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Japanese encephalitis

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Japanese encephalitis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 August 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Japanese encephalitis
  • Overview
  • Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne viral disease in animals and humans. Many domestic and wild animals are susceptible to the JE virus. The virus causes various forms of reproductive failures in pregnant sows, and lesions i...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Japanese encephalitis

Other Scientific Names

  • Japanese B encephalitis

International Common Names

  • English: hydranencephaly with or without cerebellar lesions in ruminants; japanese b encephalitis in pigs- exotic

English acronym

  • JE

Overview

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Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne viral disease in animals and humans. Many domestic and wild animals are susceptible to the JE virus. The virus causes various forms of reproductive failures in pregnant sows, and lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) in horses. In other animals, infection is usually subclinical. Japanese encephalitis is one of the most common mosquito-borne diseases of the human central nervous system, epidemics having been recorded in Japan, South Korea, and India. Pigs are considered the most important natural amplifying animal for the virus. Episodes of human infection occur annually during the mosquito season. Disease in most people is subclinical or mild, but fatal encephalitis develops in some children.

This disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's WAHID database on disease occurrence. For further information on this disease from OIE, see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Hosts/Species Affected

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Horses are the primary affected domestic animals of JE though essentially a dead-end host; other equids (donkeys) are also susceptible. Humans are also considered a dead-end host. Birds, in particular those of the family Ardeidae (herons and egrets) are maintenance hosts of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), while pigs are amplifier hosts. Other subclinically infected animals which likely do not contribute to spread include: cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, chickens, ducks, wild mammals, reptiles and amphibians (OIE, 2019). Rare clinical cases have also been reported in cattle (Katayama et al., 2013; Kako et al., 2014).

The population densities of susceptible hosts are the most important predisposing factor for JEV transmission. In the countries within the temperate zone, the mosquito season starts in late spring, and the pig-mosquito cycle becomes evident shortly afterward. During this time, the pig population contains a high proportion of susceptible breeding stock in which the passive immunity has waned during the winter. In such conditions, a high concentration of the virus can be built up and maintained in the pig population. This build up is not as prevalent in the tropical countries of South-East Asia, where the mosquito-pig cycle may continue throughout the year.

Systems Affected

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nervous system diseases of pigs
reproductive diseases of pigs

Distribution

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Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is widespread in eastern, south-eastern and southern Asian countries and has spread to western India and to the western Pacific region including the eastern Indonesian archipelago, Papua New Guinea and Northern Australia. It is most often associated with areas of intensive rice farming and pig production (OIE, 2019).

It is possible that JEV could become endemic in additional regions, similarly to West Nile virus, which became established in the Americas in the 1990s (Spickler, 2016; Oliveira et al., 2020). JEV has been identified in mosquitoes and birds collected in Italy, where human cases are unreported to date (Preziuso et al., 2018).

Genotype III (GIII) was the most frequently isolated genotype throughout most of Asia from 1935 until the 1990s. A genotype shift then occurred, with genotype I (GI) becoming most common in pigs in the epidemic area of Asia (Ladreyt et al., 2019).

For recent, detailed information on the occurrence of this disease worldwide, see the OIE World Animal Health Information Database (WAHIS) Interface.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)
RwandaAbsent, No presence record(s)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)
TanzaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ZambiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)

Asia

ArmeniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)
ChinaPresent, Localized
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)2000
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)
MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)2004
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakPresent
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)
PakistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)2007
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)2004
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)
TajikistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)

Europe

AlbaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)
FranceAbsent, No presence record(s)
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresent
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)2004
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)
Papua New GuineaPresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)

Pathology

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Major pathologic lesions have not been found in pigs infected with JEV. However, various abnormalities have been observed in litters from dams infected with the virus during pregnancy. Gross pathologic lesions noted in stillborn or weak neonatal piglets include hydrocephalus, subcutaneous oedema, hydrothorax, ascites, petechial haemorrhages on serous membranes, congestion of lymph nodes, necrotic foci in liver and spleen, and congested meninges or spinal cord (Burns, 1950). Cerebellar hypoplasia and spinal hypomyelinogenesis have also been described (Morimoto, 1969).

Histopathologically, significant lesions in affected piglets or stillborn pigs are restricted to the central nervous system (CNS). Most CNS lesions, mainly involving the cortex, basal ganglion, brain stem, and spinal cord, occur in pigs up to 6 months of age. Perivascular cuffing and scattered neuronal degeneration and necrosis are found in the cerebrum and cerebellum in pigs. Neuronal degeneration is prominent in the grey matter and Purkinje layers.

Pathologic changes in the testes in association with JEV infection are described (Hashimura et al., 1976; Ogasa et al., 1977). In naturally affected pigs, a large amount of mucous fluid is observed in the cavity tunica vaginalis, as well as fibrous thickening along the edge of the epididymis and the visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis. Microscopically, such testicles show oedema and inflammatory changes, with cellular infiltrations in the interstitial tissue of the epididymis and tunica vaginalis. Cell infiltration and haemorrhage are also evident in the interstitial tissue of the testes.

Diagnosis

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Diagnosis of JEV infection is based upon isolation of the virus from foetuses and infected pigs. A differential diagnosis must be made to distinguish it from other infections, especially Nipah. Lack of clinical signs in sows and piglets with JEV infection is useful in excluding many diseases. Seasonal distribution also indicates JEV infection.

Isolation of the virus can be performed by intracerebral inoculation of brain extracts into suckling mice between 1 and 5 days of age. Signs of central nervous system disturbance or death follow between 4 and 14 days post-inoculation, and virus in mouse brain tissue can readily be identified by in vivo neutralization tests in suckling mice or in cell culture. The commonly used cell cultures are derived from hamster, pig kidney, and mosquito, in all of which the virus causes a cytopathic effect. It should be recognized that tissue suspected of being infected with JEV must be handled with care, because the virus is not only heat labile but also pathogenic to humans. Identification of the virus isolated in mice or in tissue cultures is confirmed by serological or nucleic acid detection methods such as reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) (Mansfield et al., 2017).

Several serologic tests are available that detect antibody titres of JEV infection in pig serum, such as the haemagglutination inhibition test, ELISA (Konishi and Yamaoka, 1982), antigen biotin-labelled ELISA, single radial haemolysin, plaque reduction test, and serum neutralization (SN) technique. Detection of cerebral spinal fluid-IgM, using ELISA diagnostic kits is used in humans. However, in an area where vaccination is routine, paired serum samples should be considered in the serology. The presence of the antibody in foetuses is also of diagnostic value. There are often cross reactions to antibodies to other flaviviruses.

Detection of viral antigens in infected tissues such as brains, placenta and mummified fetuses is also diagnostically important. Methods such as avidin-biotin staining and fluorescent antibody staining have been used to detect JE viral antigen in formatin-fixed tissues following treatment of such tissues with trypsin or other proteolytic enzyme (Iwasaki et al., 1986).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Sign
General Signs / Dysmetria, hypermetria, hypometria Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Pigs:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
General Signs / Opisthotonus Sign
General Signs / Trembling, shivering, fasciculations, chilling Pigs:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
Nervous Signs / Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Tremor Pigs:Piglet Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Blindness Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Nystagmus Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Pigs:Gilt,Pigs:Sow Sign
Reproductive Signs / Female infertility, repeat breeder Pigs:Gilt,Pigs:Sow Sign
Reproductive Signs / Heat on palpation scrotum, testes Pigs:Boar Sign
Reproductive Signs / Lack of libido or erection Pigs:Boar Sign
Reproductive Signs / Male infertility Pigs:Boar Sign
Reproductive Signs / Mummy, mummified fetus Pigs:Gilt,Pigs:Sow Sign
Reproductive Signs / Small litter size Pigs:Gilt,Pigs:Sow Sign

Disease Course

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Pigs become infected with JEV via the bites of mosquitoes carrying the virus. Infected pigs develop viremia, which persists for approximately 12 hours to a few days. After the initial viremia, the virus disseminates to vascular tissues such as the liver, spleen, and muscle, where further replication augments the viremia. The virus enters the central nervous system via: cerebral spinal fluid; endothelial cell-, macrophage-, or lymphocyte infection; or a haematogenous route. In humans and mice, JEV infects and destroys neurons selectively, mostly in the areas of brain stem, thalamus, basal ganglion, and lower layer of cortex. In mosquitoes, JEV infection is noncytopathic.

Transplacental infection of JEV has been reported in pigs (Shimizu et al., 1954). In pregnant pigs, foetuses may become infected during the viremic period. Experimentally, after intravenous infection of pregnant pigs with JEV, virus is recoverable from foetuses as early as 7 days post-infection. In some animals, the virus fails to cross the placenta. Successful transplacental infection may depend on the time of gestation at which the dam was infected or on the strain of virus. When infection of pregnant dams takes place in the mid-third of gestation, transplacental infection and pathogenic effects are more obvious. Field observations show that fetal death and mummification are associated with JEV infection of dams between 40 and 60 days of gestation; fetuses from the gilts infected after 85 days gestation were little affected.

Epidemiology

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In nature, infection with JEV is maintained cyclically, involving vector mosquitoes (principally Culex spp. mosquitoes; Culex tritaeniorhynchus is important as it has a wide host range), birds, and mammals. Pigs are central in JE epidemiology, not only for virus maintenance and amplification, but also in transmission to humans (Ladreyt et al., 2019). A correlation between infection in pigs and infection in humans is apparent, with evidence indicating that swine play an important role in the build-up of the virus within a population. In enzootic zones, pigs are favoured feeding sources for mosquitoes. Consistent development of viremia in susceptible pigs ensures a continued supply of infected mosquitoes. Epidemiologic patterns may differ among areas of South-East Asia, as the activity of the vector mosquitoes is modified by differing climatic conditions.

Other animals and many different mosquito species (mainly Culex spp., but others have been implicated) could alter infection cycles and are factors involved in the transmission of JEV (Chang and Kim, 1966; Sazawa, 1968; Hasegawa et al., 1975). Wild birds, especially herons and egrets, are able to maintain the virus (Mansfield et al., 2017).

Vector-free transmission of JEV between pigs has been described (Ricklin et al., 2016). Under experimental conditions, needle-infected pigs shed virus in oronasal emissions and transmitted virus to co-housed uninfected pigs. This has not been demonstrated under natural conditions but could provide a mechanism for rapid spread of JEV through intensively farmed pig herds and enable transmission of disease during vector-free periods (Mansfield et al., 2017).

Impact: Economic

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Japanese encephalitis virus is primarily a cause of human encephalitis. However, livestock losses in the form of fetal abnormalities and death can reduce the productivity of pig farms (Mansfield et al., 2017). Reproductive losses in pigs can reach 50-70%, with abortions in sows (stillbirths or mummified fetuses, usually at term) and reduced number and motility of sperm in boars. Mortality in non-immune, infected piglets can approach 100%, but the mortality is near zero in adult swine (OIE, 2019). Prevention of disease in livestock, particularly pigs, is primarily through vaccination although this imposes a cost on farmers that prevent its application in many parts of Asia (Mansfield et al., 2017).

Zoonoses and Food Safety

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JEV is the main cause of viral encephalitis in many countries of Asia with an estimated 68,000 clinical cases every year. JE primarily affects children. Most adults in endemic countries have natural immunity after childhood infection, but individuals of any age may be affected. Although most JEV infections are mild (fever and headache) or without apparent symptoms, approximately 1 in 250 infections results in severe clinical illness. The case-fatality rate among those with encephalitis can be as high as 30%. Permanent neurologic or psychiatric sequelae can occur in 30-50% of those with encephalitis (WHO, 2019). Safe and effective JE vaccines are available to prevent disease in endemic countries (WHO, 2019).

Disease Treatment

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Only palliative care is available to treat affected animals (Mansfield et al., 2017).

There is no antiviral treatment for human patients with JE. Treatment is supportive to relieve symptoms and stabilize the patient (WHO, 2019).

Prevention and Control

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Breaking the infectious cycle in this arthropod-borne disease is usually a good step toward management. However, it is not practical and too costly to control the insect. Therefore, immunizing the breeders with JEV vaccine is used as an applicable control and preventive measure. However, the cost of vaccination often outweighs the benefits of vaccine use or is defeated by the logistics of vaccinating large numbers of livestock during periods of vector activity (Mansfield et al., 2017).

A variety of inactivated and live-attenuated vaccines has been developed for the prevention of JE in pigs and are being used successfully in the field (Hsu et al., 1972; Fujisaki et al. 1975; Kwon et al. 1976). It is recommended that attenuated vaccines be given to young gilts or boars twice at an interval of 2-3 weeks before the start of the mosquito season. The live virus vaccines are not recommended for use in pregnant pigs.

Although vaccines are cross-protective between viral genotypes, some reports suggest their relative efficacy might differ. Past vaccines generally contained genotype III viruses, but new genotype I vaccines are being developed in some areas where these viruses have become common (Spickler, 2016).

Vaccines are also available for horses and humans (OIE, 2019). Vaccination has reduced the number of clinical cases among horses in endemic areas, and is mandatory in certain animals (e.g., racehorses) in some countries. Childhood vaccination has, likewise, greatly decreased the number of human cases in some countries; however, vaccination rates vary, and this disease is still very common in some areas (Spickler, 2016; Barzon and Palù, 2018).

References

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Barzon, L., Palù, G., 2018. Recent developments in vaccines and biological therapies against Japanese encephalitis virus. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 18(8), 851-864. doi: 10.1080/14712598.2018.1499721

Bendell PJE, 1970. Japanese encephalitis in Sarawak: Studies on mosquito behavior in a Land Dyak village. Trans Royal Trop Med & Hyg, 64:497-502

Burns KF, 1950. Congenital Japanese B encephalitis infection of swine. Proceedings Society Experimental Biology Medicine, 75:621-625

Carey DE, Reuben R, Myers RM, George S, 1968. Japanese encephalitis studies in Vellore, South India. IV Search for virological and serological evidence of infection in animals other than man. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 56:1340-1352

Chan YC, Loh TF, 1966. Isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus from the blood of a child in Singapore. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 15:567-572

Chang IC, Kim IH, 1966. Serologic survey of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in wild birds in Korea. Korean J Int Med, 9:173-188

Chen WR, Rico-Hesse R, Tesh RB, 1992. A new genotype of Japanese encephalitis virus from Indonesia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 47(1):61-69; 19 ref

Chen WR, Tesh RB, Rico-Hesse R, 1990. Genetic variation of Japanese encephalitis virus in nature. Journal of General Virology, 71(12):2915-2922; 22 ref

Chong SK, Teoh KC, Marchette NJ, Garcia R, Rudnick A, Coughlan RF, 1968. Japanese B encephalitis in a horse. Australian Veterinary Journal, 44:23-25

Dandurov IV, 1967. Japanese encephalitis in the Primorsk region in 1965. Vopr Virusol, 12:739-742

Daniels PW, Williams DT, Mackenzie JS, 2002. Japanese Encephalitis Virus. In: Trends in Emerging Viral Infections of Swine (eds, Morilla A, Yoon KJ, Zimmerman JJ). Iowa State Press, USA

Fujisaki Y, Sugimori T, Morimoto T, Miura Y, Kawakami Y, Nakano K, 1975. Immunization of pigs with the attenuated S strain of Japanese encephalitis virus. National Institute of Animal Health Quarterly (Tokyo), 15:55-60

Gould DJ, Edelman R, Crossman RA, Nisalak A, Sullivan MF, 1974. Study of Japanese encephalitis virus in Chiangmai valley, Thailand. IV. Vector studies. Am J Epidemiol, 100:49-56

Grascenkov NI, 1964. Japanese encephalitis in the USSR. Bull WHO, 30:161-172

Hasegawa T, Takehara Y, Takahashi K, 1975. Natural and experimental infections of Japanese tree sparrows with Japanese encephalitis virus. Archives of Virology, 49:373-376

Hashimura K, Uemiyada S, Komemura S, Fukumoto S, Okuda G, Miura K, Hayashi S, 1976. Isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus from orchitis in pigs. Summary 81st Meeting Japanese Society of Veterinary Science

Higgins DA, 1970. A serological survey of pigs in Hong Kong for antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus. Tropical Animal Health & Production, 2:23-27

Hill MN, 1970. Japanese encephalitis in Sarawak: Studies on adult mosquito populations. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygine, 64:489-496

Hori H, Morita K, Igarashi A, 1986. Oligonucleotide fingerprint analysis on Japanese encephalitis virus strains isolated in Japan and Thailand. Acta Virologica, 30(5):353-359; 21 ref

Hsu ST, Chang LC, Lin SY, Chuang TY, Ma CH, Inoue YK, Okuno T, 1972. The effect of vaccination with a live attenuated strain of Japanese encephalitis virus on stillbirths in swine in Taiwan. Bulletin of WHO, 46:465-471

Iwasaki Y, Zhao JX, Yamamoto T, Konno H, 1986. Immunohistochemical demonstration of viral antigens in Japanese encephalitis. Acta Neuropathol, 70:79-81

Kako, N., Suzuki, S., Sugie, N., Kato, T., Yanase, T., Yamakawa, M., Shirafuji, H., 2014. Japanese encephalitis in a 114-month-old cow: pathological investigation of the affected cow and genetic characterization of Japanese encephalitis virus isolate. BMC Veterinary Research, 10(63), (11 March 2014). http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1746-6148-10-63.pdf

Katayama, T., Saito, S., Horiuchi, S., Maruta, T., Kato, T., Yanase, T., Yamakawa, M., Shirafuji, H., 2013. Nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis in a calf in Japan and isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus genotype 1 from the affected calf. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 51(10), 3448-3453. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00737-13

Ketel WB, 1971. Japanese B encephalitis in Vietnam. American Journal of Medical Science, 261:271-279

Konishi E, Yamaoka M, 1982. Evaluation of ELISA for quantitation of antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus in swine sera. J Virol Methods, 5:247-253

Kono R, Kim KH, 1969. Comparative epidemiological features of Japanese encephalitis in the Republic of Korea, China (Taiwan) and Japan. Bulletin of WHO, 40:263-277

Kwon HJ, Kang BJ, Lim YM, Lee CK, Kwon YB, Hur W, Jeon, YS, 1976. Studies on Japanese encephalitis live virus vaccine. III. Pathogenicity of tissue culture attenuated strain of virus (Anyang strain). Research Report Office of Rural Development (Korea), 18:21-28

Ladreyt, H., Durand, B., Dussart, P., Chevalier, V., 2019. How central is the domestic pig in the epidemiological cycle of Japanese encephalitis virus? A review of scientific evidence and implications for disease control. Viruses, 11(10), doi: 10.3390/v11100949

Mansfield, K. L., Hernández-Triana, L. M., Banyard, A. C., Fooks, A. R., Johnson, N., 2017. Japanese encephalitis virus infection, diagnosis and control in domestic animals. Veterinary Microbiology, 201, 85-92. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.014

Miles JA, 1964. Evidence of arbovirus infection in Fiji. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 13:327-330

Morimoto T, 1969. Epizootic swine stillbirth caused by Japanese encephalitis virus. Proceedings of a symposium on factors producing embryonic and fetal abnormalities, death, and abortion in swine. US ARS, 91-73:137-153

Ogasa A, Yokoki Y, Fujisaki Y, Habu A, 1977. Reproductive disorders in boars infected experimentally with Japanese encephalitis virus. Japanese Journal of Animal Reproduction, 23:171-175

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

OIE, 2019. Japanese encephalitis (updated December 2019). In: OIE Technical disease cards Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.https://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Animal_Health_in_the_World/docs/pdf/Disease_cards/JAPANESE_ENCEPHALITIS.pdf

Okuno T, Tseng PT, Hsu ST, Huang CT, Kuo CC, Lin SY, 1975. Japanese encephalitis surveillance in China (Province of Taiwan) during 1968-1971. I. Geographical and seasonal features of case outbreaks. Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology, 28:235-253

Oliveira, A. R. S., Cohnstaedt, L. W., Noronha, L. E., Mitzel, D., McVey, D. S., Cernicchiaro, N., 2020. Perspectives regarding the risk of introduction of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in the United States. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 6(February), doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00048

Preziuso, S., Mari, S., Mariotti, F., Rossi, G., 2018. Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in bone marrow of healthy young wild birds collected in 1997-2000 in Central Italy. Zoonoses and Public Health, 65(7), 798-804. doi: 10.1111/zph.12501

Ricklin, M. E., García-Nicolás, O., Brechbühl, D., Python, S., Zumkehr, B., Nougairede, A., Charrel, R. N., Posthaus, H., Oevermann, A., Summerfield, A. , 2016. Vector-free transmission and persistence of Japanese encephalitis virus in pigs. Nature Communications, 7, 10832. doi: 10.1038/ncomms10832

Rojanasuphot S, Shaffer N, Chotpitayasunondh T, Phumiamorn S, Mock P, Chearskul S, Waranawat N, Yuentrakul P, Mastro TD, Tsai TF, 1998. Response to JE vaccine among HIV-infected children, Bangkok, Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 29(3):443-450; 24 ref

Salafranca ES, Espiritu L, 1949. Report on the presence of Japanese B encephalitis neutralizing antibody among Fillipinos and certain Philippine animals. American Journal of Tropical Medicine, 29:219-227

Sazawa H, 1968. Japanese encephalitis in domestic animals. Bull Int Epizootics, 70:627-633

Shimizu T, Kawakami Y, Fukuhaira S, Matsumoto M, 1954. Experimental stillbirth in pregnant swine infected with Japanese encephalitis virus. Japanese Journal of Experimental Medicine, 24:363-375

Simpson DIH, Smith CEG, Marshall TFC, et al. , 1976. Arbovirus infections in Sarawak: the role of domestic pig. Trans Royal Trop Med & Hyg, 70:66-72

Spickler, A. R., 2016. Japanese Encephalitis. Iowa, USA: Center for Food Security and Public Health (CFSPH), Iowa State University.http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/factsheets.php

Takashima I, Watanabe T, Ouchi N, Hashimoto N, 1988. Ecological studies of Japanese encephalitis virus in Hokkaido: interepidemic outbreaks of swine abortion and evidence for the virus to overwinter locally. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 38(2):420-427; 16 ref

Vesenjak Hirjan J, Hermon Y, Vitarana T, 1969. Arbovirus infections in Ceylon. Bulletin WHO, 41:243-249

Wakai S, 1998. Scourge of Japanese encephalitis in southwestern Nepal. Lancet (British edition), 351(9104):759; 2 ref

Wang YC, Chen HM, I HY, 1966. Isolation of Japanese B encephalitis virus from a horse in Peking. Acta Vet Zootech Sin, 9:155-156

WHO, 2019. Japanese encephalitis. Fact sheet, 9 May 2019. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/japanese-encephalitis

Work TH, Shah KV, 1956. Serological diagnosis of Japanese B type of encephalitis in North Arcot district of Madras state, India with epidemiological notes. Indian Journal of Medical Science, 10:582-592

Zhang HL, Mi ZQ, Gong ZD, et al. , 1998. Characteristics of mosquitoes distributed and isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan province. Endemic Disease Bulletin, 13:78-80

Distribution References

BENDELL P J E, 1970. Studies on arbovirus epidemiology associated with established and developing rice culture. Japanese encephalitis in Sarawak : studies on mosquito behaviour in a Land Dayak village. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 64 (4), 481-522; 497-502 pp. DOI:10.1016/0035-9203(70)90069-6

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CHAN Y C, LOH T F, 1966. Isolation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus from the Blood of a Child in Singapore. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 15 (4), 567-72.

Chong Sue Kheng, Teoh Kim Chee, March-Ette N J, Garcia R, Rudnick A, Coughlan R F, 1968. Japanese B encephalitis in a horse. Australian Veterinary Journal. 23-25. DOI:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1968.tb04908.x

Dandurov IV, 1967. Japanese encephalitis in the Primorsk region in 1965. In: Vopr Virusol, 12 739-742.

Daniels P W, Williams D T, Mackenzie J S, 2002. Japanese encephalitis virus. In: Trends in emerging viral infections of swine. [ed. by Morilla A, Yoon K J, Zimmerman J J]. Ames, USA: Iowa State Press. 249-263.

GRASCENKOV N I, 1964. Japanese Encephalitis in the USSR. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 30 (2), 161-72.

Higgins D A, 1970. A serological survey of pigs in Hong Kong for antibodies to Japanese encephalitis viras. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 23-27. DOI:10.1007/BF02359325

HILL M N, 1970. Studies on arbovirus epidemiology associated with established and developing rice culture. Japanese encephalitis in Sarawak : studies on adult mosquito populations. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 64 (4), 481-522; 489-496 pp. DOI:10.1016/0035-9203(70)90068-4

KONO R, KIM K H, 1969. Comparative epidemiological features of Japanese encephalitis in the Republic of Korea, China (Taiwan) and Japan. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 40 (2), 263-77.

MILES J A R , MAGUIRE T , AUSTIN F J , ROSS R W , ORDISH R, 1964. Evidence of arbovirus infection in Fiji. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 13 (2), 327-330 pp.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4., Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. https://www.oie.int/

Okuno T, Tseng PT, Hsu ST, Huang CT, Kuo CC, Lin SY, 1975. Japanese encephalitis surveillance in China (Province of Taiwan) during 1968-1971. I. Geographical and seasonal features of case outbreaks. In: Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology, 28 235-253.

Takashima I, Watanabe T, Ouchi N, Hashimoto N, 1988. Ecological studies of Japanese encephalitis virus in Hokkaido: interepidemic outbreaks of swine abortion and evidence for the virus to overwinter locally. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 38 (2), 420-427.

Vesenjak Hirjan J, Hermon Y, Vitarana T, 1969. Arbovirus infections in Ceylon. In: Bulletin WHO, 41 243-249.

Wang Yung-Chi, Ch'En Hsing-Min, I Hsiu-Ylin, 1966. Isolation of Japanese B encephalitis virus from a horse in Pekin. Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica. 155-156.

Links to Websites

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Japanese Encephalitis. In: OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals, 2019https://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/3.01.10_JEV.pdf

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