Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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classical swine fever virus

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Datasheet

classical swine fever virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 February 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • classical swine fever virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Nidovirales
  •         Family: Flaviviridae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • classical swine fever virus

Other Scientific Names

  • hog cholera virus

English acronym

  • CSFV
  • HCV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Nidovirales
  •                 Family: Flaviviridae
  •                     Genus: Pestivirus
  •                         Species: classical swine fever virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 05 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Burkina FasoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BurundiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChadAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Côte d'IvoireAbsentJul-Dec-2019
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GhanaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
LiberiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MadagascarPresentJan-Jun-2019
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MaliAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MauritaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MauritiusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MayotteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)
MozambiqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RéunionAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RwandaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)
SenegalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TanzaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ZambiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BhutanPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CambodiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ChinaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
GeorgiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Hong KongAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IndiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
IndonesiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IsraelAbsentJul-Dec-2020
JapanPresentJul-Dec-2020
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MalaysiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
-SarawakPresent
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NepalPresentJul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalestineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesPresentJul-Dec-2019
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
South KoreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
TurkeyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VietnamPresentJul-Dec-2019
YemenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020

Europe

AlbaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AndorraAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CroatiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsentJan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
FranceAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsentJan-Jun-2018
HungaryAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyAbsentJul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MaltaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
MontenegroAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsAbsentJul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PolandAbsentJan-Jun-2019
PortugalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RomaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
RussiaPresentJul-Dec-2020; in wild animals only
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
SpainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsentJul-Dec-2020
United KingdomAbsentJul-Dec-2019

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CubaPresentJan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicPresentJan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuatemalaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
HaitiPresentJul-Dec-2019
HondurasAbsentJul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MexicoAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint LuciaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsentJan-Jun-2018
United StatesAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
Papua New GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Timor-LestePresentJul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaPresentJul-Dec-2018
BrazilPresentJul-Dec-2020
ChileAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ColombiaPresentJul-Dec-2020
EcuadorPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ParaguayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PeruPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
UruguayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaAbsentJan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belongs to the species Pestivirus C, in the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae (Smith et al., 2017). It has an RNA genome contained in a capsid of about 28 nm, surrounded by an envelope. The virion has a size of between 40 and 50 nm. The single-stranded linear RNA genome is infective and encompasses about 12.3 kilobases. The open-reading frame encodes one large polyprotein of 3898 amino acids that is cleaved by proteases to yield mature viral proteins. The open-reading frame is flanked by a 5’-noncoding region of almost 400 nucleotides and a 3’-noncoding region of about 200 nucleotides. The order of the gene products is as follows:

NH2 -(Npro-C-Erns-E1-E2-p7-NS2.3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5A-NS5B)-COOH.

The left part of the genome is coding for the capsid (C) protein, and the three envelope (E) proteins (E1, E2 and Erns). The Erns protein has RNase activity, which is unique among virus proteins (Schneider et al., 1993; Hulst et al., 1994). The E2 is the most immunodominant and is composed of two independently formed antigenic domains (Rijn et al., 1994). The rest of the genome codes solely for nonstructural proteins, of which NS2-3 is the most conserved.

The differentiation of CSFV from bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV), which can both infect pigs, can easily be done on the basis of sequence differences in the 5’-noncoding region, the E2 and NS5B genes. The genome of CSFV is relatively stable (Vanderhallen et al., 1999; Widjojoatmodjo et al., 1999). CSFV strains can be divided into three genotypes and numerous sub-genotypes (Blome et al., 2017; OIE, 2020)

Antigenically, CSFV is closely related to BVDV and BDV, but by the use of monoclonal antibodies a clear distinction can be made (Wensvoort et al., 1989; Edwards et al., 1991).

The resistance to physical or chemical treatment is partly dependent on the virus strain and the material that contains the virus. For instance, in cell culture fluid virus was inactivated in 10 minutes at 60°C, whereas it was not inactivated in defibrinated blood at 68°C for 30 minutes (Torrey and Prather, 1963). The viral infectivity is quickly destroyed below pH 4 and above pH 11. Because the virus envelope contains lipids, solvents such as ether or detergents easily inactivate the virus. It can remain infectious in pork for months (Mebus et al., 1997), and can survive for weeks in liquid pig manure (Haas et al., 1995). For disinfection of tools, footwear, etc., 1-2% sodium hydroxide is still considered most suitable.

Normally, CSFV induces no or minimal cytopathology in cell culture. However, CSFV showed a cytopathic effect in bone marrow stroma cell cultures (Shimizu et al., 1995), and strains that contained defective interfering particles also gave rise to a cytopathic effect in cell culture (Meyers and Thiel, 1995; Kosmidou et al., 1998). Inactivation of the RNA activity of the Erns protein also resulted in cytopathogenicity (Hulst et al., 1994) and in attenuation of the virus in the pig (Meyers et al., 1999).

There is a wide range in virulence among CSFV strains. Highly virulent strains cause acute severe disease often resulting in mortality, whereas strains with low virulence give rise to mild disease or subclinical infection.

The Classical Swine Fever Database (CSF-DB) of the EU and OIE Reference Laboratory for classical swine fever (online at http://viro60.tiho-hannover.de/eg/csf/) offers one of the world’s largest semi-public virus-specific sequence collections combined with a module for phylogenetic analysis. The CSF-DB allows for the storage and analysis of traditionally used, well established genomic regions and of larger genomic regions including complete viral genomes (Postel et al., 2016).

Classical swine fever, the disease associated with this pathogen, is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For information from OIE, see: https://www.oie.int/en/animal-health-in-the-world/animal-diseases/classical-swine-fever/

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host; Wild host

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedes aegyptiInsect
TabanidaeInsect

References

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Blome, S., Staubach, C., Henke, J., Carlson, J., Beer, M., 2017. Classical swine fever - an updated review. Viruses, 9(4), 86. doi: 10.3390/v9040086

Edwards S, Moennig V, Wensvoort G, 1991. The development of an international reference panel of monoclonal antibodies for the differentiation of hog cholera virus from other pestiviruses. Veterinary Microbiology, 29(2):101-108; 10 ref

Greiser-Wilke I, Depner K, Fritzemeier J, Haas L, Moennig V, 1998. Application of a computer program for genetic typing of classical swine fever virus isolates from Germany. Journal of Virological Methods, 75(2):141-150; 12 ref

Haas R, Ahl R, Böhm R, Strauch D, 1995. Inactivation of viruses in liquid manure. Revue Science and Technique Office Internationales des Epizooties, 14:435-445

Hulst MM, Himes G, Newbigin E, Moormann RJM, 1994. Glycoprotein E2 of classical swine fever virus: expression in insect cells and identification as a ribonuclease. Virology (New York), 200(2):558-565; 37 ref

Kosmidou A, Büttner M, Meyers G, 1998. Isolation and characterization of cytopathogenic classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Archives of Virology, 143(7):1295-1309; 34 ref

Lowings P, Ibata G, Needham J, Paton D, 1996. Classical swine fever virus diversity and evolution. Journal of General Virology, 77(6):1311-1321; 28 ref

Mebus C, Arias M, Pineda JM, Taiador J, House C, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM, 1997. Survival of several porcine viruses in different Spanish dry-cured meat products. Food Chemistry, 59(4):555-559; 10 ref

Meyers G, Saalmüller A, Büttner M, 1999. Mutations abrogating the RNase activity in glycoprotein E of the pestivirus classical swine fever virus lead to virus attenuation. Journal of Virology, 73(12):10224-10235; 41 ref

Meyers G, Thiel HJ, 1995. Cytopathogenicity of classical swine fever virus caused by defective interfering particles. Journal of Virology, 69(6):3683-3689; 41 ref

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE, 2020. Classical swine fever (updated January 2020). In: OIE Technical disease cards Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.https://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Animal_Health_in_the_World/docs/pdf/Disease_cards/CLASSICAL_SWINE_FEVER.pdf

Postel, A., Schmeiser, S., Zimmermann, B., Becher, P., 2016. The European classical swine fever virus database: blueprint for a pathogen-specific sequence database with integrated sequence analysis tools. Viruses, 8(11), 302. doi: 10.3390/v8110302

Rijn PAvan, Miedema GKW, Wensvoort G, Gennip HGPvan, Moormann RJM, 1994. Antigenic structure of envelope glycoprotein E1 of hog cholera virus. Journal of Virology, 68(6):3934-3942; 37 ref

Schneider R, Unger G, Stark R, Schneider-Scherzer E, Thiel H-J, 1993. Identification of a structural glycoprotein of an RNA virus as a ribonuclease. Science, 261:1169-1171

Shimizu M, Yamada S, Nishimori T, 1995. Cytocidal infection of hog cholera virus in porcine bone marrow stroma cell cultures. Veterinary Microbiology, 47(3/4):395-400; 17 ref

Smith, D. B., Meyers, G., Bukh, J., Gould, E. A., Monath, T., Muerhoff, A. S., Pletnev, A., Rico-Hesse, R., Stapleton, J. T., Simmonds, P., Becher, P., 2017. Proposed revision to the taxonomy of the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae. Journal of General Virology, 98(8), 2106-2112. http://jgv.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jgv

Torrey JP, Prather JK, 1963. Heat inactivation of hog cholera virus. I. Studies with difibrinated blood and serum. Proceedings Annual Meeting U.S. Livestock Sanitary Association, 67:414-418

Vanderhallen H, Mittelhozer C, Hofmann MA, Koenen F, 1999. Classical swine fever virus is genetically stable in vitro and in vivo. Archives of Virology, 144(9):1669-1677; 29 ref

Wensvoort G, Terpstra C, Kluijver EPde, Kragten C, Warnaar JC, 1989. Antigenic differentiation of pestivirus strains with monoclonal antibodies against hog cholera virus. Veterinary Microbiology, 21(1):9-20; 27 ref

Widjojoatmodjo MN, Gennip HGPvan, Smit AJde, Moormann RJM, 1999. Comparative sequence analysis of classical swine fever virus isolates from the epizootic in the Netherlands in 1997-1998. Veterinary Microbiology, 66(4):291-299; 18 ref

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

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