Helsinki, Finland, 4-6 June 1990. [Symposium on integrated weed management in cereals. Proceedings of an EWRS symposium, Helsinki, Finland, 4-6 June 1990.], Wageningen, Netherlands: European Weed Research Society. 163-171.
Thomas P E L, Schwerzel P J, 1981. Some facts about weeds and their effects on crops. In: Proceedings of the fourth National Weeds Conference of South Africa. [Proceedings of the fourth National Weeds Conference of South Africa.], 55-59.
Thorup S, 1984. Grasses ocurring as weeds. Their distribution and range in Denmark. (Græsser, der forekommer som ukrudt. Deres udbredelse og omfang i Danmark.). In: Nordisk Jordbrugsforskning, 66 (2) 163.
USDA, 2003. National Resources Conservation Service, Plant Database., http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi
Uzun A, 1979. Chemical tests against weeds growing among wheat in south-east Anatolia. (Guneydogu anadolu bolgesinde hubabatta (Bugday) yabanci otlara karsi ilac denemesi.). In: Turkey, Zirai Mucadele ve Zirai Karantina Genel Mudurlugu, Arastirma Dairesi Baskanligi: Plant protection research annual (report).: Zirai mucadele arastirma yilligi. 147-148, 151.
Vafaee B S, Narimani V, Farokhzad A, Chasemzadeh R, 2011. Quantitative evaluation of predominant of weeds in winter wheat and barley fields in Eastern Azerbaijan, Iran. Revista Cientifica UDO Agricola. 11 (1), 126-133. http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?cg11013
Watkins S D, Hargrave M R, 1984. Control of annual grasses in onions with fluazifop-butyl. In: Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science. [Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science.], Spokane, Washington, USA: 70-75.
Woźniak A, 2020. Effect of cereal monoculture and tillage systems on grain yield and weed infestation of winter durum wheat. International Journal of Plant Production. 14 (1), 1-8. DOI:10.1007/s42106-019-00062-8
Zorner P S, Zimdahl R L, Schweizer E E, 1984. Sources of viable seed loss in buried dormant and non-dormant populations of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seed in Colorado. Weed Research, UK. 24 (2), 143-150.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/