Lates niloticus (Nile perch)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Water Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Lates niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Preferred Common Name
- Nile perch
Other Scientific Names
- Centropomus niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Labrus niloticus Linnaeus, 1758
- Lates albertianus Worthington, 1929
- Lates niloticus albertianus Worthington, 1929
- Lates niloticus macrolepidota Pellegrin, 1922
- Lates niloticus macrolepidotus Pellegrin, 1922
- Lates nilotus rudolfianus Worthington, 1932
International Common Names
- English: African snook; Victoria perch
- Spanish: perca del Nilo
- French: perche du Nil
- Arabic: am'kal; am'kaltâya; amukal; igl
Local Common Names
- Finland: niilinahven
- Germany: Albertseebarsch; Nilbarsch; Victoriabarsch; Victoriasee-Barsch
- Ghana: dzo; lesi
- Kenya: mbuta
- Netherlands: nijlbaars
- Nigeria: aja; bangur; giwan ruwa; giwan ruwan; igbo; kima; kina
- Norway: nilabbor
- Portugal: perca-do-Nilo
- Senegal: diène wekh
- Sudan: cal; ceil; gubro; gur; gwet; ndeni; nganzi
- Sweden: nilabborre
- Tanzania: chengu; mkombozi; sangala; sangara
- Uganda: mputa
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
L. niloticus is a large perch-like predator that is native and widespread in parts of Africa, mainly above the equator (Froese and Pauly, 2009). During the 1950s and 1960s L. niloticus was introduced into several East-African lakes (Pringle, 2005). It became established in most of these, however only Lakes Victoria, Kyoga and Nabugabo were relatively well studied. In each of the latter lakes L. niloticus became the dominant fish species and concomitantly many other species declined or disappeared completely (Ogutu-Ohwayo, 1990a; 1993; Kaufman, 1992; Witte et al., 1992). Most striking was the case of Lake Victoria, where L. niloticus boomed some 25 years after its introduction and subsequently comprised over 90% of the demersal fish mass. It is estimated that some 200 endemic haplochromine cichlid species vanished as a result of predation and competition (Witte et al., 1992a,b). L. niloticus has been listed among the 100 "World's Worst" invaders (ISSG, 2009).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Chordata
- Subphylum: Vertebrata
- Class: Actinopterygii
- Order: Perciformes
- Suborder: Percoidei
- Family: Centropomidae
- Genus: Lates
- Species: Lates niloticus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Nile perch was originally described as Perca nilotica by Linnaeus (1758). The name was changed into Lates niloticus by Cuvier (in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1828). Greenwood (1976) considered the Luciolates (Boulenger, 1914) species of Lake Tanganyika to be a subgenus of Lates, and therefore arranged the eight extant Lates species into two subgenera: Lates (Lates) comprising Lates (Lates) niloticus and three other species (see below), and Lates (Luciolates) for four species from Lake Tanganyika.
Related species: Lates (Lates) calcarifer (Bloch, 1792), from the Indo-Pacific region, Lates (Lates) longispinis Worthington, 1932, from the deeper waters of Lake Turkana (formerly Rudolf) and Lates (Lates) macrophthalmus Worthington, 1929 from Lake Albert in open waters from 20-40 m depth. Lates (Luciolates) angustifrons Boulenger, 1906, Lates (Luciolates) mariae Steindachner, 1909, Lates (Luciolates) microlepis Boulenger, 1898 and Lates (Luciolates) stappersi (Boulenger, 1914) all from Lake Tanganyika (Greenwood, 1976; Daget, 1986).
DescriptionTop of page
Description of adult fish following van Oijen (1995): Body deep and somewhat compressed; scales small and ctenoid. Small villiform teeth in the jaws and on the vomer, palatines and ectopterogoids (bones forming part of the roof of the mouth). Pre-obital and pre-opercular bones armed with spines; a large spine on the free edge of the operculum. Dorsal fin almost completely divided into two parts by a deep notch; the anterior part comprises 7 to 8 spines and the posterior part 1 spine and 10 to 14 branched rays. The lateral line contains 60 to 80 scales. Interorbital space at least equal to the diameter of the eye in adults; caudal peduncle as long as deep, or a little longer than deep. Colour: dorsum dark greyish-blue, flank and ventral side greyish-silver.
DistributionTop of page
In the 1950s and 1960s, Nile perch (see Pictures) was introduced into Lake Kyoga, Lake Victoria and Lake Nabugabo from Lakes Albert and Chad (Pringle, 2005). It spread into several satellite lakes of Lake Kyoga, e.g. Lakes Bisina, Nakuwa and Nyasala (Mwanja et al., 2001), and of Lake Victoria, e.g. Lake Sare (Aloo, 2003).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Benin||Present||Native||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Burkina Faso||Present||Native||Not invasive||ISSG, 2009|
|Cameroon||Present||Native||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Central African Republic||Present||Native||Not invasive||ISSG, 2009|
|Chad||Present||Native||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Congo||Present||Native||Not invasive||ISSG, 2009|
|Congo Democratic Republic||Present||Native||Not invasive||ISSG, 2009|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Present||Native||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Egypt||Present||Native||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Ethiopia||Present||Native||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Ghana||Present||Native||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Guinea||Present||Native||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Guinea-Bissau||Present||Native||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Kenya||Present||Introduced||1954||Invasive||IPPC-Secretariat, 2005; Pringle, 2005; Froese and Pauly, 2013|
|Liberia||Present||Native||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Mali||Present||Native||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Mauritania||Present||Native||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Morocco||Introduced, not established||Introduced||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Niger||Present||Native||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Nigeria||Present||Native||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Senegal||Present||Native||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Sierra Leone||Present||Native||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Sudan||Present||Native||Not invasive||Bailey, 1994|
|Tanzania||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Pringle, 2005||First recorded near Mwanza in October 1961|
|Togo||Present||Native||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|Uganda||Present||Native||Not invasive||Pringle, 2005; Froese and Pauly, 2009|
|USA||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Texas||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||ISSG, 2009|
Central America and Caribbean
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|Cuba||Ethiopia||1982-1983||Aquaculture (pathway cause)
Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)
|Kenya||Uganda||1954-1963||Fisheries (pathway cause)||Yes||Pringle (2005)||To Lake Victoria from Lake Albert. Spread into Kenyan waters from Ugandan side|
|Kenya||Kenya||1963||Fisheries (pathway cause)||Yes||Pringle (2005)||To Lake Victoria from Lake Turkana. Only 8 fish|
|Tanzania||Uganda||1954-1963||Fisheries (pathway cause)||Yes||Goudswaard et al. (2008); Pringle (2005)||To Lake Victoria from Lake Albert. Spread into Tanzanian waters from Ugandan side|
|Texas||Africa||1979||Aquaculture (pathway cause)
Fisheries (pathway cause) ,
Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)
|No||Froese and Pauly (2009)|
|Uganda||Uganda||1954||Aquaculture (pathway cause)
Fisheries (pathway cause)
|Pringle (2005)||To Muchison Falls, Victoria Nile from Lake Albert|
|Uganda||Uganda||1954-1955||Fisheries (pathway cause)||Yes||Pringle (2005)||To Lake Kyoga from Lake Albert|
|Uganda||Uganda||1963||Fisheries (pathway cause)||Pringle (2005)||To Kagera River and Lake Kijanebalola from Lake Albert|
|Uganda||Uganda||1960, 1963||Fisheries (pathway cause)||Yes||Ogutu-Ohwayo (1993); Pringle (2005)||To Lake Nabugabo from Lake Albert|
|Uganda||Uganda||1963||Fisheries (pathway cause)||Pringle (2005)||To Lake Saka and Lake Salisbury from Lake Albert|
|Uganda||Uganda||1954-1963||Fisheries (pathway cause)||Yes||Pringle (2005)||To Lake Victoria from Lake Albert|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
In Lake Victoria L. niloticus occurs at depths from 1-60 m (Goudswaard et al., 2008), but in its lakes of origin (Albert and Turkana), L. niloticus occupies shallower, more inshore habitats, than L. macrophthalmus and L. longispinis respectively (Daget, 1986). No exact depth distributions for L. niloticus in these native lakes are given, though it is mentioned that L. macrophthalmus in Lake Albert lives at depths of 20-40 m (Gee, 1964). L. niloticus tends to avoid areas with low dissolved oxyen levels, such as wetland areas (Chapman et al., 1996; 2002).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Inland saline areas||Present, no further details|
|Irrigation channels||Present, no further details|
|Lakes||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Reservoirs||Present, no further details|
|Rivers / streams||Present, no further details||Natural|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Allozyme data indicated that the introduced Nile perch of Lake Victoria were mainly L. niloticus from Lake Albert, although maximum likelihood estimates of stock contributions suggested the presence of L. macrophthalmus. In contrast, introduced Nile perch in adjacent smaller lakes (Lakes Kyoga and Nabugabo) appeared to be entirely L. niloticus (Hauser et al., 1998). DNA sequence data is also available for L. niloticus, see Ward et al. (2005) and Edmunds et al. (2009).
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Water TolerancesTop of page
|Parameter||Minimum Value||Maximum Value||Typical Value||Status||Life Stage||Notes|
|Dissolved oxygen (mg/l)||Optimum||> 2.0 tolerated. Mean critical oxygen tension 26.72+1.72 mm Hg (Chapman et al., 2002). Aquatic surface respiration starts at 30 mm Hg (ca 3 mg) (Schofield and Chapman, 2000)|
|Water temperature (ºC temperature)||Optimum||Optimum for feeding 27.5, max. lethal 38 (Kitchell et al.,1997)|
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Natural enemies comprise man and Crocodylus niloticus (Green, 2009).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
The results of a tagging experiment in the Mwanza region of Lake Victoria revealed movements of individuals of 50 km in one week and of almost 100 km within two months and of 150 km in six months (Ligtvoet and Mkumbo, 1990). One individual that was tagged in the Mwanza area was recaptured near Jinja at the opposite side of the lake (Witte and de Winter, 1995).
Pathway CausesTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Cultural/amenity||Positive and negative|
|Economic/livelihood||Positive and negative|
|Human health||Positive and negative|
Economic ImpactTop of page
In the 1990s filleting factories arose which exported Nile perch fillets to Europe and Asia (Ntiba et al., 2001). The total capacity of these factories was several hundred tons per day and they became the main buyers of Nile perch. Many of these fish processing plants operated below their installed capacity. Balirwa (2007) reports for Uganda alone, 15 factories with a total installed capacity of 420 t per day, but actually processing 185 t per day.
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impacts on Habitat
It has been suggested that the algal blooms that occurred concomitantly with the Nile perch boom in different areas of Lake Victoria, were (partly) caused by a top down effect, i.e. disappearance of the phytoplanktivorous and detritivorous haplochromine cichlids by Nile perch predation (Kilham and Kilham, 1990; Kaufman, 1992; Hecky and Bugenyi, 1992; Goldschmidt et al., 1993; Ochumba, 1995; Ogutu-Ohwayo, 1999). Conversely, it has been suggested that the increase of the eutrophication that started already in the 1920s had a negative impact on haplochromines and provided an opportunity for the Nile perch boom (Hecky, 1993; Verschuren et al., 2002; Kolding et al., 2008).
Other environmental issues associated with this species include the demand for firewood for processing the fish. At Wichlum Beach (Kenya) the number of smoking kilns increased between 1984 and 1991 from about ten to over 50 (Riedmiller, 1994). Although the majority of the Nile perch catches are currently sold to the fish filleting factories, unsuitable individuals (e.g. fish that are too small) and waste from the factories are still smoked and/or fried. These activities contribute to deforestation, and consequently to land erosion and eutrophication of the lake.
Impacts on Biodiversity
It has so far been impossible to establish the causal relationship between the Nile perch boom and eutrophication, and the relative impact on haplochromine cichlids of each of these phenomena separately. There are a number of reasons for this. First, both the Nile perch upsurge in Lake Victoria and the increase of eutrophication occurred between the late 1960s and early 1980s. Furthermore, systematic data on haplochromine abundance and diversity were not collected until 1969/70 and 1978, respectively (Kudhongania and Cordone, 1974a,b; Witte, 1981).
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Bagrus docmak||No Details|
|Haplochromis||NE (IUCN red list: Not evaluated)|
|Synodontis afrofischeri||LC (IUCN red list: Least concern)|
|Synodontis victoriae||NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)|
|Xenoclarias eupogon||CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)|
Social ImpactTop of page
The changes in the fishery had impacts at the individual, the household and the community level. The following changes were mentioned by Harris et al. (1995): (1) Fishing was traditionally mixed with agricultural and pastoral activities and it used to be a household enterprise in which the whole family was involved. The husband was the boat owner and fisherman, his son crew and his wife or daughters fish processors or dealers. Because currently more capital is needed for the fishery, fishermen are often not the boat- or net-owners, but employees.(2) Fishermen are now away from home for extended periods, and their wives and other members of the family are no longer involved with their activities. (3) The availability of fish for household consumption decreased. Due to the relatively high price, the managers do not like fish to be taken home by crew members. (4) The increased value of the nets and the fish led to an increased incidence of net and fish thefts. This led to distrust among local fishers and between boat owners and operators.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Is a habitat generalist
- Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
- Highly mobile locally
- Long lived
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Altered trophic level
- Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Modification of natural benthic communities
- Modification of nutrient regime
- Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Rapid growth
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
Originally, the fishermen did not like Nile perch, because they had problems with handling, processing and marketing the fish; the larger and relatively fat perches could not easily be dried or transported. However, in the years after the upsurge, people rapidly adjusted the processing and transport techniques. The larger fishes were chopped into pieces and fried (Ligtvoet et al., 1995). The smaller ones were dried in the sun or smoked. In the 1990s filleting factories arose which export Nile perch fillets to Europe and Asia (Ntiba et al., 2001; Balirwa, 2007).
Uses ListTop of page
- Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)
Human food and beverage
- Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Lates macrophthalmus from Lake Albert can also be distinguished from L. niloticus by its larger eye and elongate third spine in the dorsal fin, but the dorsal fin spine is shorter than in L.longispinis (78-84% of head, mean 82.0% in L. longispinis, cf. 65-84%, mean 74.4% in L. macrophthalmus) (Greenwood, 1976).
Harrison (1991) found that riverine L. niloticus differs both from that in Lake Albert and from that in Lake Turkana, but no significant difference was found between the latter two. The Lake Victoria collection was found to differ from all other taxa. Therefore, Harrison (1991) suggested that the characters currently used in the taxonomy of Lates are inappropriate for this purpose. He recommended that a reappraisal of Nile perch taxonomy be made using more modern techniques and that studies are initiated to discover how characters change during development under differing environmental conditions.
L. niloticus is distinguished from the four species endemic to Lake Tanganyika by having an ethmovomerine skull region that is not noticeably elongate (Greenwood, 1976).
ReferencesTop of page
Acere TO, 1985. Observations on the biology, age, growth, maturity, and sexuality of Nile perch, (Lates niloticus), and the growth of its fishery in the northern waters of Lake Victoria. In: CIFA, Report of the 3rd Session of the Sub-committee for the Development and Management of the Fisheries of Lake Victoria. Jinja, Uganda, 4-5 October 1984, 335. FAO Fisheries Report, 42-61.
Aloo PA, 2003. Biological diversity of the Yala Swamp lakes, with special emphasis on fish species composition, in relation to changes in the Lake Victoria Basin (Kenya): threats and conservation measures. Biodiversity and Conservation, 12:905-920.
Arunga JO, 1981. Proceedings of the workshop of the Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute on Aquatic resources of Kenya. Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute and Kenya National Academy for Advancement of Arts and Sciences. 165-184.
Asila AA; Ogari J, 1988. Growth parameters and mortality rates of Nile perch (Lates niloticus), estimated from length frequency data in the Nyanza Gulf (Lake Victoria). Contributions to tropical fisheries biology. FAO Fisheries Report, 389:272-287.
Balirwa JS, 2007. Ecological, environmental and socioeconomic aspects of the Lake Victoria's introduced Nile perch fishery in relation to the native fisheries and the species culture potential: lessons to learn. African Journal of Ecology, 45:120-129.
Balirwa JS; Chapman CA; Chapman LJ; Cowx IG; Geheb K; Kaufman L; Lowe-McConnell RH; Seehausen O; Wanink JH; Welcomme RL; Witte F, 2003. Biodiversity and fishery sustainability in the Lake Victoria basin: an unexpected marriage? BioScience, 53:703-715.
Chapman LJ; Chapman CA; Kaufman L; Witte F; Balirwa J, 2008. Biodiversity conservation in African inland waters: lessons of the Lake Victoria basin. Verhandlungen Internationalen Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, 30:16-34.
Chapman LJ; Chapman CA; Nordlie FG; Rosenberger AE, 2002. Physiological refugia: swamps, hypoxia tolerance and maintenance of fish diversity in the Lake Victoria region. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 133:421-437.
Edmunds RC; Herwerden Lvan; Smith-Keune C; Jerry DR, 2009. Comparative characterization of a temperature responsive gene (lactate dehydrogenase-B, ldh-b) in two congeneric tropical fish, Lates calcarifer and Lates niloticus. Int. J. Biol. Sci, 5(6):558-569.
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Goudswaard K; Witte F; Katunzi EFB, 2008. The invasion of an introduced predator, Nile perch (Lates niloticus, L.) in Lake Victoria (East Africa): chronology and causes. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 81:127-139.
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Hughes NF, 1986. Changes in the feeding biology of the Nile perch, Lates niloticus, in Lake Victoria since its introduction in 1960, and its impact on the native fish community of the Nyanza Gulf. Journal of Fish Biology, 29:541-548.
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Kolding J; Zwieten Pvan; Mkumbo O; Silsbe G; Hecky R, 2008. Are the Lake Victoria fisheries threatened by exploitation or eutrophication? Towards an ecosystem-based approach to management. In: The ecosystem approach to fisheries [ed. by Bianchi, G.\Skjoldal, H. R.]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 309-354.
Kudhongania AW; Chitamwebwa DBR, 1995. Impact of environmental change, species introductions and ecological interactions on the fish stocks of Lake Victoria. In: The impact of species changes in African lakes [ed. by Pitcher, T. J.\Hart, P. J.]. London, UK: Chapman & Hall, 19-32.
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Kudhongania AW; Cordone AJ, 1974. Past trends, present stocks and possible future state of the fisheries of the Tanzanian part of the Lake Victoria. African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries, 3:167-181.
Ligtvoet W; Mkumbo OC, 1990. Synopsis of ecological and fishery research on Nile perch (Lates niloticus) in Lake Victoria, conducted by HEST/TAFIRI. In: CIFA. Report of the 5th session of the Sub-Committee for the Development and Management of the Fisheries in Lake Victoria, 12-24 Sept. 1989, Mwanza, 430. FAO Fisheries Report, 35-74.
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Mkumbo OC; Nsinda P; Ezekiel CN; Cowx IG; Aeron M, 2007. Towards sustainable exploitation of Nile perch consequential to regulated fisheries in Lake Victoria. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 10(4):449-457.
Mwanja WW; Armoudlian AS; Wandera SB; Kaufman L; Wu L; Booton GC; Fuerst PA, 2001. The bounty of minor lakes: the role of small satellite water bodies in evolution and conservation of fishes in the Lake Victoria Region, East Africa. Hydrobiologia, 458:55-62.
Namulemo G; Mbabazi D, 2002. Conservation of and trophic diversity in the Victoria and Kyoga Lake basins through protection of satellite lakes and refuge. In: 3rd International Symposium on Comparing Great Lakes of the World (GLOW III), February 18-20. 54.
Ochumba PBO, 1995. Limnological changes in Lake Victoria since the Nile perch introduction. In: The impact of species changes in African lakes [ed. by Pitcher, T. J.\Hart, P. J. B.]. London, UK: Chapman & Hall, 33-43.
Ogari J, 1985. Distribution, food and feeding habits of Lates niloticus in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (Kenya). In: CIFA, Report of the 3rd Session of the Sub-committee for the Development and Management of the Fisheries of Lake Victoria. Jinja, Uganda, 4-5 October 1984, 335. FAO Fisheries Report, 68-80.
Ogari J; Asila A, 1992. Status of the fisheries of Lake Victoria Kenya Sector. In: CIFA, Report of the 6th Session of the Sub-Committee for the Development and Management of the Fisheries in Lake Victoria, 10-13 Feb. 1992, Jinja, 475. FAO Fisheries Report, 15-23.
Ogari J; Dadzie S, 1988. The food of Nile perch, Lates niloticus (L.), after the disappearance of the haplochromine cichlids in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (Kenya). Journal of Fish Biology, 32:571-577.
Ogutu-Ohwayo R, 1990. The decline of the native fishes of lakes Victoria and Kyoga (East Africa) and the impact of introduced species, especially the Nile perch, Lates niloticus, and the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 27:81-96.
Ogutu-Ohwayo R, 1993. The effects of predation by Nile perch, Lates niloticus, on the fish of Lake Nabugabo, with suggestions for conservation of endangered endemic cichlids. Conservation Biology, 3:701-711.
Ogutu-Ohwayo R, 1995. Diversity and stability of fish stocks in Lakes Victoria, Kyoga and Nabugabo after estabilishment of introduced species. In: The impact of species changes in African lakes [ed. by Pitcher, T. J.\Hart, P. J. B.]. London, UK: Chapman & Hall, 59-81.
Ogutu-Ohwayo R, 1999. Nile perch in Lake Victoria: the balance between benefits and negative impacts of aliens. In: Invasive species and biodiversity management [ed. by Sanlund, O. T.\Schei, P. J.]. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 47-63.
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Reynolds JE; Gréboval DF; Mannini P, 1995. Thirty years on: the development of the Nile perch Fishery in Lake Victoria. In: The impact of species changes in African lakes [ed. by Pitcher, T. J.\Hart, P. J. B.]. London, UK: Chapman & Hall, 181-214.
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Witte F, 1981. Initial results of the ecological survey of the haplochromine cichlid fishes from the Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, Tanzania: breeding patterns, trophic and species distribution. Netherlands Journal of Zoology, 31:175-202.
Witte F, 1984. Ecological differentiation in Lake Victoria haplochromines: comparison of cichlid species flocks in African Lakes. In: Evolution of fish species flocks [ed. by Echelle, A. A.\Kornfield, I.]. Orono: University of Main at Orono Press, 155-167.
Witte F; Goldschmidt T; Wanink JH, 1995. Dynamics of the haplochromine cichlid fauna and other ecological changes in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria. In: The impact of species changes in African lakes [ed. by Pitcher, T. J.\Hart, P. J. B.]. London, UK: Chapman & Hall, 83-110.
Witte F; Goldschmidt T; Wanink JH; Oijen Mvan; Goudswaard K; Witte-Maas E; Bouton N, 1992. The destruction of an endemic species flock. Quantitative data on the decline of the haplochromine cichlids of Lake Victoria. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 34:1-28.
Witte F; Goudswaard PC; Katunzi EFB; Mkumbo OC; Seehausen O; Wanink JH, 1999. Lake Victoria's ecological changes and their relationships with the riparian societies. In: Ancient Lakes: Their Cultural and Biological Diversity [ed. by Kawanabe, H.\Coulter, G. W.\Roosevelt, A. C.]. Ghent, Belgium: Kenobi Productions, 189-202.
Witte F; Graaf Mde; Mkumbo OC; El-Moghraby AI; Sibbing FA, 2009. Fisheries in the Nile system. In: The Nile: origin, environments, limnology and human use [ed. by Dumont, H. J.]. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., 723-747. [Monographiae Biologicae 89.]
Witte F; Msuku BS; Wanink JH; Seehausen O; Katunzi EFB; Goudswaard PC; Goldschmidt T, 2000. Recovery of cichlid species in Lake Victoria: an examination of factors leading to differential extinction. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 10:233-241.
Witte F; Wanink JH; Kishe MA; Mkumbo OC; Goudswaard PC; Seehausen O, 2007. Differential decline and recovery of haplochromine trophic groups in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 10:416-433.
Witte F; Wanink JH; Rutjes HA; Meer HJvan der; Thillart GEEJMvan den, 2005. Eutrophication and the fish fauna of Lake Victoria. In: Tropical Eutrophic Lakes: Restoration and Management of Tropical Eutrophic Lakes [ed. by Vikram Reddy, M.]. Enfield (NH), USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 301-338.
Witte F; Winter Wde, 1995. Biology of the major fish species of Lake Victoria. In: Fish stocks and fisheries of Lake Victoria: A handbook for field observations [ed. by Witte, F.\Densen, W. L. T. van]. Cardigan, UK: Samara Publishing Ltd., 301-320.
ContributorsTop of page
17/11/09 Original text by:
Frans Witte, Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, University of Leiden, P.O. Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands
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