Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

influenza A virus

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Datasheet

influenza A virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • influenza A virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Orthomyxoviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleStructural features of SIV
Caption
CopyrightKristien Van Reeth
Structural features of SIVKristien Van Reeth
Immunostained SIV in a cryostat section of lung from an experimentally infected pig. Note that approximately 100% of bronchial epithelial cells are virus-positive (green fluorescence).
TitleImmunostained SIV in lung tissue
CaptionImmunostained SIV in a cryostat section of lung from an experimentally infected pig. Note that approximately 100% of bronchial epithelial cells are virus-positive (green fluorescence).
CopyrightKristien Van Reeth
Immunostained SIV in a cryostat section of lung from an experimentally infected pig. Note that approximately 100% of bronchial epithelial cells are virus-positive (green fluorescence).
Immunostained SIV in lung tissueImmunostained SIV in a cryostat section of lung from an experimentally infected pig. Note that approximately 100% of bronchial epithelial cells are virus-positive (green fluorescence).Kristien Van Reeth
TitleHistopathology of healthy pig lungs
Caption
CopyrightKristien Van Reeth
Histopathology of healthy pig lungsKristien Van Reeth
Note the necrosis of lung epithelia and obstruction of the airways with inflammatory cells.
TitleHistopathology of SIV-infected pig lungs
CaptionNote the necrosis of lung epithelia and obstruction of the airways with inflammatory cells.
CopyrightKristien Van Reeth
Note the necrosis of lung epithelia and obstruction of the airways with inflammatory cells.
Histopathology of SIV-infected pig lungsNote the necrosis of lung epithelia and obstruction of the airways with inflammatory cells.Kristien Van Reeth
Note the necrosis of lung epithelia and obstruction of the airways with inflammatory cells.
TitleHistopathology of SIV-infected pig lungs
CaptionNote the necrosis of lung epithelia and obstruction of the airways with inflammatory cells.
CopyrightKristien Van Reeth
Note the necrosis of lung epithelia and obstruction of the airways with inflammatory cells.
Histopathology of SIV-infected pig lungsNote the necrosis of lung epithelia and obstruction of the airways with inflammatory cells.Kristien Van Reeth

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • influenza A virus (ICTV)

Other Scientific Names

  • fowl plague virus ICTV
  • highly pathogenic avian influenza virus ICTV

International Common Names

  • English: avian influenza A virus; avian influenza virus; avian influenzavirus; bird flu virus; HPAI virus; swine flu virus; swine influenza virus; swine influenzavirus

English acronym

  • AIV
  • FLUAV
  • SIV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Orthomyxoviridae
  •                     Genus: Influenzavirus A
  •                         Species: influenza A virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AzerbaijanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BangladeshDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Hong KongReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptLast reported1965OIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoLast reported1983OIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandLast reported1988OIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
USAReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaLast reported1946OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceLast reported1948OIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandLast reported1983OIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgLast reported1956OIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaLast reported1942OIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandLast reported1930OIE Handistatus, 2005
UKLast reported1992OIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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Editor's note: this datasheet is being reviewed and updated. 

Influenza A viruses are enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses. The two most important proteins of the virus, haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) project from the surface of the virus envelope. Matrix (M) proteins line the underside of the envelope and surround the core, inside of which is the viral genetic information surrounded by nucleoprotein. The nucleoprotein and matrix protein are type-specific antigens which are used to classify influenza viruses as type A, B or C. The "segmented" genome consists of 8 single-stranded RNA segments that encode 10 viral proteins: the surface glycoproteins HA and NA, matrix proteins (2), nucleoprotein, nonstructural proteins (2) and polymerase proteins (3).

To date, (at least) 16 different HAs (H1 to H16) and 9 different NAs (N1 to N9) have been recognised among all influenza A viruses. Virologists classify influenza viruses into subtypes by referring to their combination of HA and NA as HxNy (where x=1 to 16, and y=1 to 9). Three different subtypes, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 currently circulate in pigs. The international nomenclature of influenza viruses designates the type, host, geographic origin, strain number, year of isolation and antigenic subtype (WHO, 1980). For example, a H1N1 SIV isolated in Belgium in 1983 is designated A/Sw/Belgium/1/83 (H1N1).

Antibodies against the HA play the dominant role in protection against influenza infection, and there is generally no cross-immunity between viruses of different HA subtypes. A characteristic of influenza viruses is that they can change their envelope glycoproteins by the mechanisms of antigenic "shift" and "drift". Antigenic shift refers to the introduction of a new influenza virus subtype into the population, which can lead to widespread epizootics. If a host is infected with two different influenza viruses at the same time, they can exchange genome segments. This phenomenon is called "genetic reassortment" and contributes to the introduction of new subtypes.

Antigenic drift is the occurrence of relatively minor changes in the HA and/or NA as a result of immune pressure.

HPAI (fowl plague) is caused by infection with an influenza A virus. Many species of birds have been shown to be susceptible to infection with avian influenza A viruses, but most isolates have been of low pathogenicity for chickens and turkeys, the main birds of economic importance to be affected.

The HPAI A viruses that cause acute clinical disease in chickens and turkeys have been associated only with the H5 and H7 subtypes. However, many H5 and H7 subtype isolates from birds have been seen to be of low virulence (Alexander, 1993).

Different subtypes of SIV circulating in pigs include H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2.

Avian influenza notifiable to OIE is defined as an infection of poultry caused by any influenza A virus with high pathogenicity (HPAI) and by H5 and H7 subtypes with low pathogenicity (H5/H7 LPAI). Influenza A viruses with high pathogenicity in birds other than poultry, including wild birds, are also notifiable.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Alphitobius diaperinusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Coproica hirtulaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Dermestes maculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Hydrotaea aenescensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Musca domestica domesticaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect

References

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Alexander DJ, 1993. Orthomyxovirus infection. Virus infections of birds., 287-316; 122 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

WHO, 1980. Memorandum: A revision of the system of nomenclature for influenza virus. Bull. WHO, 58:585-591.

Zhou NanNan; Shortridge KF; Claas ECJ; Krauss SL; Webster RG, 1999. Rapid evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in chickens in Hong Kong. Journal of Virology, 73(4):3366-3374; 42 ref.

Distribution Maps

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