Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

classical swine fever virus

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Datasheet

classical swine fever virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • classical swine fever virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Nidovirales
  •         Family: Flaviviridae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • classical swine fever virus

Other Scientific Names

  • hog cholera virus

English acronym

  • CSFV
  • HCV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Nidovirales
  •                 Family: Flaviviridae
  •                     Genus: Pestivirus
  •                         Species: classical swine fever virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BangladeshDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Hong KongReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Last reported1984OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanLast reported1992OIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahLast reported1992OIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaLast reported1994OIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeLast reported1989OIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanLast reported1991OIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanLast reported1991OIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanLast reported1979OIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaLast reported1917OIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaLast reported1918OIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaLast reported1963OIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoOIE Handistatus, 2005
USALast reported1976OIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosLast reported1971OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeLast reported1988OIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeLast reported1985OIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaLast reported1961OIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoLast reported1974OIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayLast reported1991OIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraLast reported1975OIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusLast reported1967OIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkLast reported1933OIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaLast reported1994OIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandLast reported1917OIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceLast reported1985OIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryLast reported1993OIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandLast reported1953OIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandLast reported1958OIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaLast reported1992OIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaLast reported1967OIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayLast reported1963OIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandLast reported1994OIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalLast reported1985OIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenLast reported1944OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
UKLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandLast reported1958OIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)Last reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaLast reported1962OIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaLast reported1972OIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandLast reported1953OIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) has an RNA genome contained in a capsid of about 28 nm, surrounded by an envelope. The virion has a size of between 40 and 50 nm. The single-stranded linear RNA genome is infective and encompasses about 12.3 kilobases. The open-reading frame encodes one large polyprotein of 3898 amino acids that is cleaved by proteases to yield mature viral proteins. The open-reading frame is flanked by a 5’-noncoding region of almost 400 nucleotides and a 3’-noncoding region of about 200 nucleotides. The order of the gene products is as follows:

NH2 -(Npro-C-Erns-E1-E2-p7-NS2.3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5A-NS5B)-COOH.

The left part of the genome is coding for the capsid (C) protein, and the three envelope (E) proteins. The Erns protein has RNase activity, which is unique among virus proteins (Schneider et al., 1993; Hulst et al., 1994). The E2 is the most immunodominant and is composed of two independently formed antigenic domains (Rijn et al., 1994). The rest of the genome codes solely for nonstructural proteins, of which NS2.3 is the most conserved.

The differentiation of CSFV from bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV), which can both infect pigs, can easily be done on the basis of sequence differences in the 5’-noncoding region, the E2 and NS5B genes. The genome of CSFV is relatively stable (Vanderhallen et al., 1999; Widjojoatmodjo et al., 1999); however, CSFV strains have been classified into two major groups, and subgroups have also been distinguished (Lowings et al., 1996; Greiser-Wilke et al., 1998).

Antigenically, CSFV is closely related to BVDV and BDV, but by the use of monoclonal antibodies a clear distinction can be made (Wensvoort et al., 1989; Edwards et al., 1991).

The resistance to physical or chemical treatment is partly dependent on the virus strain and the material that contains the virus. For instance, in cell culture fluid virus was inactivated in 10 minutes at 60°C, whereas it was not inactivated in defibrinated blood at 68°C for 30 minutes (Torrey and Prather, 1963). The viral infectivity is quickly destroyed below pH 4 and above pH 11. Because the virus envelope contains lipids, solvents such as ether or detergents easily inactivate the virus. It can remain infectious in pork for months (Mebus et al., 1997), and can survive for weeks in liquid pig manure (Haas et al., 1995). For disinfection of tools, footwear, etc., 1-2% sodium hydroxide is still considered most suitable.

Normally, CSFV induces no or minimal cytopathology in cell culture. However, CSFV showed a cytopathic effect in bone marrow stroma cell cultures (Shimizu et al., 1995), and strains that contained defective interfering particles also gave rise to a cytopathic effect in cell culture (Meyers and Thiel, 1995; Kosmidou et al., 1998). Inactivation of the RNA activity of the Erns protein also resulted in cytopathogenicity (Hulst et al., 1994) and in attenuation of the virus in the pig (Meyers et al., 1999).

There is a wide range in virulence among CSFV strains. Highly virulent strains cause acute severe disease often resulting in mortality, whereas strains with low virulence give rise to mild disease or subclinical infection.

The disease associated with this pathogen is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedes aegyptiInsect
TabanidaeInsect

References

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Edwards S; Moennig V; Wensvoort G, 1991. The development of an international reference panel of monoclonal antibodies for the differentiation of hog cholera virus from other pestiviruses. Veterinary Microbiology, 29(2):101-108; 10 ref.

Greiser-Wilke I; Depner K; Fritzemeier J; Haas L; Moennig V, 1998. Application of a computer program for genetic typing of classical swine fever virus isolates from Germany. Journal of Virological Methods, 75(2):141-150; 12 ref.

Haas R; Ahl R; Böhm R; Strauch D, 1995. Inactivation of viruses in liquid manure. Revue Science and Technique Office Internationales des Epizooties, 14:435-445.

Hulst MM; Himes G; Newbigin E; Moormann RJM, 1994. Glycoprotein E2 of classical swine fever virus: expression in insect cells and identification as a ribonuclease. Virology (New York), 200(2):558-565; 37 ref.

Kosmidou A; Büttner M; Meyers G, 1998. Isolation and characterization of cytopathogenic classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Archives of Virology, 143(7):1295-1309; 34 ref.

Lowings P; Ibata G; Needham J; Paton D, 1996. Classical swine fever virus diversity and evolution. Journal of General Virology, 77(6):1311-1321; 28 ref.

Mebus C; Arias M; Pineda JM; Taiador J; House C; Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, 1997. Survival of several porcine viruses in different Spanish dry-cured meat products. Food Chemistry, 59(4):555-559; 10 ref.

Meyers G; Saalmüller A; Büttner M, 1999. Mutations abrogating the RNase activity in glycoprotein E of the pestivirus classical swine fever virus lead to virus attenuation. Journal of Virology, 73(12):10224-10235; 41 ref.

Meyers G; Thiel HJ, 1995. Cytopathogenicity of classical swine fever virus caused by defective interfering particles. Journal of Virology, 69(6):3683-3689; 41 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Rijn PAvan; Miedema GKW; Wensvoort G; Gennip HGPvan; Moormann RJM, 1994. Antigenic structure of envelope glycoprotein E1 of hog cholera virus. Journal of Virology, 68(6):3934-3942; 37 ref.

Schneider R; Unger G; Stark R; Schneider-Scherzer E; Thiel H-J, 1993. Identification of a structural glycoprotein of an RNA virus as a ribonuclease. Science, 261:1169-1171.

Shimizu M; Yamada S; Nishimori T, 1995. Cytocidal infection of hog cholera virus in porcine bone marrow stroma cell cultures. Veterinary Microbiology, 47(3/4):395-400; 17 ref.

Torrey JP; Prather JK, 1963. Heat inactivation of hog cholera virus. I. Studies with difibrinated blood and serum. Proceedings Annual Meeting U.S. Livestock Sanitary Association, 67:414-418.

Vanderhallen H; Mittelhozer C; Hofmann MA; Koenen F, 1999. Classical swine fever virus is genetically stable in vitro and in vivo. Archives of Virology, 144(9):1669-1677; 29 ref.

Wensvoort G; Terpstra C; Kluijver EPde; Kragten C; Warnaar JC, 1989. Antigenic differentiation of pestivirus strains with monoclonal antibodies against hog cholera virus. Veterinary Microbiology, 21(1):9-20; 27 ref.

Widjojoatmodjo MN; Gennip HGPvan; Smit AJde; Moormann RJM, 1999. Comparative sequence analysis of classical swine fever virus isolates from the epizootic in the Netherlands in 1997-1998. Veterinary Microbiology, 66(4):291-299; 18 ref.

Distribution Maps

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