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Japanese encephalitis

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Japanese encephalitis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Japanese encephalitis
  • Overview
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne viral disease in animals and humans. Many domestic and wild animals are susceptible to the JE virus. The virus causes various forms of reproductive failures in pregnant s...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Japanese encephalitis

Other Scientific Names

  • Japanese B encephalitis

International Common Names

  • English: hydranencephaly with or without cerebellar lesions in ruminants; japanese b encephalitis in pigs- exotic

English acronym

  • JE

Overview

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Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne viral disease in animals and humans. Many domestic and wild animals are susceptible to the JE virus. The virus causes various forms of reproductive failures in pregnant sows, and lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) in horses. In other animals, infection is usually subclinical. Japanese encephalitis is one of the most common mosquito-borne diseases of the human central nervous system, epidemics having been recorded in Japan, Korea, and India. Pigs are considered the most important natural amplifying animal for the virus. Episodes of human infection occur annually during the mosquito season. Disease in most people is subclinical or mild, but fatal encephalitis develops in some children.

This disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's WAHID database on disease occurrence. For further information on this disease from OIE, see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos indicus (zebu)
Bos taurus (cattle)
Capra hircus (goats)
Ovis aries (sheep)
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated hostPigs: All Stages

Hosts/Species Affected

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The population densities of susceptible hosts are the most important predisposing factor for JEV transmission. In the countries within the temperate zone, the mosquito season starts in late spring, and the pig-mosquito cycle becomes evident shortly afterward. During this time, the pig population contains a high proportion of susceptible breeding stock in which the passive immunity has waned during the winter. In such conditions, a high concentration of the virus can be built up and maintained in the pig population. This build up is not as prevalent in the tropical countries of South-East Asia, where the mosquito-pig cycle may continue throughout the year.

Birds, in particular herons and egrets are maintainence hosts of JEV, while pigs are amplifier hosts.

Systems Affected

Top of page nervous system diseases of pigs
reproductive diseases of pigs

Distribution

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Geographic distribution of the disease is restricted to South-East Asia: infection has been recognized in Japan, far eastern Soviet Union, Korea, China, Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Laos, Bangladesh, Nepal, Thailand, Burma, Sri Lanka, India, and the Pacific islands.

For current information on disease incidence, see OIE's WAHID Interface.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RwandaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
TanzaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
ZambiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)

Asia

ArmeniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedOIE (2009); Wang et al. (1966); CABI (Undated)
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)2000OIE (2009); Higgins (1970)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009); Daniels et al. (2002)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009); Daniels et al. (2002)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
JapanPresentOIE (2009); KONO and KIM (1969)
-HokkaidoPresentTakashima et al. (1988)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)2004OIE (2009); BENDELL (1970); CABI (Undated)
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakPresentHILL (1970); OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
PakistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009); Daniels et al. (2002)
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009); CHAN and LOH (1966)
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)2007OIE (2009); KONO and KIM (1969)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)2004OIE (2009); Vesenjak Hirjan et al. (1969); Daniels et al. (2002)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)Okuno et al. (1975); OIE Handistatus (2005)
TajikistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AlbaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
FranceAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentGRASCENKOV (1964); Dandurov (1967)
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)2004OIE (2009); Chong Sue Kheng et al. (1968); Daniels et al. (2002)
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)MILES et al. (1964)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Papua New GuineaPresentDaniels et al. (2002)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE (2009)

Pathology

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Major pathologic lesions have not been found in pigs infected with JEV. However, various abnormalities have been observed in litters from dams infected with the virus during pregnancy. Gross pathologic lesions noted in stillborn or weak neonatal piglets include hydrocephalus, subcutaneous oedema, hydrothorax, ascites, petechial haemorrhages on serous membranes, congestion of lymph nodes, necrotic foci in liver and spleen, and congested meninges or spinal cord (Burns, 1950). Cerebellar hypoplasia and spinal hypomyelinogenesis have also been described (Morimoto, 1969).

Histopathologically, significant lesions in affected piglets or stillborn pigs are restricted to the central nervous system (CNS). Most CNS lesions, mainly involving the cortex, basal ganglion, brain stem, and spinal cord, occur in pigs up to 6 months of age. Perivascular cuffing and scattered neuronal degeneration and necrosis are found in the cerebrum and cerebellum in pigs. Neuronal degeneration is prominent in the grey matter and Purkinje layers.

Pathologic changes in the testes in association with JEV infection are described (Hashimura et al., 1976; Ogasa et al., 1977). In naturally affected pigs, a large amount of mucous fluid is observed in the cavity tunica vaginalis, as well as fibrous thickening along the edge of the epididymis and the visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis. Microscopically, such testicles show oedema and inflammatory changes, with cellular infiltrations in the interstitial tissue of the epididymis and tunica vaginalis. Cell infiltration and haemorrhage are also evident in the interstitial tissue of the testes.

Diagnosis

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Diagnosis of JEV infection is based upon isolation of the virus from foetuses and infected pigs. A differential diagnosis must be made to distinguish it from other infections, especially Nipah. Lack of clinical signs in sows and piglets with JEV infection is useful in excluding many diseases. Seasonal distribution also indicates JEV infection.

Isolation of the virus can be performed by intracerebral inoculation of brain extracts into suckling mice between 1 and 5 days of age. Signs of central nervous system disturbance or death follow between 4 and 14 days post-inoculation, and virus in mouse brain tissue can readily be identified by in vivo neutralization tests in suckling mice or in cell culture. The commonly used cell cultures are derived from hamster, pig kidney, and mosquito, in all of which the virus causes a cytopathic effect. It should be recognized that tissue suspected of being infected with JEV must be handled with care, because the virus is not only heat labile but also pathogenic to humans.

Several serologic tests are available that detect antibody titres of JEV infection in pig serum, such as the haemagglutination inhibition test, ELISA (Konishi and Yamaoka, 1982), antigen biotin-labelled ELISA, single radial haemolysin, plaque reduction test, and serum neutralization (SN) technique. Detection of cerebral spinal fluid-IgM, using ELISA diagnostic kits is used in humans. However, in an area where vaccination is routine, paired serum samples should be considered in the serology. The presence of the antibody in foetuses is also of diagnostic value. There are often cross reactions to antibodies to other flaviviruses.

Detection of viral antigens in infected tissues such as brains, placenta and mummified fetuses is also diagnostically important. Methods such as avidin-biotin staining and fluorescent antibody staining have been used to detect JE viral antigen in formatin-fixed tissues following treatment of such tissues with trypsin or other proteolytic enzyme (Iwasaki et al., 1986).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Sign
General Signs / Dysmetria, hypermetria, hypometria Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Pigs:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
General Signs / Opisthotonus Sign
General Signs / Trembling, shivering, fasciculations, chilling Pigs:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
Nervous Signs / Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Tremor Pigs:Piglet Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Blindness Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Nystagmus Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Pigs:Gilt,Pigs:Sow Sign
Reproductive Signs / Female infertility, repeat breeder Pigs:Gilt,Pigs:Sow Sign
Reproductive Signs / Heat on palpation scrotum, testes Pigs:Boar Sign
Reproductive Signs / Lack of libido or erection Pigs:Boar Sign
Reproductive Signs / Male infertility Pigs:Boar Sign
Reproductive Signs / Mummy, mummified fetus Pigs:Gilt,Pigs:Sow Sign
Reproductive Signs / Small litter size Pigs:Gilt,Pigs:Sow Sign

Disease Course

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Pigs become infected with JEV via the bites of mosquitoes carrying the virus. Infected pigs develop viremia, which persists for approximately 12 hours to a few days. After the initial viremia, the virus disseminates to vascular tissues such as the liver, spleen, and muscle, where further replication augments the viremia. The virus enters the central nervous system via: cerebral spinal fluid; endothelial cell-, macrophage-, or lymphocyte infection; or a haematogenous route. In humans and mice, JEV infects and destroys neurons selectively, mostly in the areas of brain stem, thalamus, basal ganglion, and lower layer of cortex. In mosquitoes, JEV infection is noncytopathic.

Transplacental infection of JEV has been reported in pigs (Shimizu et al., 1954). In pregnant pigs, foetuses may become infected during the viremic period. Experimentally, after intravenous infection of pregnant pigs with JEV, virus is recoverable from foetuses as early as 7 days post-infection. In some animals, the virus fails to cross the placenta. Successful transplacental infection may depend on the time of gestation at which the dam was infected or on the strain of virus. When infection of pregnant dams takes place in the mid-third of gestation, transplacental infection and pathogenic effects are more obvious. Field observations show that fetal death and mummification are associated with JEV infection of dams between 40 and 60 days of gestation; fetuses from the gilts infected after 85 days gestation were little affected.

Epidemiology

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In nature, infection with JEV is maintained cyclically, involving vector mosquitoes (Culex tritaeniorhynchus), birds, and mammals. A correlation between infection in pigs and infection in humans is apparent, with evidence indicating that swine play an important role in the build-up of the virus within a population. In enzootic zones, pigs are favoured feeding sources for mosquitoes. Consistent development of viremia in susceptible pigs ensures a continued supply of infected mosquitoes. Epidemiologic patterns may differ among areas of South-East Asia, as the activity of the vector mosquito is modified by differing climatic conditions.

Other animals and many different mosquito species (mainly Culex spp.) could alter infection cycles and are factors involved in the transmission of JEV (Chang and Kim, 1966; Sazawa, 1968; Hasegawa et al., 1975). The disease is a growing threat in India where the pig populations are much lower compared with other endemic areas. Chickens and wild birds, especially herons and egrets, are able to maintain the virus.

Impact: Economic

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The economic significance of Japanese encephalitis in domestic animals is not known. The significance in swine is only evident with various forms of reproductive failure in low parity sows.

Zoonoses and Food Safety

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No report is available on JEV infection in humans from pork. Virus survival in the environment is not expected, because the virus is highly temperature sensitive. Infection in humans can, however, occur during the mosquito season.

Disease Treatment

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The treatment of JE in humans with human recombinant interferon-α gives clinically satisfactory results. This treatment of JE in swine is not available.

Prevention and Control

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Breaking the infectious cycle in this arthropod-borne disease is usually a good step toward management. However, it is not practical to control the insect. Therefore, immunizing the breeders with JEV vaccine is widely used as an applicable control and preventive measure.

A variety of mostly live-attenuated vaccines has been developed for the prevention of JE in pigs and is being used successfully in the field (Hsu et al., 1972; Fujisaki et al. 1975; Kwon et al. 1976). Inactivated vaccines have proved to be less efficient. It is recommended that attenuated vaccines be given to young gilts or boars twice at an interval of 2-3 weeks before the start of the mosquito season. The live virus vaccines are not recommended for use in pregnant pigs.

References

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Bendell PJE, 1970. Japanese encephalitis in Sarawak: Studies on mosquito behavior in a Land Dyak village. Trans Royal Trop Med & Hyg, 64:497-502.

Burns KF, 1950. Congenital Japanese B encephalitis infection of swine. Proceedings Society Experimental Biology Medicine, 75:621-625.

Carey DE; Reuben R; Myers RM; George S, 1968. Japanese encephalitis studies in Vellore, South India. IV Search for virological and serological evidence of infection in animals other than man. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 56:1340-1352.

Chan YC; Loh TF, 1966. Isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus from the blood of a child in Singapore. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 15:567-572.

Chang IC; Kim IH, 1966. Serologic survey of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in wild birds in Korea. Korean J Int Med, 9:173-188.

Chen WR; Rico-Hesse R; Tesh RB, 1992. A new genotype of Japanese encephalitis virus from Indonesia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 47(1):61-69; 19 ref.

Chen WR; Tesh RB; Rico-Hesse R, 1990. Genetic variation of Japanese encephalitis virus in nature. Journal of General Virology, 71(12):2915-2922; 22 ref.

Chong SK; Teoh KC; Marchette NJ; Garcia R; Rudnick A; Coughlan RF, 1968. Japanese B encephalitis in a horse. Australian Veterinary Journal, 44:23-25.

Dandurov IV, 1967. Japanese encephalitis in the Primorsk region in 1965. Vopr Virusol, 12:739-742.

Daniels PW; Williams DT; Mackenzie JS, 2002. Japanese Encephalitis Virus. In: Trends in Emerging Viral Infections of Swine (eds, Morilla A, Yoon KJ, Zimmerman JJ). Iowa State Press, USA.

Fujisaki Y; Sugimori T; Morimoto T; Miura Y; Kawakami Y; Nakano K, 1975. Immunization of pigs with the attenuated S strain of Japanese encephalitis virus. National Institute of Animal Health Quarterly (Tokyo), 15:55-60.

Gould DJ; Edelman R; Crossman RA; Nisalak A; Sullivan MF, 1974. Study of Japanese encephalitis virus in Chiangmai valley, Thailand. IV. Vector studies. Am J Epidemiol, 100:49-56.

Grascenkov NI, 1964. Japanese encephalitis in the USSR. Bull WHO, 30:161-172.

Hasegawa T; Takehara Y; Takahashi K, 1975. Natural and experimental infections of Japanese tree sparrows with Japanese encephalitis virus. Archives of Virology, 49:373-376.

Hashimura K; Uemiyada S; Komemura S; Fukumoto S; Okuda G; Miura K; Hayashi S, 1976. Isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus from orchitis in pigs. Summary 81st Meeting Japanese Society of Veterinary Science.

Higgins DA, 1970. A serological survey of pigs in Hong Kong for antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus. Tropical Animal Health & Production, 2:23-27.

Hill MN, 1970. Japanese encephalitis in Sarawak: Studies on adult mosquito populations. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygine, 64:489-496.

Hori H; Morita K; Igarashi A, 1986. Oligonucleotide fingerprint analysis on Japanese encephalitis virus strains isolated in Japan and Thailand. Acta Virologica, 30(5):353-359; 21 ref.

Hsu ST; Chang LC; Lin SY; Chuang TY; Ma CH; Inoue YK; Okuno T, 1972. The effect of vaccination with a live attenuated strain of Japanese encephalitis virus on stillbirths in swine in Taiwan. Bulletin of WHO, 46:465-471.

Iwasaki Y; Zhao JX; Yamamoto T; Konno H, 1986. Immunohistochemical demonstration of viral antigens in Japanese encephalitis. Acta Neuropathol, 70:79-81.

Ketel WB, 1971. Japanese B encephalitis in Vietnam. American Journal of Medical Science, 261:271-279.

Konishi E; Yamaoka M, 1982. Evaluation of ELISA for quantitation of antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus in swine sera. J Virol Methods, 5:247-253.

Kono R; Kim KH, 1969. Comparative epidemiological features of Japanese encephalitis in the Republic of Korea, China (Taiwan) and Japan. Bulletin of WHO, 40:263-277.

Kwon HJ; Kang BJ; Lim YM; Lee CK; Kwon YB; Hur W; Jeon; YS, 1976. Studies on Japanese encephalitis live virus vaccine. III. Pathogenicity of tissue culture attenuated strain of virus (Anyang strain). Research Report Office of Rural Development (Korea), 18:21-28.

Miles JA, 1964. Evidence of arbovirus infection in Fiji. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 13:327-330.

Morimoto T, 1969. Epizootic swine stillbirth caused by Japanese encephalitis virus. Proceedings of a symposium on factors producing embryonic and fetal abnormalities, death, and abortion in swine. US ARS, 91-73:137-153.

Ogasa A; Yokoki Y; Fujisaki Y; Habu A, 1977. Reproductive disorders in boars infected experimentally with Japanese encephalitis virus. Japanese Journal of Animal Reproduction, 23:171-175.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

Okuno T; Tseng PT; Hsu ST; Huang CT; Kuo CC; Lin SY, 1975. Japanese encephalitis surveillance in China (Province of Taiwan) during 1968-1971. I. Geographical and seasonal features of case outbreaks. Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology, 28:235-253.

Rojanasuphot S; Shaffer N; Chotpitayasunondh T; Phumiamorn S; Mock P; Chearskul S; Waranawat N; Yuentrakul P; Mastro TD; Tsai TF, 1998. Response to JE vaccine among HIV-infected children, Bangkok, Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 29(3):443-450; 24 ref.

Salafranca ES; Espiritu L, 1949. Report on the presence of Japanese B encephalitis neutralizing antibody among Fillipinos and certain Philippine animals. American Journal of Tropical Medicine, 29:219-227.

Sazawa H, 1968. Japanese encephalitis in domestic animals. Bull Int Epizootics, 70:627-633.

Shimizu T; Kawakami Y; Fukuhaira S; Matsumoto M, 1954. Experimental stillbirth in pregnant swine infected with Japanese encephalitis virus. Japanese Journal of Experimental Medicine, 24:363-375.

Simpson DIH; Smith CEG; Marshall TFC, et al. , 1976. Arbovirus infections in Sarawak: the role of domestic pig. Trans Royal Trop Med & Hyg, 70:66-72.

Takashima I; Watanabe T; Ouchi N; Hashimoto N, 1988. Ecological studies of Japanese encephalitis virus in Hokkaido: interepidemic outbreaks of swine abortion and evidence for the virus to overwinter locally. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 38(2):420-427; 16 ref.

Vesenjak Hirjan J; Hermon Y; Vitarana T, 1969. Arbovirus infections in Ceylon. Bulletin WHO, 41:243-249.

Wakai S, 1998. Scourge of Japanese encephalitis in southwestern Nepal. Lancet (British edition), 351(9104):759; 2 ref.

Wang YC; Chen HM; I HY, 1966. Isolation of Japanese B encephalitis virus from a horse in Peking. Acta Vet Zootech Sin, 9:155-156.

Work TH; Shah KV, 1956. Serological diagnosis of Japanese B type of encephalitis in North Arcot district of Madras state, India with epidemiological notes. Indian Journal of Medical Science, 10:582-592.

Zhang HL; Mi ZQ; Gong ZD, et al. , 1998. Characteristics of mosquitoes distributed and isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan province. Endemic Disease Bulletin, 13:78-80.

Distribution References

BENDELL P J E, 1970. Studies on arbovirus epidemiology associated with established and developing rice culture. Japanese encephalitis in Sarawak : studies on mosquito behaviour in a Land Dayak village. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 64 (4), 481-522; 497-502 pp. DOI:10.1016/0035-9203(70)90069-6

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CHAN Y C, LOH T F, 1966. Isolation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus from the Blood of a Child in Singapore. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 15 (4), 567-72.

Chong Sue Kheng, Teoh Kim Chee, March-Ette N J, Garcia R, Rudnick A, Coughlan R F, 1968. Japanese B encephalitis in a horse. Australian Veterinary Journal. 23-25. DOI:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1968.tb04908.x

Dandurov IV, 1967. Japanese encephalitis in the Primorsk region in 1965. In: Vopr Virusol, 12 739-742.

Daniels P W, Williams D T, Mackenzie J S, 2002. Japanese encephalitis virus. In: Trends in emerging viral infections of swine. [ed. by Morilla A, Yoon K J, Zimmerman J J]. Ames, USA: Iowa State Press. 249-263.

GRASCENKOV N I, 1964. Japanese Encephalitis in the USSR. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 30 (2), 161-72.

Higgins D A, 1970. A serological survey of pigs in Hong Kong for antibodies to Japanese encephalitis viras. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 23-27. DOI:10.1007/BF02359325

HILL M N, 1970. Studies on arbovirus epidemiology associated with established and developing rice culture. Japanese encephalitis in Sarawak : studies on adult mosquito populations. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 64 (4), 481-522; 489-496 pp. DOI:10.1016/0035-9203(70)90068-4

KONO R, KIM K H, 1969. Comparative epidemiological features of Japanese encephalitis in the Republic of Korea, China (Taiwan) and Japan. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 40 (2), 263-77.

MILES J A R , MAGUIRE T , AUSTIN F J , ROSS R W , ORDISH R, 1964. Evidence of arbovirus infection in Fiji. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 13 (2), 327-330 pp.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4., Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. https://www.oie.int/

Okuno T, Tseng PT, Hsu ST, Huang CT, Kuo CC, Lin SY, 1975. Japanese encephalitis surveillance in China (Province of Taiwan) during 1968-1971. I. Geographical and seasonal features of case outbreaks. In: Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology, 28 235-253.

Takashima I, Watanabe T, Ouchi N, Hashimoto N, 1988. Ecological studies of Japanese encephalitis virus in Hokkaido: interepidemic outbreaks of swine abortion and evidence for the virus to overwinter locally. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 38 (2), 420-427.

Vesenjak Hirjan J, Hermon Y, Vitarana T, 1969. Arbovirus infections in Ceylon. In: Bulletin WHO, 41 243-249.

Wang Yung-Chi, Ch'En Hsing-Min, I Hsiu-Ylin, 1966. Isolation of Japanese B encephalitis virus from a horse in Pekin. Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica. 155-156.

Links to Websites

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Japanese encephalitis linkshttp://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/2188/je.htmlDr.M.Vadivale's Homepage: includes links to other JE sites, mainly from human health angle

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