Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Aulacaspis tubercularis
(mango scale)

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Datasheet

Aulacaspis tubercularis (mango scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aulacaspis tubercularis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • mango scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleA. tubercularis
Caption
Copyright©Natural History Museum, London
A. tubercularis©Natural History Museum, London

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead

Preferred Common Name

  • mango scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Aulacaspis cinnamomi Newstead
  • Aulacaspis cinnamomi mangiferae Newstead
  • Aulacaspis mangiferae MacGillivray
  • Diapis mangiferae (Newstead) Ramakrishna Ayyar
  • Diaspis cinnamomi
  • Diaspis cinnamomi-mangiferae (Newstead)
  • Diaspis tubercularis (Newstead)

International Common Names

  • English: white mango scale
  • Spanish: escama blanca del mango

Local Common Names

  • South Africa: mangodopluis

EPPO code

  • AULSCI (Aulacaspis cinnamomi)
  • AULSTU (Aulacaspis tubercularis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Diaspididae
  •                                     Genus: Aulacaspis
  •                                         Species: Aulacaspis tubercularis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentUK, CAB International (1993); EPPO (2020)
Côte d'IvoirePresentUK, CAB International (1993)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
GambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
GhanaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1993); EPPO (2020)
LiberiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
MadagascarPresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Williams and Williams (1988)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1993); EPPO (2020)
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1993)
RéunionPresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Williams and Williams (1988)
SeychellesPresentEPPO (2020)
Sierra LeonePresentUK, CAB International (1993)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1993); EPPO (2020)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-Zanzibar IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
TogoPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1993)

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a); EPPO (2020)Present based on regional distribution.
Hong KongPresentNHM (1992); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-BiharPresentNHM (1989)
-GujaratPresentNHM (1983)
-Himachal PradeshPresentVerma and Dinabandhoo (2005)
-KarnatakaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-KeralaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-SikkimPresentNHM (Undated)
-Uttar PradeshPresentNHM (1975)
-West BengalPresentNHM (1956)
IndonesiaPresentEPPO (2020); Takagi and Faveri (2009)
-JavaPresentUK, CAB International (1993); EPPO (2020)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
IsraelPresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998)
JapanPresentDanzig and Pellizzari (1998)
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
-SarawakPresentNHM (1978); UK, CAB International (1993)
MyanmarPresentEPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
PhilippinesPresentTakagi and Faveri (2009)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
ThailandPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Williams and Williams (1988)
VietnamPresentWaterhouse (1993)

Europe

ItalyPresentPorcelli (1990)
PortugalPresentEPPO (2020)
-MadeiraPresentEPPO (2020)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
ArubaPresentSchotman (1989)
BarbadosPresentUK, CAB International (1993); CABI (Undated)
British Virgin IslandsPresentSchotman (1989)
Dominican RepublicPresentUK, CAB International (1993); CABI (Undated)
GrenadaPresentSchotman (1989)
GuadeloupePresentEPPO (2020)
JamaicaPresentSchotman (1989)
MartiniquePresentSchotman (1989); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentNoriega-Cantú et al. (2017); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
Saint LuciaPresentSchotman (1989)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1993); CABI (Undated)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedHicks (2017); EPPO (2020)First recorded in Florida in 2002.
-FloridaPresent, Few occurrencesHicks (2017); EPPO (2020)Few occurrences in the southern part of the state

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCSIRO (2001)
New CaledoniaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
VanuatuPresentUK, CAB International (1993)

South America

ArgentinaPresentAmún et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)via alert from PestLens newsletter.
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-GoiasPresentClaps et al. (2001)
-Minas GeraisPresentClaps et al. (2001)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentClaps et al. (2001)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentClaps et al. (2001)
-Sao PauloPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
ColombiaPresentUK, CAB International (1993); CABI (Undated)
GuyanaPresentUK, CAB International (1993)
SurinamePresentUK, CAB International (1993)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1993); CABI (Undated)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal colours
Stems / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aleurodothrips fasciapennis Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae
Aphytis Parasite Adults/Larvae
Aphytis hispanicus Parasite
Aphytis lingnanensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs India; Tamil Nadu; Karnataka mangoes
Aphytis mytilaspidis Parasite Adults/Larvae
Arrhenophagus chionaspidis Parasite India mangoes
Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae
Cybocephalus binotatus Predator South Africa
Encarsia citrina Parasite Adults/Larvae
Encarsia fasciata Parasite
Pharoscymnus horni Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pteroptrix koebelei Parasite Adults/Nymphs India mangoes
Rhyzobius lophanthae Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae South Africa mangoes
Rhyzobius pulchellus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs
Sukunahikona prapawan Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs

References

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Amún C, Claps LE, Bottero MAS, 2012. First record of Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) from Argentina. Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina, 71(3-4):289-291. http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0373-56802012000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es

Brooks WH, 1992. The control of mango scale. Oil timing and chemical scale control results. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association, 12:45-47; 2 ref

Burger HC, Ulenberg SA, 1990. Quarantine problems and procedures. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 4B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 313-327

Chazeau J, 1979. Sukunahikona prapawan, a new species of Coccinellidae from Melanesia. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France, 84(5/6):117-121

Claps LE, Wolff VRS, González RH, 2001. Catálogo de las Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) exóticas de la Argentina, Brasil y Chile. Revista de la Socieded Entomológica Argentina, 60:9-34

Cochereau P, 1969. Biological control of Aspidiotus destructor Signoret (Homoptera, Diaspinae) on the island of Vate (New Hebrides) by means of Rhizobius pulchellus Montrouzier (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). Cahiers ORSTOM, Serie Biologie, 8:57-100

Colyn J, 1993. The South African mango industry. Acta Horticulturae, No. 341:60-68

CSIRO, 2001. World Wide Web page at http://www.ento.csiro.au/aicn

Cunningham I, 1989. Mango Pests and Disorders. Department of Primary Industries, Queensland Government, Information Series Q, 189007:10-11

Danzig EM, Pellizzari G, 1998. Diaspididae. In: Kozßr F, ed. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coccoidea. Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Budapest, Hungary: Akaprint Nyomdaipari Kft., 172-370

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Gallardo-Covas F, 1983. Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) susceptibility to Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 67(2):179

Halteren P van, 1970. Notes on the biology of the scale insect Aulacaspis mangiferae Newst. (Diaspididae, Hemiptera) on mango. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science, 3:83-85

Hicks, C. B., 2017. Raleigh, USA, USDA-APHIS.7 pp.

IIE, 1993. Distribution Maps of Pests. Series A, No. 540. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Labuschagne TI, Froneman IJ, 1992. Potential for the integrated control of the mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association, 12:20-22; 6 ref

Labuschagne TI, Pasques BP, 1994. Imported parasites of the mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis, and the effect of fenthion on the mango parasitoid, Aspidiotiphagus citrinus. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association, 14:75-77

Longo S, Marotta S, Pellizzari G, Russo A, Tranfaglia A, 1995. An annotated list of the scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidea) of Italy. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:113-130

Noriega-Cantú, D. H., Urías-López, M. A., López-Guillén, G., González Acuña, I., Álvarez Bravo, A., 2017. Diagnosis of the current situation of white mango flake. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas, 8(8), 1839-1850. http://www.scielo.org.mx/pdf/remexca/v8n8/2007-0934-remexca-8-08-1827-en.pdf

Pena JE, Mohyuddin AI, Wysoki M, 1997. The current mango pests management in the tropics and subtropics. Acta Horticulturae, No. 455:812-820; 3 pp. of ref

Porcelli F, 1990. New Italian scales. Frustula Entomologica, 13(26):31-38

Potenza MR, Sato ME, Raga A, Filho MFdeS, 1993. Chemical control of Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Hemiptera, Diaspididae) in mango orchards (mangifera indica L.). Revista de Agricultura (Piracicaba), 68(3):315-322; 15 ref

Schoeman AS, 1987. First record of a parasitoid of the mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 50(1):259

Schoeman S, 1994. Mass rearing and releases of the effective scale predator Chilocorus nigritus. Inligtingsbulletin - Instituut vir Tropiese en Subtropiese Gewasse, No. 262:15

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp

Silva AGA, Gontalves CR, Galvpo DM, Gontalves AGL, Gomes J, Silva MN, Simoni L, 1968. Quarto catálogo dos insetos que vivem nas plantas do Brasil. Parte II, Tomo 1: Insetos, hospedeiros, inimigos naturais. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: MinistTrio da Agricultura, 622 pp

Takagi S, 1970. Diaspididae of Taiwan based on material collected in connection with the Japan-U.S. Co-operative Science Programme, 1965. (Homoptera:Coccoidae). Part II. Insecta Matsumurana, 33(1):146 pp

Takagi S, Faveri Sde, 2009. Notes on scale insects of Aulacaspis associated with mangroves and cycads (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Insecta Matsumurana, No.65:101-129

Tao C, 1999. List of Coccoidea (Homoptera) of China. Taichung, Taiwan: Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wufeng, 1-176

Verma SP, Dinabandhoo CL, 2005. Armoured scales (Homoptera: Diaspididae) associated with temperate and subtropical fruit trees in Himachal Pradesh. Acta Horticulturae, 696:423-426. http://www.actahort.org

Viljoen H, 1986. Natural enemies of mango scale. Information Bulletin, Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute, South Africa, No. 164:8-9

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp

Williams DJ, 1961. Changes in nomenclature affecting some Coccoidea (Homoptera). Entomologists Monthly Magazine 97:92-93

Williams DJ, Watson GW, 1988. The Scale Insects of the Tropical South Pacific Region. Part 1. The Armoured Scales (Diaspididae). Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Williams JR, Williams DJ, 1988. Homoptera of the Mascarene Islands - an annotated catalogue. Entomology Memoir, Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Republic of South Africa, No. 72, 98 pp

Distribution References

Amún C, Claps LE, Bottero MAS, 2012. First record of Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) from Argentina. In: Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina, 71 (3-4) 289-291. http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0373-56802012000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Claps LE, Wolff VRS, González RH, 2001. Catalogue of the exotic species of Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from Argentina, Brazil and Chile. (Catálogo de las Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) exóticas de la Argentina)., 60 9-34.

CSIRO, 2001. World Wide Web., http://www.ento.csiro.au/aicn

Danzig EM, Pellizzari G, 1998. Diaspididae. In: Catalogue of Palaearctic Coccoidea, [ed. by Kozßr F]. Budapest, Hungary: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Akaprint Nyomdaipari Kft. 172-370.

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Hicks CB, 2017. Distribution of Aulacaspis tubercularis in the United States., 7 pp.

NHM, 1956. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1975. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1978. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1983. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1989. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1992. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Noriega-Cantú D H, Urías-López M A, López-Guillén G, González Acuña I, Álvarez Bravo A, 2017. Diagnosis of the current situation of white mango flake. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas. 8 (8), 1839-1850. http://www.scielo.org.mx/pdf/remexca/v8n8/2007-0934-remexca-8-08-1827-en.pdf

Porcelli F, 1990. New Italian scales. (Cocciniglie nuove per l'Italia.). Frustula Entomologica. 13 (26), 31-38.

Schotman C Y L, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. In: RLAC-PROVEG, 80 pp.

Takagi S, Faveri S de, 2009. Notes on scale insects of Aulacaspis associated with mangroves and cycads (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Insecta Matsumurana. 101-129.

UK, CAB International, 1993. Aulacaspis tubercularis. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 540.

Verma S P, Dinabandhoo C L, 2005. Armoured scales (Homoptera: Diaspididae) associated with temperate and subtropical fruit trees in Himachal Pradesh. Acta Horticulturae. 423-426. http://www.actahort.org

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Distribution Maps

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