Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Leuciscus idus
(ide)

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Datasheet

Leuciscus idus (ide)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Threatened Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Leuciscus idus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • ide
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • L. idus is considered a potentially invasive fish that could damage native aquatic ecosystems, though there is lack of information regarding its impacts. The ability of L. idus to tolerate wid...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Specimen fish, caught by angler in northern Sweden - Nyborg, Baltic Sea in brackish water. July 2011.  Approx. length 48cm - approx. weight 1.8kg.
TitleSpecimen fish
CaptionSpecimen fish, caught by angler in northern Sweden - Nyborg, Baltic Sea in brackish water. July 2011. Approx. length 48cm - approx. weight 1.8kg.
CopyrightAnnHelen Parker
Specimen fish, caught by angler in northern Sweden - Nyborg, Baltic Sea in brackish water. July 2011.  Approx. length 48cm - approx. weight 1.8kg.
Specimen fishSpecimen fish, caught by angler in northern Sweden - Nyborg, Baltic Sea in brackish water. July 2011. Approx. length 48cm - approx. weight 1.8kg. AnnHelen Parker

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Preferred Common Name

  • ide

Other Scientific Names

  • Cyprinus idbarus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Cyprinus idus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Cyprinus jeses Linnaeus, 1758
  • Cyprinus microlepidotus Ekström, 1835
  • Cyprinus orfus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Cyprinus orphus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Idus melanotus Heckel, 1843
  • Idus melanotus orientalis Sinitzyn, 1900
  • Idus miniatus Bonaparte, 1845
  • Idus oxianus Kessler, 1877
  • Leuciscus idus auratus Bade, 1901
  • Leuciscus idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Leuciscus idus idus sibiricus Kirillov, 1958
  • Leuciscus idus lapponicus Günther, 1868
  • Leuciscus idus oxianus (Kessler, 1877)
  • Leuciscus neglectus Selys-Longchamps, 1842
  • Squalius oxianus Kessler, 1877

International Common Names

  • English: golden orfe; orfe; silver orfe
  • Spanish: cacho; cachoelo
  • French: ide; ide dorée; ide mélanote; ide rouge; orfe; véron
  • Russian: iaz; yaz; yaz'

Local Common Names

  • Austria: nerfling
  • Bulgaria: mazdruga
  • Czech Republic: jalec tmavy; jelec jesen
  • Denmark: ejbygedde; emde; rimte; strandkarpe
  • Finland: säyne
  • Germany: Aland; Gäse; Goldorfe; Jesen; Nerfling; Orfe; Weißfisch
  • Greece: leukiskos-tsiróni
  • Hungary: jász
  • Italy: ido
  • Netherlands: winde
  • Norway: vederbuk
  • Poland: jaz
  • Portugal: escalo; escalo-prateado
  • Romania: lugojanel; vaduvita
  • Slovakia: jalec tmavý
  • Slovenia: jez
  • Sweden: id
  • Switzerland: aland
  • UK/England and Wales: orff
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): jez

Summary of Invasiveness

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L. idus is considered a potentially invasive fish that could damage native aquatic ecosystems, though there is lack of information regarding its impacts. The ability of L. idus to tolerate wide range of habitats including fresh, brackish, and sea water led to it being recognized it as a potential invasive species, similar to several other invasive members of the Cyrinidae (carp) family. However, there are no recorded negative environmental impacts caused by this species to date.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Cypriniformes
  •                         Family: Cyprinidae
  •                             Genus: Leuciscus
  •                                 Species: Leuciscus idus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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There are two recognized subspecies, Leuciscus idus idus and Leuciscus idus oxianus (Turkestan Ide) (Banarescu, 1964; Berg, 1964). Commonly known as the ‘orfe’, there are two colour morphs known as 'silver orfe' and 'golden orfe', though golden orfe populations may revert to the wild colouration over time (McDowall, 2000).

Description

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L. idus is a medium-sized fish, typically growing to 30-43 cm in total length with a weight of 680 g (Wheeler, 1978). Fishbase (2008) reported the maximum age for this species as 18 years, and the maximum weight as 4 kg. However, Berg (1964) reported that it can grow to a maximum size of about 100 cm in total length and up to a weight of 8 kg. It has a typical minnow-shaped body that is moderately thick, and older adults have a raised humped back nape and 55-63 lateral-line scales (Nico and Fuller, 2008). The snout is blunt and the mouth is small, terminal, and oblique. Gill rakers are short, widely spaced, and number 10-14 on the first arch. The pharyngeal teeth are conic, smooth (not serrated), and arranged in two rows. It has dorsal spines in total 3 - 3; dorsal soft rays in total 8 - 11; anal spines 3; anal soft rays 8 – 11; vertebrae 47 (Fishbase, 2008) and caudal fin with 19 rays (Spillman, 1961).

Adults are dark on the back and sides above the lateral line, the lower parts of the sides are light or silvery and the fins are red, especially the anal fin and paired fins (Nico and Fuller, 2008). Some colour variations of L. idus have been documented. The wild form is a greyish-olive colour on the back and upper sides, paling to silver on the sides and silvery-white on the belly, whereas both anal and pelvic fins are a reddish colour. The ornamental variety has a bright orange back, silvery-orange sides and belly, and bright orange tail and dorsal fin.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Atlantic, NortheastPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ArmeniaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
AzerbaijanPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ChinaPresentNativeWalker Yang, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
KazakhstanPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MongoliaPresentNativeDulmaa, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
UzbekistanPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004

North America

USAPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004

Europe

AustriaPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
BelarusPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
BelgiumPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentNativeGerstmeier and Romig, 1998; Froese and Pauly, 2004
BulgariaPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
CroatiaPresentNativeGerstmeier and Romig, 1998; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Czech RepublicPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1968; Froese and Pauly, 2004
DenmarkPresentNativeMuus and Dahlstrøm, 1990; Froese and Pauly, 2004
EstoniaPresentNativeUniversity of Tartu, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
FinlandPresentNativeKoli, 1990; Froese and Pauly, 2004
FrancePresentIntroducedKeith and Allardi, 2001; Froese and Pauly, 2004
GermanyPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1968; Froese and Pauly, 2004
HungaryPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1968; Froese and Pauly, 2004
LatviaPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
LithuaniaPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MoldovaPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
NorwayPresentNativeWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PolandPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1968; Froese and Pauly, 2004
RomaniaPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1968; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Russian FederationPresentNativeReshetnikov et al., 1997; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SerbiaPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971
SlovakiaPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1968; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SpainPresent, few occurrencesWelcomme, 1988
SwedenPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1968; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedHartmann, 1827Reported from the Neuschatellersee in 1827. Possibly in error or extirpated.
UKPresentIntroducedWheeler, 1992; Froese and Pauly, 2004
UkrainePresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004

Oceania

New ZealandPresentIntroducedMcDowall, 1990; Froese and Pauly, 2004

History of Introduction and Spread

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L. idus is native to most of mainland Europe and Western Asia (see Berg, 1964; Nico and Fuller, 2008).

L. idus was introduced to the UK in 1874, where the golden ornamental variety became common in lakes (Lever, 1977). L. idus was introduced to The Netherlands from France and Germany as an ornamental fish and it is cultured on a large scale for ornamental purpose (Groot, 1985).

It was first imported to the USA from Europe in 1877 and was cultured by the US Fish Commission and subsequently distributed to several state agencies and individuals (Fuller et al., 1999). Escapes from commercial and government culture systems, particularly during flooding, have helped to expand its range (Nico and Fuller, 2008), and it has been recorded from at least 22 states in the USA, but documentation of its true status is poor and often contradictory (Fuller et al., 1999).

It has been introduced to New Zealand from the UK and the USA during the 1980s and has been captured in the wild, and occurs and reproduces in several small lakes in northern New Zealand (McDowall, 1990), however, the range of expansion is unknown (Chadderton et al., 2003).

It is likely to be more widely distributed that indicated on the distribution list.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
France Central Europe 1930-1960 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) No Keith and Allardi (1998) Ecological impacts are unknown
Netherlands France 1900 Yes Welcomme (1988) Ecological impacts are unknown
New Zealand UK 1980-1989 Yes Ecological impacts are unknown
New Zealand USA 1980-1989 Yes Ecological impacts are unknown
Spain   Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Welcomme (1988) Rarely found in natural waters
UK Europe 1874 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes Welcomme (1988) Ecological impacts are unknown
USA Europe 1877 Yes Ecological impacts are unknown

Risk of Introduction

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The coloured variety of L. idus has an aquacultural value particularly as an ornamental fish. It is kept in both aquaria and garden ponds. Thus, there is a possibility of its accidental release into natural water. Escapes from commercial and government ponds (especially during flooding) have expanded its range in the USA (Nico and Fuller, 2008). Since it is being imported by countries as an ornamental fish, there is a chance of a spread its distribution through deliberate introductions. It was also probably a cause for the introduction of another potentially invasive species, as the importation of a consignment of L. idus imported from Germany to the UK in the 1980s was thought to have contained topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva) (Copp et al., 2007).

There are restrictions in two USA states in order to prevent spread of L. idus in the form of license and prohibitions, Arizona prohibits the possession of L. idus as it is regarded as “restricted live wildlife” fish species and requires a special license or exemption (Arizona Game and Fish Commission Regulations R12-4-406(F). In Nevada, the importation, transportation and possession of all fish species of genus Leuciscus (live, hybrids, viable embryos, or gametes) is prohibited (Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 503.110).

Habitat

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Occurs in schools in clear pools of medium to large rivers, ponds and lakes (Page and Burr, 1991), however, deeper waters are sometimes used in winter (Wheeler, 1969). Wheeler (1978) noted that L. idus inhabits the lower reaches of large rivers, lowland lakes, and brackish estuaries of rivers, adding that it schools in clean, deep water, moving into shallow freshwater to spawn in the spring. Zhadin and Gerd (1963) reported it was one of the most common fishes in reservoirs on the Ob, Novosibirsk, and Bukhtarma-Zaisan rivers of the former Soviet Union. Seeley (1886) reported that the species is not confined to freshwaters, as it is also found in the Baltic Sea. In Sweden, L. idusspent the first year of life in the river and then joined older fish migrating to the Baltic Sea during the summer months, returning to the river in the autumn and remaining near the mouth and in the lower reaches throughout the winter (Cala, 1970). It enters rivers in spring to spawn over gravel or vegetation (Fishbase, 2008), and after spawning, L. idus returns to coastal waters (Cala, 1970).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Estuaries Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Lagoons Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Freshwater
Lakes Principal habitat Natural
Ponds Principal habitat Natural
Reservoirs Principal habitat Natural
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Natural
Marine
Inshore marine Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Pelagic zone (offshore) Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The recorded haploid and diploid chromosomes number of L. idus in the former Yugoslavia is 25 (n) and 50-50 (2n) (Hinegardner and Rosen, 1972). It hybridizes with other European cyprinids including common carp and rudd (Schwartz, 1972; 1981). It has no known hybrids with native North American fishes (Nico and Fuller, 2008). Perea et al. (2010) have published on the phylogenetic relationships within the Leuciscinae inferred from mitchondrial and nuclear data, which included L. idus.

Reproductive Biology

L. idusmatures sexually at the age of 3-5 years and at total lengths varying from 22 cm to 43 cm (Banarescu, 1964; Cala, 1971). At maturity, males maybe smaller than females (Cala, 1971). In contrast, L. idusinhabiting a reservoir in a more northern location (Finnish Lapland) reached maturity at a larger size and older age (6-7 years) (Mutenia, 1978). It spawns in weedy or sandy shallow areas where the adhesive eggs attach to stones or vegetation (Wheeler, 1969; Cala, 1970). It usually spawns in April or May when water temperature is about 7-14°C (Wieser, 1991). Cala (1970) reported that spawning begins in the spring once the water reaches a temperature of about 5°C for 2-3 days. It spawns in schools over weed beds or gravel in shallow areas.

The fecundity of L. iduscan be as low as 15,000 to as high as 125,000 (Banarescu, 1964) or range from 42,000 to 264,000 (Cala, 1971) depending on the country. Eggs are pale yellow in colour with a diameter of 2 mm in diameter (McDowall, 2000).Eggs are found attached to gravel, weed and stones in shallow water (Pinder, 2001). Hatching occurs in 1-2 weeks, producing young fish 8-10 mm long (McDowall, 2000). Incubation time of eggs depends on the water temperature, taking about 5 days at 18.5-22.0°C (Cala, 1970; Florez, 1972), with an optimal temperature of 12-18°C for embryonic development (Wieser, 1991).

Nutrition

L. idusfeeds on insect larvae, molluscs, worms, crustaceans and vegetation (McDowall, 2000). Larger individuals feed on fish like Rutilus rutilus and Alburnus alburnus (Fishbase, 2008).  

Environmental Requirements

L. idusis a benthopelagic, potamodromous species (Riede, 2004), living in temperate regions (73°N-37°N, 7°E-136°E) with a temperature variation of 4-20°C (Fishbase, 2008). Laboratory studies have shown that mortality of larvae and juveniles was significant at oxygen concentrations of less than 2 mg/l (Florez, 1972b). Cala (1970) noted that fish kills have been noted since 1910 in the River Kavlingean, Sweden, as a result of low oxygen content, high temperatures, and pollution. Upper lethal temperature of larvae and juveniles acclimated to 6-22°C, varied from 24-29°C, and was lower in fish acclimated to lower water temperatures (Florez, 1972a).

L. iduscan tolerate a higher level of salinity than any other cyprinid fish and is able to colonise brackish water and estuarine habitats, thus having a broad amplitude in a wide range of habitats, including fresh and brackish water (Wheeler, 1978) to full sea water concentrations (Seeley, 1886; Cala, 1970).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
79 37

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Water pH (pH) 7.0 7.5 Optimum
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 4 20 Optimum

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Silurus asotus Predator not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The fish Esox lucius (pike or northern pike, family Esocidae), preys on juveniles and adult stages of L. idus (Pervozvanskiy and Bugayev, 1992). Trichodinosis parasitic infestations, bacterial infections (Bassleer, 2003) and Pseudocapillaria infestations (Moravec, 1998) of L. idus have also been documented.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Natural Dispersal

Natural dispersal of individuals and populations occurs through swimming, and they can thus expand their range within and between connected water bodies.

Intentional Introductions

The golden variety of L. idus which is valued as ornamental pond fish is spread to new locations through the aquarium trade. In addition to its ornamental purpose it there have also been instances of L. idus being illegally introduced to new locations by anglers. L. idus
eggs, derived from ornamental pond stocks, have been illegally imported to New Zealandby mail sometime in the 1980s and subsequent releases occurred in 1985-86 in a number of sites north of Auckland; however, the current status of these populations is not known.

 

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture stock Yes Yes
Water Yes Nico and Fuller, 2008

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive

Impact: Economic

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L. idus can have a positive impact on the economy as an ornamental fish species with commercial value, and contribute to the livelihoods of aquaculture farmers.

Impact: Environmental

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L. idus occurs in a wide range of habitats, but its impacts on habitats or biodiversity are unknown. Most concerns appear to be based on the fact that it is in the same family as the highly invasive European carp (Cyprinus carpio), which has caused damage to some aquatic ecosystems where it has been introduced to Australia, New Zealand and the USA. However, its predatory nature feeding on larval and adult insects, snails, other invertebrates, and small fish and its ability to could compete with other species for food is of ecological concerns. Seeley (1962) recommended against the introduction of L. idusinto California, USA, indicating the species had the potential of becoming established in state rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and also entering brackish and estuarine waters. Due to its tolerance to a wide range of conditions, Seeley (1962) believed that it had the potential of becoming more of a problem than either goldfish or common carp (Nico and Fuller, 2008), however, Fishbase (2008) regarded it as harmless species. It is not a rare or protected species in its native range, with the IUCN Red List status of Leuciscus idus is Low Risk with least concern under category LR/LC (IUCN, 2007).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Long lived
  • Gregarious
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses

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Economic Value


The golden variety of L. idus has an economic as well as livelihood value as an ornamental fish in the ornamental fish trade.

 

Uses List

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General

  • Pet/aquarium trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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L. idus can be confused with Scardinius erythrophthalmus (rudd) in the wild owing to both have orange-red coloured fins, but they can be differentiated as L. idus has much smaller scales. L. idus is also superficially similar to many native North American cyprinids and does not possess a unique characteristic that sets it apart from native species (Nico and Fuller, 2008). According to Nico and Fuller (2008), however, L. idus can be distinguished from most native North American cyprinids by the following combination of characteristics: pharyngeal teeth 3,5-5,3, no barbels, lateral-line scales 55-63, and usually 8 branched dorsal rays and can be distinguished from other non-native cyprinids by the combination of a short dorsal fin (usually 8 branched dorsal rays) and 55-63 lateral-line scales.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Prevention

SPS measures


There are restrictions in two USA states in order to prevent spread of L. idus in the form of license and prohibitions, Arizona prohibits the possession of L. idus as it is regarded as “restricted live wildlife” fish species and requires a special license or exemption (Arizona Game and Fish Commission Regulations R12-4-406(F). In Nevada, the importation, transportation and possession of all fish species of genus Leuciscus (live, hybrids, viable embryos, or gametes) is prohibited (Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 503.110).

 
Control

There are no records of control measures that have been taken to specifically control L. idus, however, it could be considered that management practices effective for other invasive members of the Cyprinidae (carp) family may also be suitable forL. idus.

 

References

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Banarescu P, 1964. Pisces - Osteichthyes (pesti ganoizi si osisi). Fauna Rep. Pop. Romîne. Vol. 13. Bucarest, Romania: Acad. Rep. Pop. Romîne, 959 pp.

Bassleer G, 2003. The new illustrated guide to fish diseases in ornamental tropical and pond fish. Westmeerbeek, Belgium: Bassleer Biofish, 232 pp.

Berg LS, 1964. Freshwater fishes of the USSR and adjacent countries. Jerusalem, : Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd.

Blanc M; Gaudet JL; Banarescu P, 1971. A multilingual catalogue. London, UK: Fishing News (Books) Ltd.

Cala P, 1970. On the ecology of ide Idus idus (L.) in the River Kavlingean, South Sweden. Reports of the Institute of Freshwater Research Drottningholm, 50:45-99.

Cala P, 1971. Size and age at maturity, ripening and fecundity of the ide Idus idus (L.). Report of the Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm, Sweden, 31-46.

Chadderton WL; Grainger N; Dean T, 2003. Appendix 1 - prioritising control of invasive freshwater fish. Managing invasive freshwater fish in New Zealand. Proceedings of a workshop hosted by Department of Conservation, Hamilton, New Zealand, 10-12 May 2001, 171-174.

Coad BW, 1981. Fishes of Afghanistan, an annotated check-list. Publ. Zool. Natl. Mus. Can, No. 14:23.

Dulmaa A, 1999. Fish and fisheries in Mongolia. Fish and fisheries at higher altitudes: Asia. [ed. by Petr T]. Rome, Italy: FAO, 187-236. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 385. http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x2614e/x2614e00.htm

FAO-DIAS, 2008. Database on introductions of aquatic species. FAO Fisheries Global Information System. Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, FAO. http://www.fao.org/fi/figis/

Florez F, 1972. Influence of oxygen concentration on growth and survival of larvae and juveniles of the ide, Idus idus (L.). Report of the Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm, Sweden: Institute of Freshwater Research, 65-73.

Florez F, 1972. The effect of temperature on incubation time, growth and lethality of embryos, larvae and juveniles of the ide, Idus idus (L.). Report of the Institute of Freshwater Research. Drottningholm, Sweden: Institute of Freshwater Research, 50-60.

Froese R; Pauly D, 2004. FishBase DVD. Penang, Malaysia: Worldfish Center. Online at www.fishbase.org.

Fuller PL; Nico LG; Williams JD, 1999. Nonindigenous fishes introduced into inland waters of the United States. American Fisheries Society Publication, No. 27.

Gerstmeier R; Romig T, 1998. Die Süsswasserfische Europas: für Naturfreunde und Angler. Stuttgart, Germany: Franckh-Kosmos Verlag, 368 pp.

Groot SJ, 1985. Introductions of non-indigenous fish species for release and culture in the Netherlands. Aquaculture, 46:237-257.

Hartmann GL, 1827. Helvetische Ichthyologie, oder ausführliche Naturgeschichte der in der Schweiz sich vorfindenden Fische. Zurich, Switzerland: Orell, Füssli und Compagnie.

Hinegardner R; Rosen DE, 1972. Cellular DNA content and the evolution of teleostean fishes. The American Natuarlist, 106(951):621-644.

ISSG, 2008. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

IUCN, 2007. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Cambridge, UK: IUCN UK Office. http://www.iucnredlist.org

Keith P; Allardi J, 1998. The introduced freshwater fish of France: status, impacts and management. In: Stocking and introduction of fish. Fishing News Books [ed. by Cowx IG] Bodmin, UK: MPG Books Ltd, 153-166.

Keith P; Allardi J, 2001. Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de France. ([English title not available]). Paris, France: Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, 1-387. Patrimoines naturels Vol. 47.

Koli L, 1990. Suomen kalat. Helsinki, Finland: Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö, 357 pp.

Lever C, 1977. The naturalized animals of the British Isles. London, UK: Hutchinson, 600 pp.

McDowall RM, 1990. Freshwater fishes and fisheries of New Zealand - the angler's el dorado. Aquatic Sciences, 2(2):281-341.

McDowall RM, 2000. The Reed field guide to New Zealand freshwater fishes.

Moravec F, 1998. Nematodes of freshwater fishes of the Neotropical Region. Nematodes of freshwater fishes of the Neotropical Region, 464 pp.

Mutenia A, 1978. [On the biology of the ide (Leuciscus idus L.) in Lokka reservoir, Finnish Lapland.] Luonnon Tutkija, 82:135-137.

Muus BJ; Dahlström P, 1968. Süsswasserfische. München, Germany: BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, 224 pp.

Muus BJ; Dahlstrøm P, 1990. Europas ferskvandsfisk. Copenhagen, Denmark: GEC Gads Forlag, 224 pp.

Nico L; Fuller P, 2008. Leuciscus idus. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, USA: USGS. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=557

Page LM; Burr BM, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 432 pp.

Perea S; Bohme M; Zupancic P; Freyhof J; Sanda R; Ozulug M; Abdoli A; Doadrio I, 2010. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical patterns in Circum-Mediterranean Subfamily Leuciscinae (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) inferred from both mitochondrial and nuclear data. BMC Evol. Biol, 10(1):265.

Pervozvanskiy Ya V; Bugayev VF, 1992. Notes on the ecology of the northern pike, Esox lucius, from the Keret' River (White Sea Basin). Journal of Ichthyology, 32(4):116-126.

Pinder AC, 2001. Keys to larval and juvenile stages of coarse fishes from fresh waters in the British Isles [ed. by Sutcliffe DW]. Ambleside, UK: Freshwater Biological Association (FBA), 136 pp.

Reshetnikov YS; Bogutskaya NG; Vasil'eva ED; Dorofeeva EA; Naseka AM; Popova OA; Savvaitova KA; Sideleva VG; Sokolov LI, 1997. An annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of Russia. J. Ichthyol, 37(9):687-736.

Riede K, 2004. Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Bonn, Germany: Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, 329 pp.

Schwartz FJ, 1972. World literature to fish hybrids with an analysis by family, species, and hybrid. Publications of the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Museum, No. 3, 328 pp.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Global Invasive Species Databasehttp://www.issg.org/database/speciesThe GISD aims to increase awareness about invasive alien species and to facilitate effective prevention and management. It is managed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the Species Surviva

Organizations

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Italy: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, http://www.fao.org/

Switzerland: IUCN (The World Conservation Union), Rue Mauverney 28, Gland 1196, Gland, Switzerland, http://www.iucn.org/

USA: United States Geological Survey, USGS National Center 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA 20192, http://www.usgs.gov/

USA: Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Natural Resources Building, 1111 Washington St., SE Olympia, WA, 98501, http://wdfw.wa.gov/contact.htm

Contributors

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24/04/08 Original text by:

Sunil Siriwardena, Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK

Distribution Maps

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