Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Homarus americanus
(American lobster)



Homarus americanus (American lobster)


  • Last modified
  • 29 April 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Vector of Animal Disease
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Homarus americanus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • American lobster
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Crustacea
  •         Class: Malacostraca
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • H. americanus is a long-lived, omnivorous lobster than can tolerate a wide temperature range. The species is a large-sized benthic organism, with a short-lasting planktonic larval stage. The North American stoc...

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Male American lobster, captured in southeastern Norway.
TitleMale American lobster
CaptionMale American lobster, captured in southeastern Norway.
CopyrightInstitute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway
Male American lobster, captured in southeastern Norway.
Male American lobsterMale American lobster, captured in southeastern Norway.Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Homarus americanus Milne Edwards, 1887

Preferred Common Name

  • American lobster

Other Scientific Names

  • Astacus americanus Stebbing, 1893
  • Astacus marinus Say, 1817
  • Homarus mainensis Berrill, 1956

International Common Names

  • English: blackshell; blueshells; buckle shell; Canadian lobster; crack backer; hard shell lobster; Maine lobster; Massach Maine lobster; new shell; northern Atlantic lobster; northern lobster; old shell lobster; shedder; softshell
  • Spanish: bogavante Americano
  • French: homard Americain; homard Americano

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: Amerikansk hummer
  • Norway: Amerikansk hummer
  • Sweden: Amerikansk hummer

Summary of Invasiveness

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H. americanus is a long-lived, omnivorous lobster than can tolerate a wide temperature range. The species is a large-sized benthic organism, with a short-lasting planktonic larval stage. The North American stock is known to migrate seasonally, sometimes over great distances, but not outside its normal range. The larvae hatch close to the shore. The production cycle takes two years. Multiple clutches are produced after one incubation.

Due the high market value, several attempts at transplanting this species have been conducted, but with no apparent luck. All these transplants were in regions without native homarid lobster species. Live export internationally is the major vector for distribution of this species today. It has been recorded in European waters since 1999, in the range of the locally endangered European lobsters. In 2010 introduced lobsters with epizootoic shell disease as well as carrying hybrid offspring were detected in Norwegian waters. No ecological impacts have been seen, but spread of disease to native lobsters is recognized as the highest threat factor.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Crustacea
  •                 Class: Malacostraca
  •                     Subclass: Eumalacostraca
  •                         Order: Decapoda
  •                             Suborder: Reptantia
  •                                 Unknown: Nephropoidea
  •                                     Family: Nephropidae
  •                                         Genus: Homarus
  •                                             Species: Homarus americanus


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The colour of H. americanus varies from individual to individual. Most are olive green or greenish brown, and attributed to diet, heredity and exposure to light; red, albino and even blue specimens have, however, been observed. They may also have orange, reddish, dark green or black speckles, and a bluish tinge at the joints. H. americanus can achieve a maximum body length of 64 cm, but is usually around 25 cm or less. This species is one of the largest decapod species known as far as body length is concerned. The largest male on record weighed 19.25 kg and was 63.4 cm long while the heaviest female weighed 8.35 kg. H. americanus can only increase its size by moulting periodically. Age at first maturity is about 3-4 years with a body weight of 200-700 g. The first of the five pairs of walking legs is asymmetrical and modified to form the large crusher claw and the small, cutter or seizer claw. Six pairs of swimmerets or pleopods, the last pair enlarged to form the tail fan, can be found under the abdomen. The shield-like shell covering the main part of the lobster's body is known as the carapace. H. americanus has compound eyes mounted on movable stalks. Males have sharp spines under the abdomen; female spines are blunt. The male's abdomen is also narrower than the width of the carapace; in the female these are about equal or larger. See Williams (1995) and Holthuis (1991) for full description. The two long antennae are touch and pressure sensitive while the pair of branched, shorter antennules are the lobster’s ’nose‘. Olfaction is the most sensitive perception in lobsters and important part of their ability to socialize, navigate and search for food (Atema and Voight, 1995).

Although colouration, morphology and body proportions usually are slightly different between the American and European lobster (Homarus gammarus) (Holthuis, 1991), the variations within each species are substantial. It is hard to tell the difference with certainty. In Norway, Sweden and Denmark, DNA analysis is required before species conclusion can be made (Jørstad et al., 2006).


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H. americanus is native to the northwest Atlantic coast from North Carolina to Labrador. It is abundant off Maine, southwest Nova Scotia, and the Gulf of St Lawrence coastline of the Maritimes. Introductions for aquaculture have been made to the west coasts of the USA and Canada, North Sea coast of Europe, to Italy and Japan.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Atlantic, NortheastPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Not invasive van der Meeren et al., 2010; Jørstad et al., 2011; Stebbing et al., 2012
Atlantic, NorthwestPresentNative Not invasive Boothroyd and Ennis, 1992
Pacific, Eastern CentralAbsent, formerly presentIntroducedRathbun , 1892; Fraser , 1916; Ghelardi and Shoop, 1972; Ford and Krekorian, 1973
Pacific, NorthwestAbsent, unreliable recordIntroducedKittaka and et al. , 1983; Kittaka, 1990Not reported since 1990


JapanPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedKittaka , 1984Grown for possible sea ranching
-HonshuLocalised1984IntroducedKittaka , 1984

North America

CanadaLocalisedNative Not invasive Holthuis , 1991First recorded in 1970
-British ColumbiaAbsent, formerly presentIntroducedRathbun , 1892; Fraser , 1916; Ghelardi and Shoop, 1972
-New BrunswickWidespreadNative Not invasive Holthuis , 1991
-Newfoundland and LabradorWidespreadNative Not invasive Holthuis , 1991
-Nova ScotiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Holthuis , 1991
-Prince Edward IslandWidespreadNative Not invasive Holthuis , 1991
-QuebecWidespreadNative Not invasive Holthuis , 1991
USALocalisedNative Not invasive Holthuis , 1991
-CaliforniaLocalisedIntroducedRathbun , 1892; Ford and Krekorian, 1973
-ConnecticutWidespreadNative Not invasive Holthuis , 1991
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Not invasive Nicosia and Lavalli , 1999
-MaineWidespreadNative Not invasive Holthuis , 1991
-MassachusettsWidespreadNative Not invasive Holthuis , 1991
-New HampshireWidespreadNative Not invasive Holthuis , 1991
-New JerseyWidespreadNative Not invasive Holthuis , 1991
-New YorkWidespreadNative Not invasive Holthuis , 1991
-North CarolinaPresentNative Not invasive Holthuis , 1991
-Rhode IslandWidespreadNative Not invasive Holthuis , 1991
-WashingtonLocalisedIntroducedRathbun , 1892


DenmarkPresent, few occurrences2006IntroducedAnonymous, 2007One specimen found in December 2006
IcelandPresent, few occurrencesIntroducedvan der Meeren et al., 2010Found twice 1960-1965
NorwayPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced2010van der Meeren et al., 2000; Jørstad et al., 2006; van der Meeren et al., 2010; Jørstad et al., 201124 specimens found
SwedenPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced2008Jørstad et al., 20113 specimens found
UKPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced2011Stebbing et al., 201226 specimens found

History of Introduction and Spread

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There have been attempts to transplant this species to the west coast of North America but success has been limited. Efforts to transplant lobsters to the Pacific Ocean date to 1873 and to 1889 for the states of California and Washington, respectively (Rathbun, 1892) but nothing resulted from these early attempts. In the early 1970s, California again attempted to develop an American lobster fishery along its coast. However, following concerns that H. americanus would displace Panulirus interruptus, release of wild American lobsters was not recommended. In Canada, transplantation of H. americanus to the east coast of Vancouver Island was attempted as early as 1896 and in 1905 and 1908 (Fraser, 1916); no information is available on the fate of these lobsters as there was no controlled observation following transplantation. In 1973, the Canadians discontinued a 6-year trial in which H. americanus was relocated to the waters off British Columbia. The decision to drop the project was attributed to economics.

There have also been attempts to introduce H. americanus to Japan, France and Italy. An attempt to introduce H. americanus into waters off Japan as early as 1915, was not successful. However, recent attempts (Kittaka et al., 1983; Kittaka, 1984) to transplant them appear to have been more successful, with H. americanus successfully reproducing in cages and in large pools. It was found breeding in local waters of Sanriku in the 1980s, but this has not been followed up by the Japanese fisheries (J Kittaka, Research Institute for Marine Biological Science, Hokkaido, Japan, personal communication, 2008). In France during the 1970s purebred H. americanus and hybrid H. americanus/H. gammarus were produced for release as genetically marked specimens to test whether release of juveniles could add to the native stock (Adouine andLeglise, 1972; Latrouite and Lorec, 1991). However, the release programme was stopped before the survival of these lobsters could be assessed (Agnalt et al., 1999).

H. americanus has occasionally been captured in Northern European waters (Jørstad et al., 2006; van der Meeren et al., 2010). The causes for most of the cases are not known. However, the morphological similarities between the European lobster and American lobster can confuse, and it is a common misbelief that these two are the same species. However, the origins of H. americanus  recorded near Iceland (van der Meeren et al., 2010) and Denmark (Jørstad et al., 2007a) are not known.

In Norway escape from holding facilities has been recorded as the cause for at least two separate H. americanus populations, one in southern Norway, outside Kristiansand and one in Western Norway, outside Bergen (Jørstad et al., 2006). Certain identification of nineteen individuals in Norway was reported at the end of 2007 (AL Agnalt, Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway, personal communication, 2008). Unconfirmed rumours suggest that at least one intentional release of H. americanus occurred  in Oslo, Norway sometime around 1990, which possibly was the source for the first recordings in 1999 (van der Meeren et al., 2000). The first observation in Denmark was in December 2006 (Jørstad et al., 2007a).


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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
California USA 1873, 1970 Unknown No No Ford and Krekorian (1973); Rathbun (1892)
Canada Canada 1896, 1965 Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No Fraser (1916); Ghelardi and Shoop (1972) To Vancouver Island
Canada Canada 1989 Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No Boothroyd and Ennis (1992) To Labrador
Denmark 2007 No No Anonymous (2007)
France  1972-1976 Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No Latrouite and Lorec (1991)
Iceland 1960-1965 No No Jørstad et al. (2011); van der Meeren et al. (2010)
Italy USA   Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No Wickins and Lee (2002); Wickins and Lee (2002)
Japan USA   Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Kittaka (1984); Kittaka (1990); Kittaka and et al. (1983) Not reported after 1990
Norway 1990-2007 Live food or feed trade (pathway cause) ,
Smuggling (pathway cause)
No No Jørstad et al. (2011); van der Meeren et al. (2000); van der Meeren et al. (2010) From USA and/or Canada
Oceania USA Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No
UK Europe 2011 No No Stebbing et al. (2012)
Washington USA 1889 Unknown No No Rathbun (1892)

Risk of Introduction

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H. americanus is exported live in huge quantities from northeastern America. This provides  opportunities for both intentional and accidental releases in new regions. Even if berried females are protected in the fisheries, females spawning in the holding facilities are exported. Larvae hatched in holding facilities without barriers from the sea may drift into the sea in areas outside the species natural range. Adult H. americanus recently found in UK waters, may originate from either release experiments, escape from holding facilities or from unauthorized releases (Stebbing et al. 2012; Green et al., 2013). Landings of egg-carrying females are banned in Norway, but it is known that they can spawn in captivity after being captured. H. americanus females can even produce multiple clutches over at least the two years following one mating and can therefore be reproductive for some years even without the presence of a mate (Aiken and Waddy, 1995).

Habitat List

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Stored products Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Vector Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Vector Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Coastal areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural
Coastal areas Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Mud flats Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Mud flats Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Mud flats Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Intertidal zone Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Intertidal zone Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Intertidal zone Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Estuaries Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Lagoons Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Benthic zone Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Benthic zone Principal habitat Natural
Benthic zone Principal habitat Productive/non-natural

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
algae Larval
clams Adult
crabs Adult
diatoms Larval
fish All Stages
plant material All Stages
Polychaeta All Stages
sea urchins Adult
snails Adult


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C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.014 Optimum Adult
Copper (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Adult
Depth (m b.s.l.) 1 50 Optimum 1->500 tolerated
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 6.4 Optimum All Stages >0.2-1.2 tolerated
Salinity (part per thousand) <8.0 Harmful Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) 30 31.5 Optimum Larval
Salinity (part per thousand) 30 35 Optimum All Stages >8.0-14 tolerated
Water pH (pH) 7.8 8.2 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 15 21 Optimum Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 18 23 Optimum Adult -1-30.5 tolerated
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 21 27 Optimum Larval

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anguilla rostrata Predator Adult/Fry Anonymous, 1996
Cancer pagurus Predator Adult/Fry Anonymous, 1996
Dyspanopeus sayi Predator Adult/Fry/Larval Barshaw and Lavalli , 1988
Gadus morhua Predator Adult/Fry to species Anonymous, 1996; Brander, 1994
Tautogolabrus adspersus Predator Adult/Fry/Larval Barshaw and Lavalli , 1988

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AquacultureUSA Yes Kittaka, 1984; Kittaka, 1990
Escape from confinement or garden escapeLive export/import, Aquaculture Yes Jørstad et al., 2011; Stebbing et al., 2012; van der Meeren et al., 2010
Intentional release Yes Kittaka, 1984
Live food or feed trade Yes Jørstad et al., 2011; Stebbing et al., 2012; van der Meeren et al., 2010
Research Yes Kittaka, 1984
SmugglingUSA, Canada to Europe Yes Jørstad et al., 2011; van der Meeren et al., 2010

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aircraft Yes van der Meeren et al., 2010
Aquaculture stock Yes Kittaka , 1984
Consumables Yes Jørstad et al., 2011; Stebbing et al., 2012; van der Meeren et al., 2010
Live seafood Yes Jørstad et al., 2011; van der Meeren et al., 2010
Luggage Yes Jørstad et al., 2011; van der Meeren et al., 2010

Impact Summary

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Native fauna Negative

Environmental Impact

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Some of the previously trapped and exhibited H. americanus in Norway developed symptoms similar to the destructive epizootic shell disease, which has caused major damage to local US lobster fisheries (van der Meeren 2007; Stevens, 2009). In 2010, two infected female H. americanus were trapped in Norwegian waters, and diagnosed with epizootic shell disease (Hauge, 2010a; Karlsbakk et al., 2011; Sandlund et al., 2011). Disease transmission to native species is considered the most threatening factor of this H. americanus introduction.

One berried H. americanus trapped in Norway was berried with embryos that turned out to be H. americanus x H. gammarus (the European lobster; Hauge, 2010b).

Except for these serious, but rare observations, no ecologically negative consequences are found in the field. However, in Europe H. americanus and the European lobster have similar sheltering behaviour and omnivorous diet (Nicosia and Lavalli, 1999) and may therefore compete for shelter and food. Experiments have shown that European lobster females tend to select European lobster males for mating partners, so the possibility for hybridization is regarded as low (van der Meeren et al., 2008) although in some instances it may happen (J Kittaka, Research Institute for Marine Biological Science, Hokkaido, Japan, and JP Mercer, Shellfish Research Laboratory, Galway, Ireland, personal communication, 2008).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Homarus gammarus (European lobster)National list(s) National list(s)NorwayCompetition - monopolizing resourcesJørstad et al., 2011; van der Meeren et al., 2010

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

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  • Capital accumulation
  • Research model
  • Sociocultural value
  • Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)

Human food and beverage

  • Canned meat
  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat
  • Live product for human consumption
  • Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)
  • Paste
  • Whole


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Agnalt A-L; van der Meeren GI; Jørstad KE; Næss H; Farestveit E; Nøstvold E; Svasand T; Korsaen E; Ydstebø L, 1999. Stock enhancement of European lobster (Homarus gammarus); a large-scale experiment off southwestern Norway (Kvitsøy). In: Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching; Fishing News Books [ed. by Howell, B. \Moksness, E. \Svasand, T.]. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd, 401-419.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2004. Atlantic lobster Fact sheet. Online at Accessed 14 September 2004.

Aiken DE; Waddy SL, 1985. Production of seed stock for lobster culture. Aquaculture, 44(2):103-114.

Aiken DE; Waddy SL, 1995. Aquaculture. In: Factor JR, ed. Biology of the Lobster Homarus americanus. New York, USA: Academic Press, 153-175.

Anonymous, 1996. Taxonomy. Species lobster, American. Species ID M070106. Online at Accessed 14 October 2004.

Anonymous, 2007. American lobster captured in Øresund. (Amerikansk hummer fanget i Øresund.)

Atema J; Voigt R, 1995. Behaviour and sensory biology. In: Biology of the lobster Homarus americanus [ed. by Factor, J. R.]. New York, USA: Academic Press, 441-463.

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Barshaw DE; Lavalli KL, 1988. Predation upon postlarval lobsters Homarus americanus by cunners Tautogolabrus adspersus and mud crabs Neopanope sayi on three different substrates: eelgrass, mud, and rock. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 48:119-123.

Beltz BS; Tlusty MF; Benton JL; Sandeman DC, 2007. Omega-3 fatty acids upregulate adult neurogenesis. Neuroscience Letters, 415(2):154-158.

Boothroyd FA; Ennis GP, 1992. Reproduction in American lobsters Homarus americanus transplanted northward to St. Michael's Bay, Labrador. Fish. Bull, 90:659-667.

Brander K, 1994. Spawning and life history information for north Atlantic cod stocks. ICES Cooperative Research Report, 205. 150 pp.

Castell JD; Boston LD, 1990. Crustacean Nutrition Newsletter, 6(1), March 16 1990, 79 pp.

Conklin DE, 1995. Digestive physiology and nutrition. In: Factor JR, ed. Biology of the Lobster, Homarus americanus. New York, USA: Academic Press, 441-463.

Conklin DE; D’Abramo LR; Norman-Boudreau K, 1983. Lobster nutrition. In: McVey JP, ed. Handbook of Mariculture, Volume 1. Crustacean aquaculture. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 413-423.

Ford RF; Krekorian CO, 1973. An American lobster fishery in California. Annu. Rep. Univ. Calif. Sea Grant Program. 35-37.

Fraser MC, 1916. Possible planting areas on the east coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Contributions in Canadian Biology, 1914-1915, 38a:119-132.

Ghelardi RJ; Shoop CT, 1972. Lobster Homarus americanus production in British Columbia. Fish. Res. Board Can. Manuscr. Rep. Ser, 1176. 31 pp.

Green BS; Gardner C; Lipcius R; van der Meeren GI, 2013. Enhancement of lobster fisheries to improve yield and value. In: Lobsters: Biology, Fisheries, Aquaculture and Management (second edition) [ed. by Phillips, B. F.]. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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Jørstad KE; Farestveit E; Agnalt A-L; Knutsen JA, 2007. [English title not available]. (Amerikansk hummer - anno 2006.) Institute of Marine Research, News archive.

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Karlsbakk; E; Einen ACB; Farestveit E; Fiksdal IU; Sandlund N; Agnalt; A-L, 2011. [English title not available]. (Skallsyke hos hummer.) Havforskningsrapporten 2011. Fisken og havet, særnr. 1-2011 [ed. by Agnalt A.-L. \Fossum, P. \Hauge, M. \Mangor-Jensen, A. \Ottersen, G. \Røttingen, I. \Sundet, J. H. \Sunnset, B. H.].

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Kittaka J, 1990. Present and future of shrimp and lobster culture. In: Advances in invertebrate reproduction, 5 [ed. by Hoshi, M. \Yamashita, O.]. Amsterdam: Elsevier Sci. Publ. Biomed. Div., 11-21.

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Renard AC, 1999. Incertitude sur l’Amerique du nord. Produits de la Mer, 57:71-72.

Sandlund N; Karlsbakk E; Farestveit E; Einen ACB; Agnalt A-L, 2011. [English title not available]. (Amerikansk hummer I Norge - Harmløst tilskudd i den norske fauna eller en kilde til forurensing og nye sykdommer?.) Havforskningsnytt, 7. 2 pp.

Sastry AN, 1976. An experimental culture-research facility for the American lobster, Homarus americanus. In: Persoone G, Jaspers E, eds. Research in mariculture at laboratory- and pilot-scale. Proceedings of the 10th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Ostend, Belgium, 17-23 September, 1975, 419-435.

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Stebbing P; Johnson P; Delahunty A; Clark PF; McCollin T; Hale C; Clark S, 2012. Reports of American lobsters, Homarus americanus (H. Milne Edwards, 1837), in British waters. BioInvasions Records, 1(1):17-23.

Stevens BG, 2009. Effects of epizootic shell disease in American lobster Homarus americanus determined using a quantitative disease index. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 88(1):25-34.

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Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS) source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Institute of Marine Research


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Norway: Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Sykehusveien 23. P.O.Box 6404. V-9294 Tromso,


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12/01/2012 Updated by:

Gro van der Meeren, Institute of Marine Research, PB 1870 Nordnes, NO-5817 Bergen, Norway

21/01/2008 Updated by:

Gro van der Meeren, Institute of Marine Research, PB 1870 Nordnes, NO-5817 Bergen, Norway

Main Author
Uma Sabapathy Allen
Human Sciences, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8DE, UK

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