Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Aulacaspis tubercularis
(mango scale)

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Datasheet

Aulacaspis tubercularis (mango scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aulacaspis tubercularis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • mango scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleA. tubercularis
Caption
Copyright©Natural History Museum, London
A. tubercularis©Natural History Museum, London

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead

Preferred Common Name

  • mango scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Aulacaspis cinnamomi Newstead
  • Aulacaspis cinnamomi mangiferae Newstead
  • Aulacaspis mangiferae MacGillivray
  • Diapis mangiferae (Newstead) Ramakrishna Ayyar
  • Diaspis cinnamomi
  • Diaspis cinnamomi-mangiferae (Newstead)
  • Diaspis tubercularis (Newstead)

International Common Names

  • English: white mango scale
  • Spanish: escama blanca del mango

Local Common Names

  • South Africa: mangodopluis

EPPO code

  • AULSCI (Aulacaspis cinnamomi)
  • AULSTU (Aulacaspis tubercularis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Diaspididae
  •                                     Genus: Aulacaspis
  •                                         Species: Aulacaspis tubercularis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent, Localized
GambiaPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
LiberiaPresent
MadagascarPresentOriginal citation: Williams and Williams (1988)
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresent
RéunionPresentOriginal citation: Williams and Williams (1988)
SeychellesPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
South AfricaPresent
TanzaniaPresent
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

IndonesiaPresent
-BorneoPresent
-JavaPresent
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GuangdongPresent
-HainanPresent
-SichuanPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-BiharPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresentOriginal citation: Williams and Williams (1988)
VietnamPresent

Europe

ItalyPresent
-SicilyPresent
PortugalPresent, Localized
-MadeiraPresent
SpainPresent, LocalizedSouth.
-Canary IslandsPresentLa Gomera.

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
ArubaPresent
BarbadosPresent
BermudaPresent
British Virgin IslandsPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresentSan Salvador.
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
HaitiPresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent
United StatesPresent, LocalizedFirst recorded in Florida in 2002.
-FloridaPresent, Few occurrencesFew occurrences in the southern part of the state

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-QueenslandPresent
New CaledoniaPresent, Localized
Papua New GuineaPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresentvia alert from PestLens newsletter.
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Espirito SantoPresent
-GoiasPresent
-MaranhaoPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
GuyanaPresent
SurinamePresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal colours
Stems / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aleurodothrips fasciapennis Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae
Aphytis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Larvae
Aphytis hispanicus Parasite
Aphytis lingnanensis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs India; Tamil Nadu; Karnataka mangoes
Aphytis mytilaspidis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Larvae
Arrhenophagus chionaspidis Parasite India mangoes
Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae
Cybocephalus binotatus Predator South Africa
Encarsia citrina Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Larvae
Encarsia fasciata Parasite
Pharoscymnus horni Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pteroptrix koebelei Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs India mangoes
Rhyzobius lophanthae Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Nymphs; Arthropods|Pupae South Africa mangoes
Rhyzobius pulchellus Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Nymphs
Sukunahikona prapawan Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Nymphs

References

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Amún C, Claps LE, Bottero MAS, 2012. First record of Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) from Argentina. Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina, 71(3-4):289-291. http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0373-56802012000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es

Anon, 1982. List of intercepted plant pests: fiscal years 1980 and 1981. In: APHIS , (No.82-8) . Hyatsville, Md, USA: USDA.vi + 476 pp.

Ayalew, G., Fekadu, A., Sisay, B., 2015. Appearance and Chemical Control of White Mango Scale (Aulacaspis tubercularis) in Central Rift Valley. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal, 4(2), 59-63. doi: 10.4314/star.v4i2.8

Brooks WH, 1992. The control of mango scale. Oil timing and chemical scale control results. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association, 12:45-47; 2 ref

Brown, S. W., 1965. Chromosomal Survey of the Armored-and Palm Scale Insects (Coccoidea: Diaspididae and Phoenicococcidae) . Hilgardia, 36(5), 189-294. doi: 10.3733/hilg.v36n05p189

Burger HC, Ulenberg SA, 1990. Quarantine problems and procedures. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 4B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 313-327

Chazeau J, 1979. Sukunahikona prapawan, a new species of Coccinellidae from Melanesia. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France, 84(5/6):117-121

Claps LE, Wolff VRS, González RH, 2001. Catálogo de las Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) exóticas de la Argentina, Brasil y Chile. Revista de la Socieded Entomológica Argentina, 60:9-34

Cochereau P, 1969. Biological control of Aspidiotus destructor Signoret (Homoptera, Diaspinae) on the island of Vate (New Hebrides) by means of Rhizobius pulchellus Montrouzier (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae). Cahiers ORSTOM, Serie Biologie, 8:57-100

Colyn J, 1993. The South African mango industry. Acta Horticulturae, No. 341:60-68

CSIRO, 2001. World Wide Web page at http://www.ento.csiro.au/aicn

Cunningham I, 1989. Mango Pests and Disorders. Department of Primary Industries, Queensland Government, Information Series Q, 189007:10-11

Cunningham, I. C., 1991. Common Mango Scales in Queensland. Acta Horticulturae, 291, 409-412. doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1991.291.46

Danzig EM, Pellizzari G, 1998. Diaspididae. In: Kozßr F, ed. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coccoidea. Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Budapest, Hungary: Akaprint Nyomdaipari Kft., 172-370

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Erichson, C., Schoeman, A., 1992. Economic losses due to insect pests on avocado fruit in the Nelspruit/Hazyview region of South Africa during 1991. Yearbook - South African Avocado Growers' Association, 15, 49-54.

Evans, G. A., Watson, G. W., Miller, D. R., 2009. A new species of armored scale (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) found on avocado fruit from Mexico and a key to the species of armored scales found on avocado worldwide. Zootaxa, 57-68. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.185547

Ferreira, G. A., Veloso, V. da R. S., Naves, R. V., Nascimento, J. L. do, Chaves, L. J., 2009. Biodiversity of insect in Pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense, Camb.) at cerrado of Goiás State, Brazil. (Biodiversidade de insetos em Pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense, Camb.) no cerrado do Estado de Goiás, Brasil). Agrociencia (Montevideo), 13(2), 14-31.

Gallardo-Covas F, 1983. Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) susceptibility to Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 67(2):179

Halteren P van, 1970. Notes on the biology of the scale insect Aulacaspis mangiferae Newst. (Diaspididae, Hemiptera) on mango. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science, 3:83-85

Halteren, P. Van., 1970. Notes on the biology of the scale insect Aulacaspis mangiferae Newst. (Diaspididae, Hemiptera) on mango. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science, 3(2), 83-85.

Hassan, N. A., Radwan, S. G., Ammar, A. E. E., El-Sahn, O. M. N., 2013. Effect of alternative insecticides sprayed with two flow rates against some scale insects on mango trees by using conventional motor sprayer at Qalubyia governorate, Egypt. In: Proceedings of the International Conference of Environmental Sciences (ICES), Ain Shamas University, Cairo, Egypt, 21-22 May 2013 [Proceedings of the International Conference of Environmental Sciences (ICES), Ain Shamas University, Cairo, Egypt, 21-22 May 2013], Cairo, Egypt: Massive Conferences and Trade Fairs. 62-79.

Hicks, C. B., 2017. Raleigh, USA, USDA-APHIS.7 pp.

Hodges, A. C., Hodges, G. S., Wisler, G. C., 2005. Exotic scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) and whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Florida's tropical fruits: an example of the vital role of early detection in pest prevention and management. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 118, 215-217. http://journals.fcla.edu/fshs/article/view/86003/82919

Hodges, G., Hamon, A., 2016. Pest Alert: White mango scale Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Coccoidea: Diaspididae). In: Pest Alert , USA: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,Division of Plant Industry.https://www.fdacs.gov/content/download/67879/file/Pest%20Alert%20-%20%20Aulacaspis%20tubercularis,%20White%20Mango%20Scale.pdf

IIE, 1993. Distribution Maps of Pests. Series A, No. 540. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Labuschagne TI, Froneman IJ, 1992. Potential for the integrated control of the mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association, 12:20-22; 6 ref

Labuschagne TI, Pasques BP, 1994. Imported parasites of the mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis, and the effect of fenthion on the mango parasitoid, Aspidiotiphagus citrinus. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association, 14:75-77

Longo S, Marotta S, Pellizzari G, Russo A, Tranfaglia A, 1995. An annotated list of the scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidea) of Italy. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:113-130

Martin, J. H., Lau, C. S. K., 2011. The Hemiptera-Sternorrhyncha (Insecta) of Hong Kong, China - an annotated inventory citing voucher specimens and published records. Zootaxa, 2847, 1-122. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2011/f/z02847p122f.pdf

Mohyuddin, A. I., Mahmood, R., 1993. Integrated Control of Mango Pests in Pakistan. Acta Horticulturae 341, 341, 467-483. doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1993.341.51

Munting, J., 1977. On the genera Aulacaspis, Duplachionaspis and Ledaspis from Southern Africa (Homoptera: Diaspididae). Entomology Memoir, Department of Agricultural Technical Services, South Africa, (No. 46), [2+] 34 pp.

Noriega-Cantú, D. H., Urías-López, M. A., López-Guillén, G., González Acuña, I., Álvarez Bravo, A., 2017. Diagnosis of the current situation of white mango flake. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas, 8(8), 1839-1850. http://www.scielo.org.mx/pdf/remexca/v8n8/2007-0934-remexca-8-08-1827-en.pdf

Pena JE, Mohyuddin AI, Wysoki M, 1997. The current mango pests management in the tropics and subtropics. Acta Horticulturae, No. 455:812-820; 3 pp. of ref

Porcelli F, 1990. New Italian scales. Frustula Entomologica, 13(26):31-38

Potenza MR, Sato ME, Raga A, Filho MFdeS, 1993. Chemical control of Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Hemiptera, Diaspididae) in mango orchards (mangifera indica L.). Revista de Agricultura (Piracicaba), 68(3):315-322; 15 ref

Ramos, A. S. de J. C., Lemos, R. N. S. de, Costa, V. A., Peronti, A. L. B. G., Silva, E. A. da, Mondego, J. M., Moreira, A. A., 2018. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in tropical fruit trees in the eastern Amazon, Brazil. Florida Entomologist, 101(2), 273-278. doi: 10.1653/024.101.0219

Schoeman AS, 1987. First record of a parasitoid of the mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 50(1):259

Schoeman S, 1994. Mass rearing and releases of the effective scale predator Chilocorus nigritus. Inligtingsbulletin - Instituut vir Tropiese en Subtropiese Gewasse, No. 262:15

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp

Silva AGA, Gontalves CR, Galvpo DM, Gontalves AGL, Gomes J, Silva MN, Simoni L, 1968. Quarto catálogo dos insetos que vivem nas plantas do Brasil. Parte II, Tomo 1: Insetos, hospedeiros, inimigos naturais. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: MinistTrio da Agricultura, 622 pp

Soysouvanh, P., Hong, K.-J., 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on mango in Laos. Khon Kaen Agricultural Journal, 44, 87-92. https://ag2.kku.ac.th/kaj/pub/O015%20Ent07.pdf

Takagi S, 1970. Diaspididae of Taiwan based on material collected in connection with the Japan-U.S. Co-operative Science Programme, 1965. (Homoptera:Coccoidae). Part II. Insecta Matsumurana, 33(1):146 pp

Takagi S, Faveri Sde, 2009. Notes on scale insects of Aulacaspis associated with mangroves and cycads (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Insecta Matsumurana, No.65:101-129

Takagi, S., 2010. The tubercularis species group of aulacaspis (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Diaspididae). Insecta Matsumurana, (No.66), 57-114.

Tao C, 1999. List of Coccoidea (Homoptera) of China. Taichung, Taiwan: Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wufeng, 1-176

Verma SP, Dinabandhoo CL, 2005. Armoured scales (Homoptera: Diaspididae) associated with temperate and subtropical fruit trees in Himachal Pradesh. Acta Horticulturae, 696:423-426. http://www.actahort.org

Viljoen H, 1986. Natural enemies of mango scale. Information Bulletin, Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute, South Africa, No. 164:8-9

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp

Williams DJ, 1961. Changes in nomenclature affecting some Coccoidea (Homoptera). Entomologists Monthly Magazine 97:92-93

Williams DJ, Watson GW, 1988. The Scale Insects of the Tropical South Pacific Region. Part 1. The Armoured Scales (Diaspididae). Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Williams JR, Williams DJ, 1988. Homoptera of the Mascarene Islands - an annotated catalogue. Entomology Memoir, Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Republic of South Africa, No. 72, 98 pp

Williams, D. J., Miller, D. R., 2010. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of the Krakatau Islands including species from adjacent Java. Zootaxa, 2451, 43-52. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/

Distribution References

Abo-Shanab A S H, 2012. Suppression of white mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on mango trees in El-Beheira Governorate, Egypt. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences: Entomology. 5 (3), 43-50. http://entomology.eajbs.eg.net/pdf/vol5-num3/6.pdf

Almeida D M de, 1972. Pests of mango. (Pragas da mangueira.). Gazeta do Agricultor. 24 (272), 2-5.

Amún C, Claps LE, Bottero MAS, 2012. First record of Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) from Argentina. In: Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina, 71 (3-4) 289-291. http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0373-56802012000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es

Anon, 1974. Relations between the parasite-predator complex and the host-plants of scale insects in Pakistan. In: Miscellaneous Publication, Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, [3+] 92 pp.

Arteaga Santos AL, Lorenzo CD, Aydin G, 2003. Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Cocoidea: Diaspididae), a new pest in mango crops (Mangifera indica L.) at La Gomera Island, Canary Islands [Spain]. Phytoma España. 40-46.

Ayalew G, Fekadu A, Sisay B, 2015. Appearance and Chemical Control of White Mango Scale (Aulacaspis tubercularis) in Central Rift Valley. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. 4 (2), 59-63. DOI:10.4314/star.v4i2.8

Bakr RF A, Badawy RM, Mousa S F, Hamooda L S, Atteia S A, 2009. Ecological and taxonomic studies on the scale insects that infest mango trees at Qaliobiya governorate. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences. 2 (2), 69-89. DOI:10.21608/EAJBSA.2009.15430

Bokonon-Ganta A H, Neuenschwander P, 1995. Impact of the biological control agent Gyranusoidea tebygi Noyes (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) on the mango mealybug, Rastrococcus invadens Williams (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), in Benin. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 5 (1), 95-107. DOI:10.1080/09583159550040042

Bokonon-Ganta A H, Neuenschwander P, de Groote, 2003. Biological Control of the Mango Mealybug, Rastrococcus Invadens (Homoptera: Pseudococciae) in Africa. [1st International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods], 437-443. https://www.nhm.ac.uk/resources/research-curation/projects/chalcidoids/pdf_X/BokonoNeGr2002.pdf

Borges P A V, Abreu C, Aguiar A M F, Carvalho P, Jardim R, Melo I, Oliveira P, Sérgio C, Serrano A R M, Vieira P, 2008. Listagem dos fungos, flora e fauna terrestres dos arquipélagos de Madeira e Selvagens. [ed. by Borges P A V, Abreu C, Aguiar A M F, Carvalho P, Jardim R, Melo I, Oliveira P, Sérgio C, Serrano A R M, Vieira P]. Funchal, Madeira: Direcção Regional do Ambiente da Madeira and Universidade dos Açores, Funchal and Angra do Heroismo. 440 pp.

Brown S W, 1965. Chromosomal Survey of the Armored-and Palm Scale Insects (Coccoidea: Diaspididae and Phoenicococcidae) . Hilgardia. 36 (5), 189-294. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v36n05p189

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chazeau J, 1979. Sukunahikona prapawan, a new species of Coccinellidae from Melanesia. (Sukunahikona prapawan, nouvelle espece de Coccinellidae de Melanesie.). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France. 84 (5/6), 117-121.

Claps LE, Wolff VRS, González RH, 2001. Catalogue of the exotic species of Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from Argentina, Brazil and Chile. (Catálogo de las Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) exóticas de la Argentina)., 60 9-34.

Cristian A, Claps LE, Saracho Bottero MA, 2012. First record of Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) from Argentina. (Primer registro de Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) en la Argentina). Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina. 71 (3-4), 289-291. http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0373-56802012000200012&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es

CSIRO, 2001. World Wide Web., http://www.ento.csiro.au/aicn

Culik M P, Martins D S, Ventura J A, Wolff V S, 2008. Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Journal of Insect Science (Tucson). 17. DOI:10.1673/031.008.1701

Cunningham I C, 1991. Common Mango Scales in Queensland. Acta Horticulturae. 409-412. DOI:10.17660/ActaHortic.1991.291.46

Danzig EM, Pellizzari G, 1998. Diaspididae. In: Catalogue of Palaearctic Coccoidea, [ed. by Kozßr F]. Budapest, Hungary: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Akaprint Nyomdaipari Kft. 172-370.

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Erichson C, Schoeman A, 1992. Economic losses due to insect pests on avocado fruit in the Nelspruit/Hazyview region of South Africa during 1991. Yearbook - South African Avocado Growers' Association. 49-54.

Ferreira G A, Veloso V da R S, Naves R V, Nascimento J L do, Chaves L J, 2009. Biodiversity of insect in Pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense, Camb.) at cerrado of Goiás State, Brazil. (Biodiversidade de insetos em Pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense, Camb.) no cerrado do Estado de Goiás, Brasil.). Agrociencia (Montevideo). 13 (2), 14-31.

Fita T, 2014. White Mango Scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis, Distribution and Severity Status in East and West Wollega Zones, Western Ethiopia. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. 3 (3), 1-10. DOI:10.4314/star.v3i3.1

Gallardo-Covas F, 1983. Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) susceptibility to Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico. 67 (2), 179.

García-Álvarez N C, Urías-López M A, Hernández-Fentes L M, González-Carrillo J A, Pérez-Barraza M H, Osuna-García J A, 2014. Distribution of the White mango scale Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Nayarit, Mexico. (Distribución de la escama blanca del mango Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) en Nayarit, México). Acta Zoologica Mexicana. 30 (2), 321-336. http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0065-17372014000200005

Germain JF, Attié M, Barbet A, Franck A, Quilici S, 2007. New scale insects recorded for the Comoros and Seychelles Islands. In: Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September, 2007. 129-135. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jean-Francois_Germain/publication/233990603_New_scale_insects_for_the_Comoros_and_Seychelles_Islands/links/0912f50dd6738c1bd6000000/New-scale-insects-for-the-Comoros-and-Seychelles-Islands.pdf

Germain J-F, Attie M, Barbet A, Franck A, Quilici S, 2008. New scale insects recorded for the Comoros and Seychelles Islands. [Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies], USA: ISA Press. 129-135. http://agritrop.cirad.fr/550988/1/document_550988.pdf

Germain JF, Minatchy J, Pastou D, Bagny P, Mérion S, Pallas R, Quilici S, Matile-Ferrero D, 2014. An Updated Checklist of the Scale Insects from Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). In: Acta Zoologica Bulgarica Supplement, 6 21-27.

Germain JF, Vayssieres JF, Matile-Ferrero D, 2010. Preliminary inventory of scale insects on mango trees in Benin. In: Entomologia Hellenica, 19 124-131.

Gonzalez RH, 2016. Insectos Coccoideos plagas de cultivos frutales en Chile., Santiago de Chile, Chile: Editorial Universitaria, S.A. 335 pp.

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