Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

influenza A virus

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Datasheet

influenza A virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • influenza A virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Orthomyxoviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleStructural features of SIV
Caption
CopyrightKristien Van Reeth
Structural features of SIVKristien Van Reeth
Immunostained SIV in a cryostat section of lung from an experimentally infected pig. Note that approximately 100% of bronchial epithelial cells are virus-positive (green fluorescence).
TitleImmunostained SIV in lung tissue
CaptionImmunostained SIV in a cryostat section of lung from an experimentally infected pig. Note that approximately 100% of bronchial epithelial cells are virus-positive (green fluorescence).
CopyrightKristien Van Reeth
Immunostained SIV in a cryostat section of lung from an experimentally infected pig. Note that approximately 100% of bronchial epithelial cells are virus-positive (green fluorescence).
Immunostained SIV in lung tissueImmunostained SIV in a cryostat section of lung from an experimentally infected pig. Note that approximately 100% of bronchial epithelial cells are virus-positive (green fluorescence).Kristien Van Reeth
TitleHistopathology of healthy pig lungs
Caption
CopyrightKristien Van Reeth
Histopathology of healthy pig lungsKristien Van Reeth
Note the necrosis of lung epithelia and obstruction of the airways with inflammatory cells.
TitleHistopathology of SIV-infected pig lungs
CaptionNote the necrosis of lung epithelia and obstruction of the airways with inflammatory cells.
CopyrightKristien Van Reeth
Note the necrosis of lung epithelia and obstruction of the airways with inflammatory cells.
Histopathology of SIV-infected pig lungsNote the necrosis of lung epithelia and obstruction of the airways with inflammatory cells.Kristien Van Reeth
Note the necrosis of lung epithelia and obstruction of the airways with inflammatory cells.
TitleHistopathology of SIV-infected pig lungs
CaptionNote the necrosis of lung epithelia and obstruction of the airways with inflammatory cells.
CopyrightKristien Van Reeth
Note the necrosis of lung epithelia and obstruction of the airways with inflammatory cells.
Histopathology of SIV-infected pig lungsNote the necrosis of lung epithelia and obstruction of the airways with inflammatory cells.Kristien Van Reeth

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • influenza A virus (ICTV)

Other Scientific Names

  • fowl plague virus ICTV
  • highly pathogenic avian influenza virus ICTV

International Common Names

  • English: avian influenza A virus; avian influenza virus; avian influenzavirus; bird flu virus; HPAI virus; swine flu virus; swine influenza virus; swine influenzavirus

English acronym

  • AIV
  • FLUAV
  • SIV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Orthomyxoviridae
  •                     Genus: Influenzavirus A
  •                         Species: influenza A virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Burkina FasoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MaliAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MozambiqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SenegalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TanzaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ZambiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Hong KongPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South KoreaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TajikistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkeyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VietnamPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
YemenAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Kingdom
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Editor's note: this datasheet is being reviewed and updated. 

Influenza A viruses are enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses. The two most important proteins of the virus, haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) project from the surface of the virus envelope. Matrix (M) proteins line the underside of the envelope and surround the core, inside of which is the viral genetic information surrounded by nucleoprotein. The nucleoprotein and matrix protein are type-specific antigens which are used to classify influenza viruses as type A, B or C. The "segmented" genome consists of 8 single-stranded RNA segments that encode 10 viral proteins: the surface glycoproteins HA and NA, matrix proteins (2), nucleoprotein, nonstructural proteins (2) and polymerase proteins (3).

To date, (at least) 16 different HAs (H1 to H16) and 9 different NAs (N1 to N9) have been recognised among all influenza A viruses. Virologists classify influenza viruses into subtypes by referring to their combination of HA and NA as HxNy (where x=1 to 16, and y=1 to 9). Three different subtypes, H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2 currently circulate in pigs. The international nomenclature of influenza viruses designates the type, host, geographic origin, strain number, year of isolation and antigenic subtype (WHO, 1980). For example, a H1N1 SIV isolated in Belgium in 1983 is designated A/Sw/Belgium/1/83 (H1N1).

Antibodies against the HA play the dominant role in protection against influenza infection, and there is generally no cross-immunity between viruses of different HA subtypes. A characteristic of influenza viruses is that they can change their envelope glycoproteins by the mechanisms of antigenic "shift" and "drift". Antigenic shift refers to the introduction of a new influenza virus subtype into the population, which can lead to widespread epizootics. If a host is infected with two different influenza viruses at the same time, they can exchange genome segments. This phenomenon is called "genetic reassortment" and contributes to the introduction of new subtypes.

Antigenic drift is the occurrence of relatively minor changes in the HA and/or NA as a result of immune pressure.

HPAI (fowl plague) is caused by infection with an influenza A virus. Many species of birds have been shown to be susceptible to infection with avian influenza A viruses, but most isolates have been of low pathogenicity for chickens and turkeys, the main birds of economic importance to be affected.

The HPAI A viruses that cause acute clinical disease in chickens and turkeys have been associated only with the H5 and H7 subtypes. However, many H5 and H7 subtype isolates from birds have been seen to be of low virulence (Alexander, 1993).

Different subtypes of SIV circulating in pigs include H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2.

Avian influenza notifiable to OIE is defined as an infection of poultry caused by any influenza A virus with high pathogenicity (HPAI) and by H5 and H7 subtypes with low pathogenicity (H5/H7 LPAI). Influenza A viruses with high pathogenicity in birds other than poultry, including wild birds, are also notifiable.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Alectoris chukarWild host
Anas (ducks)Wild host
Anas platyrhynchosDomesticated host
Anser (geese)Wild host
Anser anser (geese)Domesticated host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host
CetaceaWild host
CharadriiformesWild host
Columba livia (pigeons)Wild host
Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail)Domesticated host
Dromaius novaehollandiaeDomesticated host, Wild host
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host
Falco mexicanus
GallusDomesticated host, Wild host
Gallus gallusWild host
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated host
Homo sapiensWild host
MeleagrisDomesticated host, Wild host
Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)Domesticated host
Mus musculus (house mouse)
Mustela putorius furo (ferret)Experimental settings
Neovison vison (American mink)
NumidaDomesticated host, Wild host
Numida meleagris (guineafowl)Wild host
Phasianus (pheasants)Domesticated host, Wild host
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant)
PhocidaeWild host
Rhea americana
StruthioDomesticated host, Wild host
Struthio camelus (ostrich)Domesticated host, Wild host
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host, Wild host

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Alphitobius diaperinusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Coproica hirtulaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Dermestes maculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Hydrotaea aenescensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Musca domestica domesticaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect

References

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Alexander DJ, 1993. Orthomyxovirus infection. Virus infections of birds., 287-316; 122 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

WHO, 1980. Memorandum: A revision of the system of nomenclature for influenza virus. Bull. WHO, 58:585-591.

Zhou NanNan; Shortridge KF; Claas ECJ; Krauss SL; Webster RG, 1999. Rapid evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in chickens in Hong Kong. Journal of Virology, 73(4):3366-3374; 42 ref.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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