Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Japanese encephalitis virus

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Datasheet

Japanese encephalitis virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 August 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Japanese encephalitis virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Nidovirales
  •         Family: Flaviviridae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Japanese encephalitis virus

Other Scientific Names

  • Japanese B encephalitis virus

International Common Names

  • English: JE virus

English acronym

  • JEV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Nidovirales
  •                 Family: Flaviviridae
  •                     Genus: Flavivirus
  •                         Species: Japanese encephalitis virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)
TanzaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ZambiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)
BhutanPresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)
ChinaPresent
-FujianPresent
-YunnanPresent
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-ManipurPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
-JavaPresent
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)
JapanPresent
-KyushuPresent
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)
FranceAbsent, No presence record(s)
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyAbsent, No presence record(s)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)

Oceania

French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is classified into the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. The virus is spherical, about 50 nm in diameter and enveloped; it contains single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) with icosahedral capsid. There are three structural and several non-structural proteins. The structural proteins are: envelope glycoprotein E (54 kDa), non-glycosylated envelope protein M (8 kDa), and capsid protein C (14 kDa). The oligonucleotide fingerprinting technique (Hori et al., 1986) reveals that mutations of JEV are present in strains that were isolated years apart in Japan and Thailand. JEV is unstable in the environment and easily inactivated by disinfectants. The virus is sensitive to ether, chloroform, and sodium desoxycholate, and also to proteolytic or lipolytic enzymes. It is readily inactivated at 56°C after 30 minutes and has an optimal pH stability of 8.5. JEV replicates well and produces a cytopathic effect in a wide range of host cell culture systems. Cells originating from mosquitoes are also susceptible. Only a single serotype of JEV has been identified. To date, five genotypes have been described based on the phylogenetic analysis of the viral envelope ‘E’ gene (OIE, 2019).

Japanese encephalitis is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. For recent, detailed information on the occurrence of this disease worldwide, see the World Animal Health Information Database (WAHIS) Interface.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Acridotheres ginginianus
Anas (ducks)
Anser (geese)
ArdeidaeWild host
Aves (birds)Domesticated host; Experimental settings; Wild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated host
Canis familiaris (dogs)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Capricornis crispus
Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys)Wild host
ChiropteraWild host
ElapidaeWild host
EquusDomesticated host; Wild host
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host
GallusDomesticated host
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated host
Homo sapiensWild host
Macaca radiata
Mus musculus (house mouse)Experimental settings
Passer domesticus (house sparrow)Wild host
Rattus (rats)Wild host
Suncus murinus (Asian house shrew)
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated hostPigs: All Stages
Takydromus tachydromoides

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedes aegypti aegyptiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes albopictusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes alcasidiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes gubernatorisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes japonicusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes pseudoscutellarisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes scutellaris katherinensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes scutellaris scutellarisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes vexans nipponiiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes vexans vexansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles annularisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles culicifacies culicifaciesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles dirusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles flavirostrisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles gambiaeMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles hyrcanusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles maculatus maculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles minimusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles peditaeniatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles sinensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles stephensiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles subpictusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles vagusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Armigeres subalbatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Cimex hemipterusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Culex annulirostrisInsect
Culex bitaeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex fuscocephalaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex gelidusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex pipiens pallensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex pipiens pipiensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex pseudovishnuiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex quinquefasciatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex tarsalisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex tritaeniorhynchusInsectSouth East Asia
Culex univittatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex vishnuiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides brevitarsisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Haemagogus equinusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Mansonia annuliferaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Mansonia uniformisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Musca conducensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Phlebotomus argentipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Toxorhynchites amboinensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Toxorhynchites brevipalpisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Toxorhynchites splendensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Toxorhynchites theobaldiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0

References

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Hori H, Morita K, Igarashi A, 1986. Oligonucleotide fingerprint analysis on Japanese encephalitis virus strains isolated in Japan and Thailand. Acta Virologica, 30(5):353-359; 21 ref

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE, 2019. Japanese encephalitis (updated December 2019). In: OIE Technical disease cards Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.https://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Animal_Health_in_the_World/docs/pdf/Disease_cards/JAPANESE_ENCEPHALITIS.pdf

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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