Homarus americanus (American lobster)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Natural Food Sources
- Water Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Homarus americanus Milne Edwards, 1887
Preferred Common Name
- American lobster
Other Scientific Names
- Astacus americanus Stebbing, 1893
- Astacus marinus Say, 1817
- Homarus mainensis Berrill, 1956
International Common Names
- English: blackshell; blueshells; buckle shell; Canadian lobster; crack backer; hard shell lobster; Maine lobster; Massach Maine lobster; new shell; northern Atlantic lobster; northern lobster; old shell lobster; shedder; softshell
- Spanish: bogavante Americano
- French: homard Americain; homard Americano
Local Common Names
- Denmark: Amerikansk hummer
- Norway: Amerikansk hummer
- Sweden: Amerikansk hummer
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
H. americanus is a long-lived, omnivorous lobster than can tolerate a wide temperature range. The species is a large-sized benthic organism, with a short-lasting planktonic larval stage. The North American stock is known to migrate seasonally, sometimes over great distances, but not outside its normal range. The larvae hatch close to the shore. The production cycle takes two years. Multiple clutches are produced after one incubation.
Due the high market value, several attempts at transplanting this species have been conducted, but with no apparent luck. All these transplants were in regions without native homarid lobster species. Live export internationally is the major vector for distribution of this species today. It has been recorded in European waters since 1999, in the range of the locally endangered European lobsters. In 2010 introduced lobsters with epizootoic shell disease as well as carrying hybrid offspring were detected in Norwegian waters. No ecological impacts have been seen, but spread of disease to native lobsters is recognized as the highest threat factor.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Crustacea
- Class: Malacostraca
- Subclass: Eumalacostraca
- Order: Decapoda
- Suborder: Reptantia
- Unknown: Nephropoidea
- Family: Nephropidae
- Genus: Homarus
- Species: Homarus americanus
DescriptionTop of page
The colour of H. americanus varies from individual to individual. Most are olive green or greenish brown, and attributed to diet, heredity and exposure to light; red, albino and even blue specimens have, however, been observed. They may also have orange, reddish, dark green or black speckles, and a bluish tinge at the joints. H. americanus can achieve a maximum body length of 64 cm, but is usually around 25 cm or less. This species is one of the largest decapod species known as far as body length is concerned. The largest male on record weighed 19.25 kg and was 63.4 cm long while the heaviest female weighed 8.35 kg. H. americanus can only increase its size by moulting periodically. Age at first maturity is about 3-4 years with a body weight of 200-700 g. The first of the five pairs of walking legs is asymmetrical and modified to form the large crusher claw and the small, cutter or seizer claw. Six pairs of swimmerets or pleopods, the last pair enlarged to form the tail fan, can be found under the abdomen. The shield-like shell covering the main part of the lobster's body is known as the carapace. H. americanus has compound eyes mounted on movable stalks. Males have sharp spines under the abdomen; female spines are blunt. The male's abdomen is also narrower than the width of the carapace; in the female these are about equal or larger. See Williams (1995) and Holthuis (1991) for full description. The two long antennae are touch and pressure sensitive while the pair of branched, shorter antennules are the lobster’s ’nose‘. Olfaction is the most sensitive perception in lobsters and important part of their ability to socialize, navigate and search for food (Atema and Voight, 1995).
Although colouration, morphology and body proportions usually are slightly different between the American and European lobster (Homarus gammarus) (Holthuis, 1991), the variations within each species are substantial. It is hard to tell the difference with certainty. In Norway, Sweden and Denmark, DNA analysis is required before species conclusion can be made (Jørstad et al., 2006).
DistributionTop of page
H. americanus is native to the northwest Atlantic coast from North Carolina to Labrador. It is abundant off Maine, southwest Nova Scotia, and the Gulf of St Lawrence coastline of the Maritimes. Introductions for aquaculture have been made to the west coasts of the USA and Canada, North Sea coast of Europe, to Italy and Japan.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Japan||Present, Only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||Grown for possible sea ranching; Original citation: Kittaka (1984)|
|-Honshu||Present, Localized||1984||Introduced||Original citation: Kittaka (1984)|
|Denmark||Present, Few occurrences||2006||Introduced||One specimen found in December 2006|
|Iceland||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Found twice 1960-1965; Original citation: van der Meeren et al. (2010)|
|Norway||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||2010||24 specimens found|
|Sweden||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||2008||3 specimens found|
|United Kingdom||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||2011||26 specimens found|
|Canada||Present, Localized||Native||First recorded in 1970; Original citation: Holthuis (1991)|
|-British Columbia||Absent, Formerly present|
|-New Brunswick||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Holthuis (1991)|
|-Newfoundland and Labrador||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Holthuis (1991)|
|-Nova Scotia||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Holthuis (1991)|
|-Prince Edward Island||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Holthuis (1991)|
|-Quebec||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Holthuis (1991)|
|United States||Present, Localized||Native||Original citation: Holthuis (1991)|
|-Connecticut||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Holthuis (1991)|
|-Hawaii||Present||Introduced||Original citation: Nicosia and Lavalli (1999)|
|-Maine||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Holthuis (1991)|
|-Massachusetts||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Holthuis (1991)|
|-New Hampshire||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Holthuis (1991)|
|-New Jersey||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Holthuis (1991)|
|-New York||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Holthuis (1991)|
|-North Carolina||Present||Native||Original citation: Holthuis (1991)|
|-Rhode Island||Present, Widespread||Native||Original citation: Holthuis (1991)|
|-Washington||Present, Localized||Introduced||Original citation: Rathbun (1892)|
|Atlantic - Northeast||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced|
|Atlantic - Northwest||Present||Native|
|Pacific - Eastern Central||Absent, Formerly present|
|Pacific - Northwest||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)||Not reported since 1990|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
There have been attempts to transplant this species to the west coast of North America but success has been limited. Efforts to transplant lobsters to the Pacific Ocean date to 1873 and to 1889 for the states of California and Washington, respectively (Rathbun, 1892) but nothing resulted from these early attempts. In the early 1970s, California again attempted to develop an American lobster fishery along its coast. However, following concerns that H. americanus would displace Panulirus interruptus, release of wild American lobsters was not recommended. In Canada, transplantation of H. americanus to the east coast of Vancouver Island was attempted as early as 1896 and in 1905 and 1908 (Fraser, 1916); no information is available on the fate of these lobsters as there was no controlled observation following transplantation. In 1973, the Canadians discontinued a 6-year trial in which H. americanus was relocated to the waters off British Columbia. The decision to drop the project was attributed to economics.
There have also been attempts to introduce H. americanus to Japan, France and Italy. An attempt to introduce H. americanus into waters off Japan as early as 1915, was not successful. However, recent attempts (Kittaka et al., 1983; Kittaka, 1984) to transplant them appear to have been more successful, with H. americanus successfully reproducing in cages and in large pools. It was found breeding in local waters of Sanriku in the 1980s, but this has not been followed up by the Japanese fisheries (J Kittaka, Research Institute for Marine Biological Science, Hokkaido, Japan, personal communication, 2008). In France during the 1970s purebred H. americanus and hybrid H. americanus/H. gammarus were produced for release as genetically marked specimens to test whether release of juveniles could add to the native stock (Adouine andLeglise, 1972; Latrouite and Lorec, 1991). However, the release programme was stopped before the survival of these lobsters could be assessed (Agnalt et al., 1999).
H. americanus has occasionally been captured in Northern European waters (Jørstad et al., 2006; van der Meeren et al., 2010). The causes for most of the cases are not known. However, the morphological similarities between the European lobster and American lobster can confuse, and it is a common misbelief that these two are the same species. However, the origins of H. americanus recorded near Iceland (van der Meeren et al., 2010) and Denmark (Jørstad et al., 2007a) are not known.
In Norway escape from holding facilities has been recorded as the cause for at least two separate H. americanus populations, one in southern Norway, outside Kristiansand and one in Western Norway, outside Bergen (Jørstad et al., 2006). Certain identification of nineteen individuals in Norway was reported at the end of 2007 (AL Agnalt, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway, personal communication, 2008). Unconfirmed rumours suggest that at least one intentional release of H. americanus occurred in Oslo, Norway sometime around 1990, which possibly was the source for the first recordings in 1999 (van der Meeren et al., 2000). The first observation in Denmark was in December 2006 (Jørstad et al., 2007a).
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|California||USA||1873, 1970||Unknown||No||No||Ford and Krekorian (1973); Rathbun (1892)|
|Canada||Canada||1896, 1965||Aquaculture (pathway cause)||No||No||Fraser (1916); Ghelardi and Shoop (1972)||To Vancouver Island|
|Canada||Canada||1989||Aquaculture (pathway cause)||No||No||Boothroyd and Ennis (1992)||To Labrador|
|France||1972-1976||Aquaculture (pathway cause)||No||No||Latrouite and Lorec (1991)|
|Iceland||1960-1965||No||No||Jørstad et al. (2011); van der Meeren et al. (2010)|
|Italy||USA||Aquaculture (pathway cause)||Unknown||No||No||Wickins and Lee (2002); Wickins and Lee (2002)|
|Japan||USA||Aquaculture (pathway cause)||Unknown||Yes||No||Kittaka (1984); Kittaka (1990); Kittaka and et al. (1983)||Not reported after 1990|
|Norway||1990-2007||Live food or feed trade (pathway cause); Smuggling (pathway cause)||No||No||Jørstad et al. (2011); van der Meeren et al. (2000); van der Meeren et al. (2010)||From USA and/or Canada|
|Oceania||USA||Aquaculture (pathway cause)||No||No|
|UK||Europe||2011||No||No||Stebbing et al. (2012)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
H. americanus is exported live in huge quantities from northeastern America. This provides opportunities for both intentional and accidental releases in new regions. Even if berried females are protected in the fisheries, females spawning in the holding facilities are exported. Larvae hatched in holding facilities without barriers from the sea may drift into the sea in areas outside the species natural range. Adult H. americanus recently found in UK waters, may originate from either release experiments, escape from holding facilities or from unauthorized releases (Stebbing et al. 2012; Green et al., 2013). Landings of egg-carrying females are banned in Norway, but it is known that they can spawn in captivity after being captured. H. americanus females can even produce multiple clutches over at least the two years following one mating and can therefore be reproductive for some years even without the presence of a mate (Aiken and Waddy, 1995).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Other||Stored products||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Littoral||Coastal areas||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Coastal areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Littoral||Coastal areas||Principal habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Littoral||Mud flats||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Mud flats||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Littoral||Mud flats||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Littoral||Intertidal zone||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Intertidal zone||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Littoral||Intertidal zone||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Marine||Benthic zone||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Marine||Benthic zone||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Marine||Benthic zone||Principal habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Other||Vector||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Other||Vector||Present, no further details||Productive/non-natural|
Natural Food SourcesTop of page
|Food Source||Food Source Datasheet||Life Stage||Contribution to Total Food Intake (%)||Details|
|plant material||All Stages|
ClimateTop of page
|C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate||Preferred||Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C|
Water TolerancesTop of page
|Parameter||Minimum Value||Maximum Value||Typical Value||Status||Life Stage||Notes|
|Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l)||<0.014||Optimum||Adult|
|Depth (m b.s.l.)||1||50||Optimum||1->500 tolerated|
|Dissolved oxygen (mg/l)||6.4||Optimum||All Stages||>0.2-1.2 tolerated|
|Salinity (part per thousand)||<8.0||Harmful||Adult|
|Salinity (part per thousand)||30||31.5||Optimum||Larval|
|Salinity (part per thousand)||30||35||Optimum||All Stages||>8.0-14 tolerated|
|Water pH (pH)||7.8||8.2||Optimum||Adult|
|Water temperature (ºC temperature)||15||21||Optimum||Egg|
|Water temperature (ºC temperature)||18||23||Optimum||Adult||-1-30.5 tolerated|
|Water temperature (ºC temperature)||21||27||Optimum||Larval|
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Anguilla rostrata||Predator||Adult; Fry||Anonymous (1996)|
|Cancer pagurus||Predator||Adult; Fry||Anonymous (1996)|
|Dyspanopeus sayi||Predator||Adult; Fry; Larval||Barshaw and Lavalli (1988)|
|Gadus morhua||Predator||Adult; Fry||to species||Anonymous (1996); Brander (1994)|
|Tautogolabrus adspersus||Predator||Adult; Fry; Larval||Barshaw and Lavalli (1988)|
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Aquaculture||USA||Yes||Kittaka (1984); Kittaka (1990)|
|Escape from confinement or garden escape||Live export/import, Aquaculture||Yes||Jørstad et al. (2011); Stebbing et al. (2012); van der Meeren et al. (2010)|
|Intentional release||Yes||Kittaka (1984)|
|Live food or feed trade||Yes||Jørstad et al. (2011); Stebbing et al. (2012); van der Meeren et al. (2010)|
|Smuggling||USA, Canada to Europe||Yes||Jørstad et al. (2011); van der Meeren et al. (2010)|
Pathway VectorsTop of page
|Aircraft||Yes||van der Meeren et al. (2010)|
|Aquaculture stock||Yes||Kittaka (1984)|
|Consumables||Yes||Jørstad et al. (2011); Stebbing et al. (2012); van der Meeren et al. (2010)|
|Live seafood||Yes||Jørstad et al. (2011); van der Meeren et al. (2010)|
|Luggage||Yes||Jørstad et al. (2011); van der Meeren et al. (2010)|
Impact SummaryTop of page
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Some of the previously trapped and exhibited H. americanus in Norway developed symptoms similar to the destructive epizootic shell disease, which has caused major damage to local US lobster fisheries (van der Meeren 2007; Stevens, 2009). In 2010, two infected female H. americanus were trapped in Norwegian waters, and diagnosed with epizootic shell disease (Hauge, 2010a; Karlsbakk et al., 2011; Sandlund et al., 2011). Disease transmission to native species is considered the most threatening factor of this H. americanus introduction.
One berried H. americanus trapped in Norway was berried with embryos that turned out to be H. americanus x H. gammarus (the European lobster; Hauge, 2010b).
Except for these serious, but rare observations, no ecologically negative consequences are found in the field. However, in Europe H. americanus and the European lobster have similar sheltering behaviour and omnivorous diet (Nicosia and Lavalli, 1999) and may therefore compete for shelter and food. Experiments have shown that European lobster females tend to select European lobster males for mating partners, so the possibility for hybridization is regarded as low (van der Meeren et al., 2008) although in some instances it may happen (J Kittaka, Research Institute for Marine Biological Science, Hokkaido, Japan, and JP Mercer, Shellfish Research Laboratory, Galway, Ireland, personal communication, 2008).
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Tolerant of shade
- Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
- Highly mobile locally
- Long lived
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Reduced amenity values
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition (unspecified)
- Pest and disease transmission
- Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
- Difficult/costly to control
Uses ListTop of page
- Capital accumulation
- Research model
- Sociocultural value
- Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)
Human food and beverage
- Canned meat
- Fresh meat
- Frozen meat
- Live product for human consumption
- Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)
ReferencesTop of page
Agnalt A-L; van der Meeren GI; Jørstad KE; Næss H; Farestveit E; Nøstvold E; Svasand T; Korsaen E; Ydstebø L, 1999. Stock enhancement of European lobster (Homarus gammarus); a large-scale experiment off southwestern Norway (Kvitsøy). In: Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching; Fishing News Books [ed. by Howell, B. \Moksness, E. \Svasand, T.]. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd, 401-419.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2004. Atlantic lobster Fact sheet. Online at http://atn-riae.agr.ca/seafood/lobster-e.htm Accessed 14 September 2004.
Aiken DE; Waddy SL, 1995. Aquaculture. In: Factor JR, ed. Biology of the Lobster Homarus americanus. New York, USA: Academic Press, 153-175.
Anonymous, 1996. Taxonomy. Species lobster, American. Species ID M070106. Online at http://fwie.fw.vt.edu/WWW/macsis/lists/M070106.htm. Accessed 14 October 2004.
Audouin J; Leglise M, 1972. [English title not available]. (Premiers résultata d'expériences relatives aux possibilités d'acclimatation de homard américain Homarus americanus en France.) ICES CM E:34., USA: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.
Barshaw DE; Lavalli KL, 1988. Predation upon postlarval lobsters Homarus americanus by cunners Tautogolabrus adspersus and mud crabs Neopanope sayi on three different substrates: eelgrass, mud, and rock. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 48:119-123.
Beltz BS; Tlusty MF; Benton JL; Sandeman DC, 2007. Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis. Neuroscience Letters, 415(2):154-158. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T0G-4MS3JBB-6&_user=10&_coverDate=03%2F26%2F2007&_rdoc=12&_fmt=summary&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%234862%232007%23995849997%23646202%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=4862&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=20&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=a5dedd04e26db392b7366d8c8a5846bb
Castell JD; Boston LD, 1990. Crustacean Nutrition Newsletter, 6(1), March 16 1990, 79 pp.
Conklin DE, 1995. Digestive physiology and nutrition. In: Factor JR, ed. Biology of the Lobster, Homarus americanus. New York, USA: Academic Press, 441-463.
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Fraser MC, 1916. Possible planting areas on the east coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Contributions in Canadian Biology, 1914-1915, 38a:119-132.
Green BS; Gardner C; Lipcius R; van der Meeren GI, 2013. Enhancement of lobster fisheries to improve yield and value. In: Lobsters: Biology, Fisheries, Aquaculture and Management (second edition) [ed. by Phillips, B. F.]. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hauge M, 2010. Lobster found to have shell disease. Lobster found to have shell disease., Norway: Institute of Marine Research. http://www.imr.no/nyhetsarkiv/2010/mai/skallsykdom_pavist_hos_hummer/en
Hauge M, 2010. Unique lobster hybrid. Unique lobster hybrid., Norway: Institute of Marine Research. http://www.imr.no/nyhetsarkiv/2010/mai/sensasjonell_hybrid_i_hummarverda/en
Holthuis LB, 1991. FAO Species Catalogue, Vol.13. Marine Lobsters of the World, Food and Agricultural Organisation.
Jørstad KE; Agnalt A-L; Farestveit E, 2011. The introduced American Lobster, Homarus americanus in Scandinavian waters. In: In the Wrong Place - Alien marine Crustaceans: Distribution, Biology and Impacts. Invading Nature - Springer series in Invasive Ecology 6 [ed. by Galil, B. S. \Clark, P. F. \Carlton, J. T.]. Springer Science.
Jørstad KE; Farestveit E; Agnalt A-L, 2006. American lobster in Norwegian waters - status and challenges. Kysten og Havet 2006. Bergen, Norway: Institute of Marine Research, 33-35.
Jørstad KE; Farestveit E; Agnalt A-L, 2006. American lobsters in Norwegian waters - status quo and new challenges. (Amerikansk hummer i norske farvann - status og nye utfordringer.) In: Kyst og Havbruk 2006, Ch. 1: Forvaltning av Kysten. 33-35.
Jørstad KE; Farestveit E; Agnalt A-L; Knutsen JA, 2007. [English title not available]. (Amerikansk hummer - anno 2006.) Institute of Marine Research, News archive. http://www.imr.no/aktuelt/nyhetsarkiv/2007/februar/am_hummer_2006
Jørstad KE; Prodohl PA; Agnalt AL; Hughes M; Farestveit E; Ferguson AF, 2007. Comparison of genetic and morphological methods to detect the presence of American lobsters, Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards, 1837 (Astacidea: Nephropidae) in Norwegian waters. Hydrobiologia [Invasive Crustacea, Symposium 7 at The Sixth International Crustacean Congress (ICC6), Glasgow, UK, 18-22 July 2005.], 590:103-114. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/1573-5117/
Karlsbakk; E; Einen ACB; Farestveit E; Fiksdal IU; Sandlund N; Agnalt; A-L, 2011. [English title not available]. (Skallsyke hos hummer.) Havforskningsrapporten 2011. Fisken og havet, særnr. 1-2011 [ed. by Agnalt A.-L. \Fossum, P. \Hauge, M. \Mangor-Jensen, A. \Ottersen, G. \Røttingen, I. \Sundet, J. H. \Sunnset, B. H.]. https://www.imr.no/filarkiv/2011/04/havforskningsrapporten2011.pdf/nb-no
Keith IR; Paterson WD; Airdrie D; Boston LD, 1992. Defence mechanisms of the American lobster, (Homarus americanus): vaccination provided protection against gaffkemia infections in laboratory and field trials. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 2(2):109-119.
Kittaka J, 1984. Transplantation of useful Atlantic crustaceans into Japan. Deuxieme Symp. Franc-Japonais sur L’Aquaculture, Sendai, Japan, 4 October, 1984, 67-80.
Kittaka J; Henocque Y; Yamada K; Tabata N, 1983. Experimental release of juvenile lobsters at Koshiki Islands in south Japan. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Fisheries Science, 49(9):1337-1354.
Kuris AM, 1991. A review of patterns and causes of crustacean brood mortality. In: Wenner A, Kuris AM, eds. Crustacean Egg Production. Rotterdam, Netherlands: AA Balkema, 117-141.
Laing I, 2002. American lobsters - over here? Shellfish News, 14:20-22.
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Nicosia F; Lavalli K, 1999. Homarid lobster hatcheries: their history and role in research, management, and aquaculture. Marine Fisheries Review, 61(2):1-57.
Rathbun R, 1892. Development and propagation of the lobster. rep. US. Comm. Fish. Fish. 1888, Pt 16:97-102.
Renard AC, 1999. Incertitude sur l’Amerique du nord. Produits de la Mer, 57:71-72.
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Sastry AN, 1976. An experimental culture-research facility for the American lobster, Homarus americanus. In: Persoone G, Jaspers E, eds. Research in mariculture at laboratory- and pilot-scale. Proceedings of the 10th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Ostend, Belgium, 17-23 September, 1975, 419-435.
Stebbing P; Johnson P; Delahunty A; Clark PF; McCollin T; Hale C; Clark S, 2012. Reports of American lobsters, Homarus americanus (H. Milne Edwards, 1837), in British waters. BioInvasions Records, 1(1):17-23. http://www.reabic.net/journals/bir/2012/1/BIR_2012_1_Stebbing_etal.pdf
Stevens BG, 2009. Effects of epizootic shell disease in American lobster Homarus americanus determined using a quantitative disease index. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 88(1):25-34.
Talbot P; Helluy S, 1995. Reproduction and embryonic development. In: Factor JR, ed. Biology of the Lobster Homarus americanus. New York, USA: Academic Press, 177-216.
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Waddy SL; Aiken DE, 1991. Egg production in the American lobster, Homarus americanus. In: Wenner A, Kuris AM eds. Crustacean Egg Production. Rotterdam, Netherlands: AA Balkema, 267-290.
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Jørstad KE, Agnalt A-L, Farestveit E, 2011. The introduced American Lobster, Homarus americanus in Scandinavian waters. In: In the Wrong Place - Alien marine Crustaceans: Distribution, Biology and Impacts. Invading Nature - Springer series in Invasive Ecology, 6 [ed. by Galil BS, Clark PF, Carlton JT]. Springer Science.
Stebbing P, Johnson P, Delahunty A, Clark P F, McCollin T, Hale C, Clark S, 2012. Reports of American lobsters, Homarus americanus (H. Milne Edwards, 1837), in British waters. BioInvasions Records. 1 (1), 17-23. DOI:10.3391/bir.2012.1.1.04
OrganizationsTop of page
Norway: Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Sykehusveien 23. P.O.Box 6404. V-9294 Tromso, http://www.imr.no/en
ContributorsTop of page
12/01/2012 Updated by:
Gro van der Meeren, Institute of Marine Research, PB 1870 Nordnes, NO-5817 Bergen, Norway
21/01/2008 Updated by:
Gro van der Meeren, Institute of Marine Research, PB 1870 Nordnes, NO-5817 Bergen, Norway
Uma Sabapathy Allen
Human Sciences, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8DE, UK
Distribution MapsTop of page
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