Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Japanese encephalitis virus



Japanese encephalitis virus


  • Last modified
  • 12 August 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Japanese encephalitis virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Nidovirales
  •         Family: Flaviviridae
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Japanese encephalitis virus

Other Scientific Names

  • Japanese B encephalitis virus

International Common Names

  • English: JE virus

English acronym

  • JEV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Nidovirales
  •                 Family: Flaviviridae
  •                     Genus: Flavivirus
  •                         Species: Japanese encephalitis virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 07 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BeninAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Burkina FasoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChadAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ComorosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Congo, Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Guinea-BissauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MaliAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MauritaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MayotteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MozambiqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RwandaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SenegalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
South SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TanzaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ZambiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019


AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChinaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Hong KongAbsentJul-Dec-2019
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PakistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
PalestineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
South KoreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TaiwanPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
YemenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020


AlbaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
FranceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019


Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is classified into the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. The virus is spherical, about 50 nm in diameter and enveloped; it contains single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) with icosahedral capsid. There are three structural and several non-structural proteins. The structural proteins are: envelope glycoprotein E (54 kDa), non-glycosylated envelope protein M (8 kDa), and capsid protein C (14 kDa). The oligonucleotide fingerprinting technique (Hori et al., 1986) reveals that mutations of JEV are present in strains that were isolated years apart in Japan and Thailand. JEV is unstable in the environment and easily inactivated by disinfectants. The virus is sensitive to ether, chloroform, and sodium desoxycholate, and also to proteolytic or lipolytic enzymes. It is readily inactivated at 56°C after 30 minutes and has an optimal pH stability of 8.5. JEV replicates well and produces a cytopathic effect in a wide range of host cell culture systems. Cells originating from mosquitoes are also susceptible. Only a single serotype of JEV has been identified. To date, five genotypes have been described based on the phylogenetic analysis of the viral envelope ‘E’ gene (OIE, 2019).

Japanese encephalitis is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. For recent, detailed information on the occurrence of this disease worldwide, see the World Animal Health Information Database (WAHIS) Interface.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Acridotheres ginginianus
Anas (ducks)
Anser (geese)
ArdeidaeWild host
Aves (birds)Domesticated host; Experimental settings; Wild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated host
Canis familiaris (dogs)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Capricornis crispus
Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys)Wild host
ChiropteraWild host
ElapidaeWild host
EquusDomesticated host; Wild host
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host
GallusDomesticated host
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated host
Homo sapiensWild host
Macaca radiata
Mus musculus (house mouse)Experimental settings
Passer domesticus (house sparrow)Wild host
Rattus (rats)Wild host
Suncus murinus (Asian house shrew)
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated hostPigs|All Stages
Takydromus tachydromoides

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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Aedes aegypti aegyptiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes albopictusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes alcasidiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes gubernatorisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes japonicusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes pseudoscutellarisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes scutellaris katherinensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes scutellaris scutellarisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes vexans nipponiiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes vexans vexansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles annularisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles culicifacies culicifaciesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles dirusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles flavirostrisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles gambiaeMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles hyrcanusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles maculatus maculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles minimusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles peditaeniatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles sinensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles stephensiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles subpictusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles vagusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Armigeres subalbatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Cimex hemipterusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Culex annulirostrisInsect
Culex bitaeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex fuscocephalaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex gelidusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex pipiens pallensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex pipiens pipiensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex pseudovishnuiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex quinquefasciatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex tarsalisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex tritaeniorhynchusInsectSouth East Asia
Culex univittatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex vishnuiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides brevitarsisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Haemagogus equinusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Mansonia annuliferaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Mansonia uniformisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Musca conducensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Phlebotomus argentipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Toxorhynchites amboinensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Toxorhynchites brevipalpisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Toxorhynchites splendensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Toxorhynchites theobaldiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0


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Hori H, Morita K, Igarashi A, 1986. Oligonucleotide fingerprint analysis on Japanese encephalitis virus strains isolated in Japan and Thailand. Acta Virologica, 30(5):353-359; 21 ref

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE, 2019. Japanese encephalitis (updated December 2019). In: OIE Technical disease cards Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated.

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated.

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated.

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated.

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated.

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated.

Distribution Maps

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