Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Aulacaspis tubercularis
(mango scale)



Aulacaspis tubercularis (mango scale)


  • Last modified
  • 27 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aulacaspis tubercularis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • mango scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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TitleA. tubercularis
CopyrightNatural History Museum, London
A. tubercularisNatural History Museum, London


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead

Preferred Common Name

  • mango scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Aulacaspis cinnamomi Newstead
  • Aulacaspis cinnamomi mangiferae Newstead
  • Aulacaspis mangiferae MacGillivray
  • Diapis mangiferae (Newstead) Ramakrishna Ayyar
  • Diaspis cinnamomi
  • Diaspis cinnamomi-mangiferae (Newstead)
  • Diaspis tubercularis (Newstead)

International Common Names

  • English: white mango scale
  • Spanish: escama blanca del mango

Local Common Names

  • South Africa: mangodopluis

EPPO code

  • AULSCI (Aulacaspis cinnamomi)
  • AULSTU (Aulacaspis tubercularis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Diaspididae
  •                                     Genus: Aulacaspis
  •                                         Species: Aulacaspis tubercularis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Hong KongPresentNHM, 1992
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIIE, 1993
-BiharPresentNHM, 1989
-GujaratPresentNHM, 1983
-Himachal PradeshPresentVerma and Dinabandhoo, 2005
-KarnatakaPresentIIE, 1993
-KeralaPresentIIE, 1993
-Uttar PradeshPresentNHM, 1975
-West BengalPresentNHM, 1956
IndonesiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-JavaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-KalimantanPresentTakagi and Faveri, 2009
IraqPresentIIE, 1993
IsraelPresentDanzig and Pellizzari, 1998
JapanPresentDanzig and Pellizzari, 1998
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIIE, 1993
-SarawakPresentNHM, 1978; IIE, 1993
PakistanPresentIIE, 1993
PhilippinesPresentTakagi and Faveri, 2009
Sri LankaPresentIIE, 1993
TaiwanPresentIIE, 1993
ThailandPresentWilliams and Williams, 1988
VietnamPresentWaterhouse, 1993


BeninPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
Côte d'IvoirePresentIIE, 1993
EgyptPresentIIE, 1993
GambiaPresentIIE, 1993
GhanaPresentIIE, 1993
KenyaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
LiberiaPresentIIE, 1993
MadagascarPresentWilliams and Williams, 1988; EPPO, 2014
MalawiPresentIIE, 1993
MauritiusPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
MozambiquePresentIIE, 1993
RéunionPresentWilliams and Williams, 1988; EPPO, 2014
SeychellesPresentEPPO, 2014
Sierra LeonePresentIIE, 1993
South AfricaPresentIIE, 1993; EPPO, 2014
TanzaniaPresentIIE, 1993
-ZanzibarPresentIIE, 1993
TogoPresentIIE, 1993
UgandaPresentIIE, 1993
ZambiaPresentIIE, 1993
ZimbabwePresentIIE, 1993

North America

USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; Hicks, 2017First recorded in Florida in 2002.
-FloridaPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014; Hicks, 2017Few occurrences in the southern part of the state

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIIE, 1993
ArubaPresentSchotman, 1989
BarbadosPresentCPPC; IIE, 1993
British Virgin IslandsPresentSchotman, 1989
Dominican RepublicPresentCPPC; IIE, 1993
GrenadaPresentSchotman, 1989
GuadeloupePresentEPPO, 2014
JamaicaPresentSchotman, 1989
MartiniquePresentSchotman, 1989; EPPO, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentIIE, 1993
Saint LuciaPresentSchotman, 1989
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCPPC; IIE, 1993

South America

ArgentinaPresentAmún et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014via alert from PestLens newsletter.
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GoiasPresentClaps et al., 2001
-Minas GeraisPresentClaps et al., 2001
-Rio de JaneiroPresentClaps et al., 2001
-Rio Grande do SulPresentClaps et al., 2001
-Sao PauloPresentIIE, 1993
ColombiaPresentKondo, 2001; IIE, 1993
GuyanaPresentIIE, 1993
SurinamePresentIIE, 1993
VenezuelaPresentCPPC; IIE, 1993


ItalyPresentPorcelli, 1990
PortugalPresentEPPO, 2014
-MadeiraPresentEPPO, 2014


AustraliaPresentCSIRO, 2001
VanuatuPresentIIE, 1993

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal colours
Stems / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aleurodothrips fasciapennis Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae
Aphytis Parasite Adults/Larvae
Aphytis hispanicus Parasite
Aphytis lingnanensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs India; Tamil Nadu; Karnataka mangoes
Aphytis mytilaspidis Parasite Adults/Larvae
Arrhenophagus chionaspidis Parasite India mangoes
Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae
Cybocephalus binotatus Predator South Africa
Encarsia citrina Parasite Adults/Larvae
Encarsia fasciata Parasite
Pharoscymnus horni Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pteroptrix koebelei Parasite Adults/Nymphs India mangoes
Rhyzobius lophanthae Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae South Africa mangoes
Rhyzobius pulchellus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs
Sukunahikona prapawan Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs


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Amún C; Claps LE; Bottero MAS, 2012. First record of Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) from Argentina. Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina, 71(3-4):289-291.

Brooks WH, 1992. The control of mango scale. Oil timing and chemical scale control results. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association, 12:45-47; 2 ref.

Burger HC; Ulenberg SA, 1990. Quarantine problems and procedures. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 4B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 313-327.

Chazeau J, 1979. Sukunahikona prapawan, a new species of Coccinellidae from Melanesia. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France, 84(5/6):117-121

Claps LE; Wolff VRS; González RH, 2001. Catálogo de las Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) exóticas de la Argentina, Brasil y Chile. Revista de la Socieded Entomológica Argentina, 60:9-34.

Cochereau P, 1969. Biological control of Aspidiotus destructor Signoret (Homoptera, Diaspinae) on the island of Vate (New Hebrides) by means of Rhizobius pulchellus Montrouzier (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). Cahiers ORSTOM, Serie Biologie, 8:57-100.

Colyn J, 1993. The South African mango industry. Acta Horticulturae, No. 341:60-68

CSIRO, 2001. World Wide Web page at

Cunningham I, 1989. Mango Pests and Disorders. Department of Primary Industries, Queensland Government, Information Series Q, 189007:10-11.

Danzig EM; Pellizzari G, 1998. Diaspididae. In: Kozßr F, ed. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coccoidea. Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Budapest, Hungary: Akaprint Nyomdaipari Kft., 172-370.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Gallardo-Covas F, 1983. Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) susceptibility to Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 67(2):179

Halteren P van, 1970. Notes on the biology of the scale insect Aulacaspis mangiferae Newst. (Diaspididae, Hemiptera) on mango. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science, 3:83-85.

IIE, 1993. Distribution Maps of Pests. Series A, No. 540. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Labuschagne TI; Froneman IJ, 1992. Potential for the integrated control of the mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association, 12:20-22; 6 ref.

Labuschagne TI; Pasques BP, 1994. Imported parasites of the mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis, and the effect of fenthion on the mango parasitoid, Aspidiotiphagus citrinus. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association, 14:75-77.

Longo S; Marotta S; Pellizzari G; Russo A; Tranfaglia A, 1995. An annotated list of the scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidea) of Italy. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:113-130.

Pena JE; Mohyuddin AI; Wysoki M, 1997. The current mango pests management in the tropics and subtropics. Acta Horticulturae, No. 455:812-820; 3 pp. of ref.

Porcelli F, 1990. New Italian scales. Frustula Entomologica, 13(26):31-38

Potenza MR; Sato ME; Raga A; Filho MFdeS, 1993. Chemical control of Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Hemiptera, Diaspididae) in mango orchards (mangifera indica L.). Revista de Agricultura (Piracicaba), 68(3):315-322; 15 ref.

Schoeman AS, 1987. First record of a parasitoid of the mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 50(1):259

Schoeman S, 1994. Mass rearing and releases of the effective scale predator Chilocorus nigritus. Inligtingsbulletin - Instituut vir Tropiese en Subtropiese Gewasse, No. 262:15

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

Silva AGA; Gontalves CR; Galvpo DM; Gontalves AGL; Gomes J; Silva MN; Simoni L, 1968. Quarto catálogo dos insetos que vivem nas plantas do Brasil. Parte II, Tomo 1: Insetos, hospedeiros, inimigos naturais. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: MinistTrio da Agricultura, 622 pp.

Takagi S, 1970. Diaspididae of Taiwan based on material collected in connection with the Japan-U.S. Co-operative Science Programme, 1965. (Homoptera:Coccoidae). Part II. Insecta Matsumurana, 33(1):146 pp.

Takagi S; Faveri Sde, 2009. Notes on scale insects of Aulacaspis associated with mangroves and cycads (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Insecta Matsumurana, No.65:101-129.

Tao C, 1999. List of Coccoidea (Homoptera) of China. Taichung, Taiwan: Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wufeng, 1-176.

Verma SP; Dinabandhoo CL, 2005. Armoured scales (Homoptera: Diaspididae) associated with temperate and subtropical fruit trees in Himachal Pradesh. Acta Horticulturae, 696:423-426.

Viljoen H, 1986. Natural enemies of mango scale. Information Bulletin, Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute, South Africa, No. 164:8-9

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Williams DJ, 1961. Changes in nomenclature affecting some Coccoidea (Homoptera). Entomologists Monthly Magazine 97:92-93.

Williams DJ; Watson GW, 1988. The Scale Insects of the Tropical South Pacific Region. Part 1. The Armoured Scales (Diaspididae). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Williams JR; Williams DJ, 1988. Homoptera of the Mascarene Islands - an annotated catalogue. Entomology Memoir, Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Republic of South Africa, No. 72, 98 pp.

Distribution Maps

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