Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Japanese encephalitis virus

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Datasheet

Japanese encephalitis virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Japanese encephalitis virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Nidovirales
  •         Family: Flaviviridae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Japanese encephalitis virus

Other Scientific Names

  • Japanese B encephalitis virus

International Common Names

  • English: JE virus

English acronym

  • JEV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Nidovirales
  •                 Family: Flaviviridae
  •                     Genus: Flavivirus
  •                         Species: Japanese encephalitis virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TanzaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ZambiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BhutanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChinaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-FujianPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-YunnanPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-AssamPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-BiharPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-ManipurPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
IndonesiaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-JavaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JapanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-KyushuPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MalaysiaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South KoreaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FranceAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ItalyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

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JEV is classified into the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. The virus is spherical, about 40 nm in diameter and enveloped; it contains single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) with icosahedral capsid. There are three structural and several non-structural proteins. The structural proteins are: envelope glycoprotein E (54 kDa), non-glycosylated envelope protein M (8 kDa), and capsid protein C (14 kDa). The oligonucleotide fingerprinting technique (Hori et al., 1986) reveals that mutations of JEV are present in strains that were isolated years apart in Japan and Thailand. JEV is unstable in the environment and easily inactivated by disinfectants. The virus is sensitive to ether, chloroform, and sodium desoxycholate, and also to proteolytic or lipolytic enzymes. It is readily inactivated at 56°C after 30 minutes and has an optimal pH stability of 8.5. JEV replicates well and produces a cytopathic effect in a wide range of host cell culture systems. Cells originating from mosquitoes are also susceptible. JE virus has been classified into four genotypes based on genome sequence and geographical distribution (Chen et al., 1990, 1992).

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Acridotheres ginginianus
Anas (ducks)
Anser (geese)
ArdeidaeWild host
Aves (birds)Domesticated host, Experimental settings, Wild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated host
Canis familiaris (dogs)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Capricornis crispus
Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys)Wild host
ChiropteraWild host
ElapidaeWild host
EquusDomesticated host, Wild host
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host
GallusDomesticated host
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated host
Homo sapiensWild host
Macaca radiata
Mus musculus (house mouse)Experimental settings
Passer domesticus (house sparrow)Wild host
Rattus (rats)Wild host
Suncus murinus (Asian house shrew)
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated hostPigs: All Stages
Takydromus tachydromoides

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedes aegypti aegyptiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes albopictusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes alcasidiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes gubernatorisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes japonicusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes pseudoscutellarisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes scutellaris katherinensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes scutellaris scutellarisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes vexans nipponiiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes vexans vexansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles annularisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles culicifacies culicifaciesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles dirusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles flavirostrisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles gambiaeMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles hyrcanusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles maculatus maculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles minimusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles peditaeniatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles sinensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles stephensiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles subpictusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles vagusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Armigeres subalbatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Cimex hemipterusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Culex bitaeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex fuscocephalaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex gelidusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex pipiens pallensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex pipiens pipiensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex pseudovishnuiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex quinquefasciatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex tarsalisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex tritaeniorhynchusInsectSouth East Asia
Culex univittatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex vishnuiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culicoides brevitarsisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Haemagogus equinusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Mansonia annuliferaMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Mansonia uniformisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Musca conducensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Phlebotomus argentipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Toxorhynchites amboinensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Toxorhynchites brevipalpisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Toxorhynchites splendensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Toxorhynchites theobaldiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0

References

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Chen WR; Rico-Hesse R; Tesh RB, 1992. A new genotype of Japanese encephalitis virus from Indonesia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 47(1):61-69; 19 ref.

Chen WR; Tesh RB; Rico-Hesse R, 1990. Genetic variation of Japanese encephalitis virus in nature. Journal of General Virology, 71(12):2915-2922; 22 ref.

Hori H; Morita K; Igarashi A, 1986. Oligonucleotide fingerprint analysis on Japanese encephalitis virus strains isolated in Japan and Thailand. Acta Virologica, 30(5):353-359; 21 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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