Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


classical swine fever virus



classical swine fever virus


  • Last modified
  • 15 February 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • classical swine fever virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Nidovirales
  •         Family: Flaviviridae
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • classical swine fever virus

Other Scientific Names

  • hog cholera virus

English acronym

  • CSFV
  • HCV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Nidovirales
  •                 Family: Flaviviridae
  •                     Genus: Pestivirus
  •                         Species: classical swine fever virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Burkina FasoAbsent, No presence record(s)
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaliAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)
MozambiqueAbsent, No presence record(s)
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)
SenegalAbsent, No presence record(s)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)
SomaliaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)
TanzaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ZambiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)


AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
Hong KongPresent
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
TurkeyAbsent, No presence record(s)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)
YemenAbsent, No presence record(s)


Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)
North MacedoniaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent

North America

BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicPresent
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)


New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)

South America

Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belongs to the species Pestivirus C, in the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae (Smith et al., 2017). It has an RNA genome contained in a capsid of about 28 nm, surrounded by an envelope. The virion has a size of between 40 and 50 nm. The single-stranded linear RNA genome is infective and encompasses about 12.3 kilobases. The open-reading frame encodes one large polyprotein of 3898 amino acids that is cleaved by proteases to yield mature viral proteins. The open-reading frame is flanked by a 5’-noncoding region of almost 400 nucleotides and a 3’-noncoding region of about 200 nucleotides. The order of the gene products is as follows:

NH2 -(Npro-C-Erns-E1-E2-p7-NS2.3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5A-NS5B)-COOH.

The left part of the genome is coding for the capsid (C) protein, and the three envelope (E) proteins (E1, E2 and Erns). The Erns protein has RNase activity, which is unique among virus proteins (Schneider et al., 1993; Hulst et al., 1994). The E2 is the most immunodominant and is composed of two independently formed antigenic domains (Rijn et al., 1994). The rest of the genome codes solely for nonstructural proteins, of which NS2-3 is the most conserved.

The differentiation of CSFV from bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV), which can both infect pigs, can easily be done on the basis of sequence differences in the 5’-noncoding region, the E2 and NS5B genes. The genome of CSFV is relatively stable (Vanderhallen et al., 1999; Widjojoatmodjo et al., 1999). CSFV strains can be divided into three genotypes and numerous sub-genotypes (Blome et al., 2017; OIE, 2020)

Antigenically, CSFV is closely related to BVDV and BDV, but by the use of monoclonal antibodies a clear distinction can be made (Wensvoort et al., 1989; Edwards et al., 1991).

The resistance to physical or chemical treatment is partly dependent on the virus strain and the material that contains the virus. For instance, in cell culture fluid virus was inactivated in 10 minutes at 60°C, whereas it was not inactivated in defibrinated blood at 68°C for 30 minutes (Torrey and Prather, 1963). The viral infectivity is quickly destroyed below pH 4 and above pH 11. Because the virus envelope contains lipids, solvents such as ether or detergents easily inactivate the virus. It can remain infectious in pork for months (Mebus et al., 1997), and can survive for weeks in liquid pig manure (Haas et al., 1995). For disinfection of tools, footwear, etc., 1-2% sodium hydroxide is still considered most suitable.

Normally, CSFV induces no or minimal cytopathology in cell culture. However, CSFV showed a cytopathic effect in bone marrow stroma cell cultures (Shimizu et al., 1995), and strains that contained defective interfering particles also gave rise to a cytopathic effect in cell culture (Meyers and Thiel, 1995; Kosmidou et al., 1998). Inactivation of the RNA activity of the Erns protein also resulted in cytopathogenicity (Hulst et al., 1994) and in attenuation of the virus in the pig (Meyers et al., 1999).

There is a wide range in virulence among CSFV strains. Highly virulent strains cause acute severe disease often resulting in mortality, whereas strains with low virulence give rise to mild disease or subclinical infection.

The Classical Swine Fever Database (CSF-DB) of the EU and OIE Reference Laboratory for classical swine fever (online at offers one of the world’s largest semi-public virus-specific sequence collections combined with a module for phylogenetic analysis. The CSF-DB allows for the storage and analysis of traditionally used, well established genomic regions and of larger genomic regions including complete viral genomes (Postel et al., 2016).

Classical swine fever, the disease associated with this pathogen, is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For information from OIE, see:

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host; Wild host

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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Aedes aegyptiInsect


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Blome, S., Staubach, C., Henke, J., Carlson, J., Beer, M., 2017. Classical swine fever - an updated review. Viruses, 9(4), 86. doi: 10.3390/v9040086

Edwards S, Moennig V, Wensvoort G, 1991. The development of an international reference panel of monoclonal antibodies for the differentiation of hog cholera virus from other pestiviruses. Veterinary Microbiology, 29(2):101-108; 10 ref

Greiser-Wilke I, Depner K, Fritzemeier J, Haas L, Moennig V, 1998. Application of a computer program for genetic typing of classical swine fever virus isolates from Germany. Journal of Virological Methods, 75(2):141-150; 12 ref

Haas R, Ahl R, Böhm R, Strauch D, 1995. Inactivation of viruses in liquid manure. Revue Science and Technique Office Internationales des Epizooties, 14:435-445

Hulst MM, Himes G, Newbigin E, Moormann RJM, 1994. Glycoprotein E2 of classical swine fever virus: expression in insect cells and identification as a ribonuclease. Virology (New York), 200(2):558-565; 37 ref

Kosmidou A, Büttner M, Meyers G, 1998. Isolation and characterization of cytopathogenic classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Archives of Virology, 143(7):1295-1309; 34 ref

Lowings P, Ibata G, Needham J, Paton D, 1996. Classical swine fever virus diversity and evolution. Journal of General Virology, 77(6):1311-1321; 28 ref

Mebus C, Arias M, Pineda JM, Taiador J, House C, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, 1997. Survival of several porcine viruses in different Spanish dry-cured meat products. Food Chemistry, 59(4):555-559; 10 ref

Meyers G, Saalmüller A, Büttner M, 1999. Mutations abrogating the RNase activity in glycoprotein E of the pestivirus classical swine fever virus lead to virus attenuation. Journal of Virology, 73(12):10224-10235; 41 ref

Meyers G, Thiel HJ, 1995. Cytopathogenicity of classical swine fever virus caused by defective interfering particles. Journal of Virology, 69(6):3683-3689; 41 ref

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE, 2020. Classical swine fever (updated January 2020). In: OIE Technical disease cards Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.

Postel, A., Schmeiser, S., Zimmermann, B., Becher, P., 2016. The European classical swine fever virus database: blueprint for a pathogen-specific sequence database with integrated sequence analysis tools. Viruses, 8(11), 302. doi: 10.3390/v8110302

Rijn PAvan, Miedema GKW, Wensvoort G, Gennip HGPvan, Moormann RJM, 1994. Antigenic structure of envelope glycoprotein E1 of hog cholera virus. Journal of Virology, 68(6):3934-3942; 37 ref

Schneider R, Unger G, Stark R, Schneider-Scherzer E, Thiel H-J, 1993. Identification of a structural glycoprotein of an RNA virus as a ribonuclease. Science, 261:1169-1171

Shimizu M, Yamada S, Nishimori T, 1995. Cytocidal infection of hog cholera virus in porcine bone marrow stroma cell cultures. Veterinary Microbiology, 47(3/4):395-400; 17 ref

Smith, D. B., Meyers, G., Bukh, J., Gould, E. A., Monath, T., Muerhoff, A. S., Pletnev, A., Rico-Hesse, R., Stapleton, J. T., Simmonds, P., Becher, P., 2017. Proposed revision to the taxonomy of the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae. Journal of General Virology, 98(8), 2106-2112.

Torrey JP, Prather JK, 1963. Heat inactivation of hog cholera virus. I. Studies with difibrinated blood and serum. Proceedings Annual Meeting U.S. Livestock Sanitary Association, 67:414-418

Vanderhallen H, Mittelhozer C, Hofmann MA, Koenen F, 1999. Classical swine fever virus is genetically stable in vitro and in vivo. Archives of Virology, 144(9):1669-1677; 29 ref

Wensvoort G, Terpstra C, Kluijver EPde, Kragten C, Warnaar JC, 1989. Antigenic differentiation of pestivirus strains with monoclonal antibodies against hog cholera virus. Veterinary Microbiology, 21(1):9-20; 27 ref

Widjojoatmodjo MN, Gennip HGPvan, Smit AJde, Moormann RJM, 1999. Comparative sequence analysis of classical swine fever virus isolates from the epizootic in the Netherlands in 1997-1998. Veterinary Microbiology, 66(4):291-299; 18 ref

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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