Leuciscus idus (ide)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Water Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Impact: Economic
- Impact: Environmental
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Cyprinus idbarus Linnaeus, 1758
- Cyprinus idus Linnaeus, 1758
- Cyprinus jeses Linnaeus, 1758
- Cyprinus microlepidotus Ekström, 1835
- Cyprinus orfus Linnaeus, 1758
- Cyprinus orphus Linnaeus, 1758
- Idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Idus melanotus Heckel, 1843
- Idus melanotus orientalis Sinitzyn, 1900
- Idus miniatus Bonaparte, 1845
- Idus oxianus Kessler, 1877
- Leuciscus idus auratus Bade, 1901
- Leuciscus idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Leuciscus idus idus sibiricus Kirillov, 1958
- Leuciscus idus lapponicus Günther, 1868
- Leuciscus idus oxianus (Kessler, 1877)
- Leuciscus neglectus Selys-Longchamps, 1842
- Squalius oxianus Kessler, 1877
International Common Names
- English: golden orfe; orfe; silver orfe
- Spanish: cacho; cachoelo
- French: ide; ide dorée; ide mélanote; ide rouge; orfe; véron
- Russian: iaz; yaz; yaz'
Local Common Names
- Austria: nerfling
- Bulgaria: mazdruga
- Czech Republic: jalec tmavy; jelec jesen
- Denmark: ejbygedde; emde; rimte; strandkarpe
- Finland: säyne
- Germany: Aland; Gäse; Goldorfe; Jesen; Nerfling; Orfe; Weißfisch
- Greece: leukiskos-tsiróni
- Hungary: jász
- Italy: ido
- Netherlands: winde
- Norway: vederbuk
- Poland: jaz
- Portugal: escalo; escalo-prateado
- Romania: lugojanel; vaduvita
- Slovakia: jalec tmavý
- Slovenia: jez
- Sweden: id
- Switzerland: aland
- UK/England and Wales: orff
- Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): jez
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
L. idus is considered a potentially invasive fish that could damage native aquatic ecosystems, though there is lack of information regarding its impacts. The ability of L. idus to tolerate wide range of habitats including fresh, brackish, and sea water led to it being recognized it as a potential invasive species, similar to several other invasive members of the Cyrinidae (carp) family. However, there are no recorded negative environmental impacts caused by this species to date.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Chordata
- Subphylum: Vertebrata
- Class: Actinopterygii
- Order: Cypriniformes
- Family: Cyprinidae
- Genus: Leuciscus
- Species: Leuciscus idus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
There are two recognized subspecies, Leuciscus idus idus and Leuciscus idus oxianus (Turkestan Ide) (Banarescu, 1964; Berg, 1964). Commonly known as the ‘orfe’, there are two colour morphs known as 'silver orfe' and 'golden orfe', though golden orfe populations may revert to the wild colouration over time (McDowall, 2000).
DescriptionTop of page
L. idus is a medium-sized fish, typically growing to 30-43 cm in total length with a weight of 680 g (Wheeler, 1978). Fishbase (2008) reported the maximum age for this species as 18 years, and the maximum weight as 4 kg. However, Berg (1964) reported that it can grow to a maximum size of about 100 cm in total length and up to a weight of 8 kg. It has a typical minnow-shaped body that is moderately thick, and older adults have a raised humped back nape and 55-63 lateral-line scales (Nico and Fuller, 2008). The snout is blunt and the mouth is small, terminal, and oblique. Gill rakers are short, widely spaced, and number 10-14 on the first arch. The pharyngeal teeth are conic, smooth (not serrated), and arranged in two rows. It has dorsal spines in total 3 - 3; dorsal soft rays in total 8 - 11; anal spines 3; anal soft rays 8 – 11; vertebrae 47 (Fishbase, 2008) and caudal fin with 19 rays (Spillman, 1961).
Adults are dark on the back and sides above the lateral line, the lower parts of the sides are light or silvery and the fins are red, especially the anal fin and paired fins (Nico and Fuller, 2008). Some colour variations of L. idus have been documented. The wild form is a greyish-olive colour on the back and upper sides, paling to silver on the sides and silvery-white on the belly, whereas both anal and pelvic fins are a reddish colour. The ornamental variety has a bright orange back, silvery-orange sides and belly, and bright orange tail and dorsal fin.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Feb 2022
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Present||Native|
|Serbia and Montenegro||Present||Native|
|Spain||Present, Few occurrences|
|Switzerland||Present||Introduced||Reported from the Neuschatellersee in 1827. Possibly in error or extirpated.|
|New Zealand||Present||Introduced||First reported: 1980 - 1989|
|Atlantic - Northeast||Present||Native|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|France||Central Europe||1930-1960||Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)||No||Keith and Allardi (1998)||Ecological impacts are unknown|
|Netherlands||France||1900||Yes||Welcomme (1988)||Ecological impacts are unknown|
|New Zealand||UK||1980-1989||Yes||Ecological impacts are unknown|
|New Zealand||USA||1980-1989||Yes||Ecological impacts are unknown|
|Spain||Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)||Welcomme (1988)||Rarely found in natural waters|
|UK||Europe||1874||Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)||Yes||Welcomme (1988)||Ecological impacts are unknown|
|USA||Europe||1877||Yes||Ecological impacts are unknown|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
The coloured variety of L. idus has an aquacultural value particularly as an ornamental fish. It is kept in both aquaria and garden ponds. Thus, there is a possibility of its accidental release into natural water. Escapes from commercial and government ponds (especially during flooding) have expanded its range in the USA (Nico and Fuller, 2008). Since it is being imported by countries as an ornamental fish, there is a chance of a spread its distribution through deliberate introductions. It was also probably a cause for the introduction of another potentially invasive species, as the importation of a consignment of L. idus imported from Germany to the UK in the 1980s was thought to have contained topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva) (Copp et al., 2007).
HabitatTop of page
Occurs in schools in clear pools of medium to large rivers, ponds and lakes (Page and Burr, 1991), however, deeper waters are sometimes used in winter (Wheeler, 1969). Wheeler (1978) noted that L. idus inhabits the lower reaches of large rivers, lowland lakes, and brackish estuaries of rivers, adding that it schools in clean, deep water, moving into shallow freshwater to spawn in the spring. Zhadin and Gerd (1963) reported it was one of the most common fishes in reservoirs on the Ob, Novosibirsk, and Bukhtarma-Zaisan rivers of the former Soviet Union. Seeley (1886) reported that the species is not confined to freshwaters, as it is also found in the Baltic Sea. In Sweden, L. idusspent the first year of life in the river and then joined older fish migrating to the Baltic Sea during the summer months, returning to the river in the autumn and remaining near the mouth and in the lower reaches throughout the winter (Cala, 1970). It enters rivers in spring to spawn over gravel or vegetation (Fishbase, 2008), and after spawning, L. idus returns to coastal waters (Cala, 1970).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Freshwater||Rivers / streams||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Marine||Inshore marine||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Marine||Pelagic zone (offshore)||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The recorded haploid and diploid chromosomes number of L. idus in the former Yugoslavia is 25 (n) and 50-50 (2n) (Hinegardner and Rosen, 1972). It hybridizes with other European cyprinids including common carp and rudd (Schwartz, 1972; 1981). It has no known hybrids with native North American fishes (Nico and Fuller, 2008). Perea et al. (2010) have published on the phylogenetic relationships within the Leuciscinae inferred from mitchondrial and nuclear data, which included L. idus.
L. iduscan tolerate a higher level of salinity than any other cyprinid fish and is able to colonise brackish water and estuarine habitats, thus having a broad amplitude in a wide range of habitats, including fresh and brackish water (Wheeler, 1978) to full sea water concentrations (Seeley, 1886; Cala, 1970).
ClimateTop of page
|C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate||Preferred||Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C|
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Water TolerancesTop of page
|Parameter||Minimum Value||Maximum Value||Typical Value||Status||Life Stage||Notes|
|Water pH (pH)||7.0||7.5||Optimum|
|Water temperature (ºC temperature)||4||20||Optimum|
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Silurus asotus||Predator||not specific|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
The fish Esox lucius (pike or northern pike, family Esocidae), preys on juveniles and adult stages of L. idus (Pervozvanskiy and Bugayev, 1992). Trichodinosis parasitic infestations, bacterial infections (Bassleer, 2003) and Pseudocapillaria infestations (Moravec, 1998) of L. idus have also been documented.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Natural dispersal of individuals and populations occurs through swimming, and they can thus expand their range within and between connected water bodies.Intentional Introductions
The golden variety of L. idus which is valued as ornamental pond fish is spread to new locations through the aquarium trade. In addition to its ornamental purpose it there have also been instances of L. idus being illegally introduced to new locations by anglers. L. idus eggs, derived from ornamental pond stocks, have been illegally imported to New Zealandby mail sometime in the 1980s and subsequent releases occurred in 1985-86 in a number of sites north of Auckland; however, the current status of these populations is not known.
Pathway CausesTop of page
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
Impact: EconomicTop of page
L. idus can have a positive impact on the economy as an ornamental fish species with commercial value, and contribute to the livelihoods of aquaculture farmers.
Impact: EnvironmentalTop of page
L. idus occurs in a wide range of habitats, but its impacts on habitats or biodiversity are unknown. Most concerns appear to be based on the fact that it is in the same family as the highly invasive European carp (Cyprinus carpio), which has caused damage to some aquatic ecosystems where it has been introduced to Australia, New Zealand and the USA. However, its predatory nature feeding on larval and adult insects, snails, other invertebrates, and small fish and its ability to could compete with other species for food is of ecological concerns. Seeley (1962) recommended against the introduction of L. idusinto California, USA, indicating the species had the potential of becoming established in state rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and also entering brackish and estuarine waters. Due to its tolerance to a wide range of conditions, Seeley (1962) believed that it had the potential of becoming more of a problem than either goldfish or common carp (Nico and Fuller, 2008), however, Fishbase (2008) regarded it as harmless species. It is not a rare or protected species in its native range, with the IUCN Red List status of Leuciscus idus is Low Risk with least concern under category LR/LC (IUCN, 2007).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Has a broad native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Long lived
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
UsesTop of page
Uses ListTop of page
- Pet/aquarium trade
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
L. idus can be confused with Scardinius erythrophthalmus (rudd) in the wild owing to both have orange-red coloured fins, but they can be differentiated as L. idus has much smaller scales. L. idus is also superficially similar to many native North American cyprinids and does not possess a unique characteristic that sets it apart from native species (Nico and Fuller, 2008). According to Nico and Fuller (2008), however, L. idus can be distinguished from most native North American cyprinids by the following combination of characteristics: pharyngeal teeth 3,5-5,3, no barbels, lateral-line scales 55-63, and usually 8 branched dorsal rays and can be distinguished from other non-native cyprinids by the combination of a short dorsal fin (usually 8 branched dorsal rays) and 55-63 lateral-line scales.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Prevention
There are restrictions in two USA states in order to prevent spread of L. idus in the form of license and prohibitions, Arizona prohibits the possession of L. idus as it is regarded as “restricted live wildlife” fish species and requires a special license or exemption (Arizona Game and Fish Commission Regulations R12-4-406(F). In Nevada, the importation, transportation and possession of all fish species of genus Leuciscus (live, hybrids, viable embryos, or gametes) is prohibited (Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 503.110).
There are no records of control measures that have been taken to specifically control L. idus, however, it could be considered that management practices effective for other invasive members of the Cyprinidae (carp) family may also be suitable forL. idus.
ReferencesTop of page
Chadderton WL; Grainger N; Dean T, 2003. Appendix 1 - prioritising control of invasive freshwater fish. Managing invasive freshwater fish in New Zealand. Proceedings of a workshop hosted by Department of Conservation, Hamilton, New Zealand, 10-12 May 2001, 171-174.
Dulmaa A, 1999. Fish and fisheries in Mongolia. Fish and fisheries at higher altitudes: Asia. [ed. by Petr T]. Rome, Italy: FAO, 187-236. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 385. http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x2614e/x2614e00.htm
Florez F, 1972. Influence of oxygen concentration on growth and survival of larvae and juveniles of the ide, Idus idus (L.). Report of the Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm, Sweden: Institute of Freshwater Research, 65-73.
Florez F, 1972. The effect of temperature on incubation time, growth and lethality of embryos, larvae and juveniles of the ide, Idus idus (L.). Report of the Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm, Sweden: Institute of Freshwater Research, 50-60.
Froese R; Pauly D, 2004. FishBase DVD. Penang, Malaysia: Worldfish Center. Online at www.fishbase.org.
Keith P; Allardi J, 1998. The introduced freshwater fish of France: status, impacts and management. In: Stocking and introduction of fish. Fishing News Books [ed. by Cowx IG] Bodmin, UK: MPG Books Ltd, 153-166.
Perea S; Bohme M; Zupancic P; Freyhof J; Sanda R; Ozulug M; Abdoli A; Doadrio I, 2010. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical patterns in Circum-Mediterranean Subfamily Leuciscinae (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) inferred from both mitochondrial and nuclear data. BMC Evol. Biol, 10(1):265.
Reshetnikov YS; Bogutskaya NG; Vasil'eva ED; Dorofeeva EA; Naseka AM; Popova OA; Savvaitova KA; Sideleva VG; Sokolov LI, 1997. An annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of Russia. J. Ichthyol, 37(9):687-736.
University of Tartu, 1999. Systematic list of Estonian fishes. World Wide Web Electronic Publication. Tartu, Estonia: Science Didactics Department, University of Tartu. http://bio.edu.ee/animals/Kalad/kalalist2.htm
Uzbek Academy of Sciences, 2006. The Red Data Book of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Volume 2: Animals. Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Estonia, University of Tartu, 1999. Systematic list of Estonian fishes. In: World Wide Web Electronic Publication, Tartu, Estonia: Science Didactics Department, University of Tartu. http://bio.edu.ee/animals/Kalad/kalalist2.htm
Froese R, Pauly D, 2004. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org
Reshetnikov Y S, Bogutskaya N G, Vasil'eva E D, Dorofeeva E A, Naseka A M, Popova O A, Savvaitova K A, Sideleva V G, Sokolov L I, 1997. An annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of Russia. J. Ichthyol. 37 (9), 687-736.
Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435
OrganizationsTop of page
Italy: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, http://www.fao.org/
Switzerland: IUCN (The World Conservation Union), Rue Mauverney 28, Gland 1196, Gland, Switzerland, http://www.iucn.org/
USA: United States Geological Survey, USGS National Center 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA 20192, http://www.usgs.gov/
USA: Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Natural Resources Building, 1111 Washington St., SE Olympia, WA, 98501, http://wdfw.wa.gov/contact.htm
ContributorsTop of page
24/04/08 Original text by:
Sunil Siriwardena, Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK
Distribution MapsTop of page
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CABI Summary Records
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