Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium

Like most websites we use cookies. This is to ensure that we give you the best experience possible.

 

Continuing to use www.cabi.org  means you agree to our use of cookies. If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use.

Horizon Scanning Tool (beta) for prioritizing invasive species threats

Datasheet

Herpestes javanicus (small Indian mongoose)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Herpestes javanicus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • small Indian mongoose
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Mammalia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Herpestes javanicus (Indian mongoose) is a small, slim-bodied predator native to areas from Iran, through India to Myanmar (Burma) and the Malay Peninsula. It has been introduced to islands such as Mauritius, Fij...

  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Herpestes javanicus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1818)

Preferred Common Name

  • small Indian mongoose

Other Scientific Names

  • Herpestes auropunctatus (Hodgson, 1836)

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: beji
  • Germany: Kleiner Mungo
  • India: mangus; newla
  • Myanmar: mweyba

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Herpestes javanicus (Indian mongoose) is a small, slim-bodied predator native to areas from Iran, through India to Myanmar (Burma) and the Malay Peninsula. It has been introduced to islands such as Mauritius, Fiji, the West Indies and Hawaii to control rats, particularly in sugar cane fields. Unfortunately, native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates proved to be easier prey and the mongoose has been responsible for at least three total species' extinctions and many other local extinctions. It is also a vector for rabies.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Mammalia
  •                     Order: Carnivora
  •                         Suborder: Fissipeda
  •                             Family: Herpestidae
  •                                 Genus: Herpestes
  •                                     Species: Herpestes javanicus

Description

Top of page

The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) has a slender body is with short legs. The head is elongated with a pointed muzzle. The tail is robustly muscular at the base and tapers gradually throughout its length. Length of head and body is 509 to 671mm. Ears are short and project only slightly beyond the fur. Feet have five toes with long sharp non-retractile claws. Hair is short. Both sexes have an extensible anal pad with ducted glands lateral to the anus. Fur is soft, pale to dark brown flecked with golden spots. Underside is paler than rest of body. Eyes are amber/brown but are blue green in young animals. There is distinct sexual dimorphism. Females range in length from 509 to 578mm with a mean of 540mm. Body mass at sexual maturity ranges from 305 to 662 g with a mean of 434g. Males have a wider head and more robust body ranging in length from 544 to 671mm with a mean of 591mm (Nellis, 1989).

Distribution

Top of page

Native range: The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) is native to northern Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India (south to Sind on the west and Orissa on the east), Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam, and southern China including Hainan Island.
Known introduced range: The species has been introduced to (year of introduction in parentheses) Antigua, Barbados (1877). Beef Island, Buck Island (1910), Croatia (1910), Cuba (1866), Fiji (found on Viti Levu and Vanua Levu; introduced 1883), French Guiana, Grenada (1882), Guadeloupe, Guyana, Hawai’i (found on Hawai‘i, Maui, Moloka‘i, and O‘ahu; introduced 1883), Hispaniola (1895), Jamaica (1872), Japan (found on Okinawa and Amami; introduced 1910), Jost Van Dyke, La Desirade, Lavango, Mafia (Tanzania), Marie- Galante, Martinique, Nevis, Puerto Rico (1887), St. Croix (1884), St. John, St. Kitts (1884), St. Lucia, St. Martin (1888), St. Thomas, St. Vincent, Suriname (1900), Tortola, Trinidad (1870), Vieques, and Water Island (Nellis, 1989, Hays and Conant, 2007).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
BangladeshPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
CambodiaPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
ChinaPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
IndiaPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MoluccasPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
IranPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
IraqPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
JapanPresentIntroduced1910 Invasive ISSG, 2011
LaosPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
MalaysiaPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
MyanmarPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
NepalPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
PakistanPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
SingaporePresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
ThailandPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
VietnamPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011

Africa

ComorosPresentIntroduced1950s Invasive ISSG, 2011
MauritiusPresentIntroduced1902 Invasive ISSG, 2011

North America

BermudaPresentIntroducedlate 1880s early 1900s Invasive ISSG, 2011
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1883 Invasive ISSG, 2011

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedlate 1880s early 1900s Invasive ISSG, 2011
BahamasPresentIntroducedlate 1880s early 1900s Invasive ISSG, 2011
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced1884 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedlate 1880s early 1900s Invasive ISSG, 2011
CubaPresentIntroducedlate 1880s early 1900s Invasive ISSG, 2011
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedlate 1880s early 1900s Invasive ISSG, 2011
GrenadaPresentIntroduced1878 Invasive ISSG, 2011
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced1888 Invasive ISSG, 2011
HaitiPresentIntroducedlate 1880s early 1900s Invasive ISSG, 2011
HondurasPresentIntroducedlate 1880s early 1900s Invasive ISSG, 2011
JamaicaPresentIntroduced1882 Invasive ISSG, 2011
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBetween 1890 and 1891 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedRecent (before 2007)ISSG, 2011
PanamaPresentIntroducedlate 1880s early 1900s Invasive ISSG, 2011
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1877 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedlate 1880s early 1900s Invasive ISSG, 2011
Saint LuciaWidespreadIntroducedlate 1800s early 1900s Invasive Caribbean Conservation Association, 1991; Jn Pierre, 2008; ISSG, 2011; Government of Saint Lucia, 2012Severely impacting biodiversity
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedlate 1880s early 1900s Invasive ISSG, 2011
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced1870 Invasive ISSG, 2011
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced1884 Invasive ISSG, 2011

South America

ColombiaPresentIntroducedlate 1880s early 1900s Not invasive ISSG, 2011
French GuianaPresentIntroducedlate 1880s early 1900s Not invasive ISSG, 2011
GuyanaPresentIntroducedlate 1880s early 1900s Not invasive ISSG, 2011
SurinamePresentIntroducedlate 1880s early 1900s Not invasive ISSG, 2011

Europe

CroatiaPresentIntroduced1910 Not invasive ISSG, 2011

Oceania

FijiPresentIntroduced1883 Invasive ISSG, 2011

Habitat

Top of page

The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) is reported to prefer dry habitats and this is supported by the observation that trap success falls to zero in rainy weather in most cases. Habitat preferences in the native range have not been investigated but it seems the species prefers grassland and secondary growth to dense forest. Mongooses are also found around human habitation. Studies on Caribbean islands have shown a clear preference for dry natural areas are preferred over rainy areas. Mongooses reach dense population on Hawai’i and in this case they begin to exploit wet areas (Hays and Conant, 2007). In Mauritius tended to be found in rocky areas, riparian habitats and mature forest over scrub, long grass (sugar cane plantations), short grass and paths (Roy et al. 2002). In Puerto Rico male mongooses from the rain forest areas were larger than those in dry forests (Vilella, 1998).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Deserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

Top of page
Nutrition
Small Indian mongooses (Herpestes javanicus) are omnivorous and have a very varied diet. Diet has not been investigated in the native range but a large number of studies have investigated diet in areas where the species has been introduced. Small Indian mongoose diet normally consists of mammals, birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates and plant material. Proportions of these dietary items vary according to availability and location of the study. Some populations are largely insectivorous; others may eat a diet largely consisting of fruit for part of the year (Hays and Conant, 2007). This high level of dietary flexibility has contributed to the small Indian mongoose’s success as an invasive species.
 
Reproduction
Placental, sexual. Breeds two or three times a year, no real season, though there are breeding peaks.
Two litters of three youngs per female per year. Females can breed from the age of 10 months.
 
Lifecycle stages
Gestation 42-50 days, weaning 5 weeks, sexual maturity 10 months, total life expectancy in wild animals 3-4 years.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Introduction pathways to new locations
Biological control: Introduced for biological control of rats and snakes in agricultural habitats, from which the animals spread throughout local areas within decades.

Local dispersal methods
Natural dispersal (local):
Other (local): Spread to neighbouring islands by cane planters.

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Biological control Yes Yes

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Native fauna Negative

Impact

Top of page
The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) has had a major impact on native species in the areas where it has been introduced. In most cases the native wildlife in these areas evolved in the absence of predatory mammals so they are particularly threatened by mongoose predation. Species considered to have been driven extinct through mongoose predation are the barred-wing rail (see Nesoclopeus poecilopterus in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) in Fiji and the Hispaniola racer (Alsophis melanichnus) (Hays and Conant, 2007). The critically endangered and almost extinct Jamaica petrel (see Pterodroma caribbaea in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) suffered drastic decline in numbers in the 19th century presumably due to predation by mongoose and rats (BirdLife International 2004). Mongooses have also been implicated in the decline of many other bird, reptile and mammal species. Mongooses also eat invertebrates but the impact of this predation on invertebrate populations has not been studied. On St. John Island in the US Virgin Islands H. javanicus is a major predator of hawksbill turtle eggs (see Eretmochelys imbricata in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) and trapping around vulnerable beaches led to much greater breeding success for the turtles (Coblentz and Coblentz, 1985). Mongooses on Mauritius have been blamed for the extirpation of introduced game birds and the Audobon’s shearwater (Puffinus l’herminieri) as well as contributing to the decline of endemic species such as the endangered pink pigeon (see Nesoenas mayeri in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) [Columba mayeri] (Roy et al. 2002). In Japan the species has been shown to have a strong negative effect on the endangered Amami rabbit (see Pentalagus furnessi in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) (Watari et al. 2008). Small Indian mongooses are also a vector for rabies.

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Columba mayeriEN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)MauritiusISSG, 2011
Eretmochelys imbricata (hawksbill turtle)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesUnited States Virgin IslandsPredationISSG, 2011
Pentalagus furnessi (Amami rabbit)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)JapanISSG, 2011
Pterodroma caribbaea (Jamaica petrel)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)PredationISSG, 2011
Puffinus lherminieri (Audobon’s shearwater)No details No detailsMauritiusISSG, 2011
Agelaius xanthomus (yellow-shouldered blackbird)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesPuerto RicoPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996
Peltophryne lemur (Puerto Rican crested toad)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesPuerto RicoPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1992
Pseudonestor xanthophrys (Maui parrotbill)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011b
Eleutherodactylus jasperi (golden coqui)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesPuerto RicoPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013
Pterodroma sandwichensisNo DetailsHawaiiPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011a
Puffinus auricularis newelliUSA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesHawaii; American SamoaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011c

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Predation

Uses

Top of page

The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) was introduced as a biocontrol agent to control rats in cane fields but not particularly effective and the enormous cost to native species far outweighed any benefit.

Uses List

Top of page

Environmental

  • Biological control

Prevention and Control

Top of page
Physical: Trapping is commonly used to remove small Indian mongooses (Herpestes javanicus) from sensitive areas. It is often very successful at removing animals in the short term. Unfortunately, trapping programmes need to be run almost constantly as mongooses re-colonise trapped areas very quickly (Roy et al. 2003; Hays and Conant, 2007). Fencing has been proposed as a possible control method in Mauritius but predator proof fences are expensive and inflexible should the area that needs to be protected change (Roy et al. 2002).

Chemical: Diphacinone anticoagulant poison has been used to control mongooses in Hawai’i (Hays et al. 2007). The use of this toxin has been considered in Mauritius but poisoning methods would have to be adapted to prevent poisoning of non-target species (Roy et al. 2002).

Integrated management: There is concern in Mauritius that removing mongooses without also removing cats and rats will be disastrous for native species because it may lead to increased rat and cat populations (Roy et al. 2002).

Bibliography

Top of page

Atkinson, I. A. E. and Atkinson, T. J. 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on islands served by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. In: Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa: 19-84.

Baldwin, P., Schwartz, C. W. and Schwartz, E. R. 1952. Life history and economic status of the mongoose in Hawaii. Journal of Mammalogy 33: 335-356.

BirdLife International 2004. Pterodroma caribbaea. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/144861/0

Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra. http://www.feral.org.au/feral_documents/PC12803.pdf

Coblentz, B. E. and Coblentz, B. A 1985. Control of the Indian mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus on St John, US Virgin Islands. Biological Conservation 33: 281– 288.

Creekmore, T. E., Linhart, S. B., Corn, J. L., Whitney, M. D., Snyder, B. D. and Nettles, V. F. 1994. Field-evaluation of baits and baiting strategies for delivering oral vaccine to mongooses in Antigua, West Indies. Journal Of Wildlife Diseases 30: 497-505.

Espeut, W. B. 1882. On the acclimatization of the Indian mongoose in Jamaica. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1882: 712-714.

Everard, C. O. R. and Everard, J. D. 1985. Mongoose Rabies in Grenada. In Bacon, P. J. (ed.) Population Dynamics of Rabies in Wildlife, Academic Press Inc., London, UK: 43-69.

Gorman, M. L. 1975. The diet of feral Herpestes auropunctatus. (Carnivora:Viverridae) in the Fijian Islands. Journal of Zoology, London 175: 273–278.

Hays, W.S.T. and Conant, S. 2007. Biology and impacts of Pacific Island invasive species. 1. A Worldwide review of effects of the small Indian mongoose, Herpestes javanicus (Carnivora: Herpestidae). Pacific Science, 61: 3-16.

Hoagland, D. B., Horst, G. R. and Kilpatrick, C. W. 1989. Biogeography and population ecology of the mongoose in the West Indies. Biogeography of West Indies 1989: 6111-6134.

Huber, R., Vincent, G., MacFarland, C. and Meganck, R. Plan and Policy for a System of National Parks and Protected Areas. Department of Regional Development, Grenada. http://www.oas.org/usde/publications/Unit/oea51e/ch06.htm

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/

IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers Involved in the Prevention, Eradication, Management and Control of the Spread of Invasive Alien Species that are a Threat to Native biodiversity and Natural Ecosystems.

Lorvelec, O., Delloue, X., Pascal, M., & Mege, S. 2004. Impact des mammifères allochtones sur quelques espèces autochtones de l'îlet Fajou (Réserve Naturelle du Grand Cul-de-Sac-Marin, Guadeloupe), établis à l'issue d'une tentative d'éradication. Revue d'Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie), 59, 293-307.

Lorvelec, O., Delloue, X., Pascal, M., & mege, S. 2004. Impacts des mammiferes allochtones sur quelques especes autochtones de l'Isle Fajou (Reserve Naturelle du Grand Cul-de-sac Marin, Guadeloupe), etablis a l'issue d'une tentative d'eradication. Revue D'Ecologie - La Terre et La Vie 59(1-2): 293-307.

Lorvelec, O., Pascal, M., & Pavis, C. 2001. Inventaire et statut des Mammifères des Antilles françaises (hors Chiroptères et Cétacés). In Rapport n° 27 de l'Association pour l'Etude et la Protection des Vertébrés et Végétaux des Petites Antilles, Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe. http://www.fnh.org/francais/fnh/uicn/pdf/biodiv_mammiferes_antilles.pdf

Lorvelec, O., Pascal, M., Delloue, X., Chapuis, J.L. 2007. Les mammifères terrestres non volants des Antilles françaises et l’introduction récente d’un écureil. Rev.Ecol. (Terre Vie), 62, 295-314

Nellis, D. W. and Everard, C. O. R. 1983. The biology of the mongoose in the Caribbean. Studies on the fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands 64: 1–162.

Nellis, D. W. and Small, V. 1983. Mongoose predation on sea turtle eggs and nests. Biotropica 15: 159-160.

Nellis, D.W. 1989. Herpestes auropunctatus. Mammalian Species 442: 1-6

Pearson, O. P. and Baldwin, P. H. 1953. Reproduction and age structure in a mongoose population in Hawaii. Journal of Mammalogy 34: 436-447.

Pimentel, D. 1955. Biology of the Indian mongoose in Puerto Rico. Journal of Mammalogy 36: 62-68.

Roy, S. Minimising The Impacts Of The Introduced Small Indian Mongoose On The Native Fauna Of Mauritius. Mammal Research Unit, School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, UK.

Roy, S. S., C. G. Jones and S. Harris., 2002. An ecological basis for control of mongoose Herpestes javanicus in Mauritius: is eradication possible? In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 266-273. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

Seaman, G. A. and Randall, J. E. 1962. The mongoose as a predator in the Virgin Islands. Journal of Mammology 43: 544–546.

Simberloff, D., Dayan, T., Jones, C. and Ogura, G. 2000. Character displacement and release in the small Indian mongoose, Herpestes javanicus. Ecology 81: 2086-2099.

Tomich, P. Q. 1969. Movement patterns of the mongoose in Hawaii. Journal of Wildlife Management 33: 576-584.

Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom. http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660

Watari, Y., Takatsuki, S., Miyachita, T. 2008. Effects of exotic mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) on the native fauna of Amamai-Oshima Island, southern Japan, estimated by distribution patterns along the historical gradient of mongoose invasion. Biological Invasions 18: 7-17.

Windsor Research Centre, undated. Non-native invasive species.

Yamada, 2002. Impacts and control of introduced small Indian mongoose on Amami Island, Japan. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 389-392. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

References

Top of page

Caribbean Conservation Association, 1991. St. Lucia Country Environmental Profile. St. Lucia Country Environmental Profile. Castries, Saint Lucia 335 pp.

Government of Saint Lucia, 2012. Dengue Fever Alert - Fight the Aedes aegypti Mosquito!. http://www.stlucia.gov.lc/agencies/health/alerts/dengue_fever_alert_-_fight_the_ades_aegypti_mosquito!.htm

ISSG, 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

Jn Pierre L, 2008. Mitigating the Threat of Invasive Alien Species in the Insular Caribbean (Saint Lucia). Report to CABI. 56 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1992. In: Recovery Plan for the Puerto Rican Crested Toad (Peltophryne lemur). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 43 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/920807a.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1996. In: Yellow-Shouldered Blackbird (Agelajus xanthomus) Revised Recovery Plan. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 109 pp..

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006. In: Revised Recovery Plan for Hawaiian Forest Birds. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 622 pp..

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. In: Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 16 pp..

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. In: Kiwikiu (Maui Parrotbill) (Pseudonestor xanthophrys). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 20 pp..

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011. In: Newell's shearwater (Puffinus auricularis newelli), 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 17 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3867.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. In: Golden Coqui (Eleutherodactylus jasperi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 18 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4276.pdf

Contributors

Top of page

Reviewed by: Dr. Sugoto Roy (Coordinator); Hebridean Mink Project. Central Science Laboratory Sand Hutton, York UK

    Compiled by: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
Last Modified: Friday, September 17, 2010

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Download KML file Download CSV file
Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please click OK to ACCEPT or Cancel to REJECT