Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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leptospirosis

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Datasheet

leptospirosis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • leptospirosis
  • Overview
  • Leptospires are motile bacteria with hook-shaped ends, and internal flagella. They can be found in aquatic environments and are sensitive to desiccation. They are Gram-negative, do not stain well, but can be visualize...

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    CAB International
    Wallingford
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    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • leptospirosis

International Common Names

  • English: leptospirosis in cattle; leptospirosis in sheep and goats; leptospirosis in swine; redwater of calves

Overview

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Leptospires are motile bacteria with hook-shaped ends, and internal flagella. They can be found in aquatic environments and are sensitive to desiccation. They are Gram-negative, do not stain well, but can be visualized using dark-field microscopy. Leptospires in tissues can be detected by silver impregnation and immunological staining techniques. Leptospirosis can affect all domestic animals and humans, and can vary in severity from mild infections of the urinary or genital tract to serious systemic disease. They are usually excreted in urine. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonotic disease.

Leptospira has several pathogenic species, including Leptospira kirschneri, Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira noguchii, Leptospira borgpetersenii, Leptospira santarosai and Leptospira weilii. These species are divided into over 250 different serovars in 23 different serogroups. Serologically similar leptospires can belong to different species; for example, serovar hardjo belongs to two species interrogans and borgpetersenii, because common surface antigens are shared by the two species which are genetically separate.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host
Canis familiaris (dogs)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Equus
Felis
Homo sapiensWild host
Lama glama (llamas)Domesticated host
Lama pacos (alpacas)Domesticated host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host
Phoca vitulina
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host

Hosts/Species Affected

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In maintenance hosts the disease is often mild or latent, and there is prolonged excretion of the leptospires in urine. Other species that become infected are termed incidental hosts. Incidental hosts are usually less susceptible to infection, develop more severe disease, and are less efficient transmitters of the leptospire to other hosts. The following table shows the maintenance and incidental hosts for serovars of Leptospira interrogans:


SerovarMaintenance hostsIncidental hosts
pomonapigs, cattlesheep, horses, dogs
icterohaemorrhagiaebrown rathumans, domestic animals
hardjocattlehumans
grippotyphosarodentscattle, pigs, horses, dogs
canicoladogspigs, cattle
bratislavapigs, hedgehogshorses, dogs

The main causes of leptospirosis in pigs and ruminants are the following serovars of L. interrogans:


SerovarHostsClinical signs
pomonacattle, sheepacute haemolytic disease in calves and lambs; abortion
"pigsreproductive failure; septicaemia in piglets
icterohaemorrhagiaecattle, sheep, pigsabortion; acute haemolytic disease in calves and lambs
grippotyphosacattle, pigsabortion; septicaemic disease in young animals
canicolapigsabortion/stillbirth; kidney disease in young pigs
bratislavapigsabortion, reproductive failure, stillbirth
tarassovipigsabortion, stillbirth, abortion
hardjo*cattle, sheepabortion, stillbirth, agalactiae, mastitis

* Serovar hardjo can be of Leptospira interrogans or Leptospira borgpetersenii. Some authors claim recently that Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo is the commonest cause of bovine leptospirosis, whereas earlier literature considers that Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo is the commoner cause (Naiman et al., 2001).

Systems Affected

Top of page reproductive diseases of large ruminants
reproductive diseases of pigs
reproductive diseases of small ruminants
urinary tract and renal diseases of large ruminants
urinary tract and renal diseases of pigs
urinary tract and renal diseases of small ruminants

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanNo information availableOIE, 2009
ArmeniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
AzerbaijanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BahrainDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BangladeshPresentOIE, 2009
BhutanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Brunei DarussalamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CambodiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ChinaNo information availableOIE, 2009
-Hong KongNo information availableOIE, 2009
Georgia (Republic of)Last reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
IndonesiaPresentOIE, 2009
IranPresentOIE, 2009
IraqDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
IsraelPresentOIE, 2009
JapanPresentOIE, 2009
JordanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
KuwaitDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
KyrgyzstanRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
LaosNo information availableOIE, 2009
LebanonDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MalaysiaPresentOIE, 2009
-Peninsular MalaysiaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaldivesDisease not reportedOIE, 2012
MongoliaPresentOIE, 2009
MyanmarPresentOIE, 2009
NepalDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
OmanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
PakistanRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
PhilippinesNo information availableOIE, 2009
QatarNo information availableOIE, 2009
Saudi ArabiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SingaporeDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Sri LankaPresentOIE, 2009
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
TaiwanLast reported1991OIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
TurkeyNo information availableOIE, 2009
TurkmenistanLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
UzbekistanOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamPresentOIE, 2009
YemenNo information availableOIE, 2009

Africa

AlgeriaNo information availableOIE, 2009
AngolaLast reported2006OIE, 2012
BeninNo information availableOIE, 2009
BotswanaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE, 2009
BurundiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeNo information availableOIE, 2012
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE, 2009
ComorosDisease not reportedOIE, 2012
CongoAbsent, reported but not confirmedOIE, 2009
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
EgyptDisease never reportedOIE, 2012
EritreaNo information availableOIE, 2009
EthiopiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
GabonPresentOIE, 2012
GambiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE, 2012
GuineaNo information availableOIE, 2009
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE, 2009
KenyaDisease not reportedOIE, 2012
LesothoDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LibyaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarPresentOIE, 2012
MalawiAbsent, reported but not confirmedOIE, 2012
MaliNo information availableOIE, 2009
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE, 2012
MoroccoNo information availableOIE, 2009
MozambiqueDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
NamibiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
NigeriaNo information availableOIE, 2009
RéunionReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Sao Tome and PrincipeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE, 2009
SeychellesReported present or known to be presentOIE, 2012
Sierra LeoneDisease not reportedOIE, 2012
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaPresentOIE, 2009
SudanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SwazilandNo information availableOIE, 2009
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE, 2009
TogoDisease not reportedOIE, 2012
TunisiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2012
UgandaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ZambiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ZimbabweDisease not reportedOIE, 2012

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaPresentOIE, 2009
GreenlandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MexicoPresentOIE, 2009
USAPresentOIE, 2009

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
British Virgin IslandsLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaPresentOIE, 2009
CubaPresentOIE, 2009
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicPresentOIE, 2009
El SalvadorPresentOIE, 2009
GuadeloupePresentOIE, 2009
GuatemalaPresentOIE, 2009
HaitiAbsent, reported but not confirmedOIE, 2009
HondurasDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
JamaicaPresentOIE, 2009
MartiniquePresentOIE, 2009
NicaraguaPresentOIE, 2009
PanamaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Saint Kitts and NevisReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaPresentOIE, 2009
BoliviaAbsent, reported but not confirmedOIE, 2009
BrazilPresentOIE, 2009
ChilePresentOIE, 2009
ColombiaPresentOIE, 2009
EcuadorPresentOIE, 2009
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
GuyanaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruAbsent, reported but not confirmedOIE, 2009
UruguayPresentOIE, 2009
VenezuelaPresentOIE, 2009

Europe

AlbaniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
AndorraNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaNo information availableOIE, 2009
BelarusDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BelgiumDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Bosnia-HercegovinaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
CroatiaPresentOIE, 2009
CyprusDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Czech RepublicDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
DenmarkPresentOIE, 2009
EstoniaPresentOIE, 2009
FinlandDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
FranceNo information availableOIE, 2009
GermanyPresentOIE, 2009
GreeceRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
HungaryPresentOIE, 2009
IcelandDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
IrelandNo information availableOIE, 2009
Isle of Man (UK)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyPresentOIE, 2009
JerseyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LiechtensteinAbsent, reported but not confirmedOIE, 2009
LithuaniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LuxembourgDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MacedoniaRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
MaltaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MoldovaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MontenegroDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
NetherlandsPresentOIE, 2009
NorwayDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
PolandDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
PortugalPresentOIE, 2009
RomaniaPresentOIE, 2009
Russian FederationPresentOIE, 2009
SerbiaPresentOIE, 2009
SlovakiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SloveniaPresentOIE, 2009
SpainPresentOIE, 2009
SwedenPresentOIE, 2009
SwitzerlandPresentOIE, 2009
UKPresentOIE, 2009
-Northern IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkrainePresentOIE, 2009
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaPresentOIE, 2009
French PolynesiaPresentOIE, 2009
New CaledoniaPresentOIE, 2009
New ZealandPresentOIE, 2009
SamoaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
Digestive Signs / Rumen hypomotility or atony, decreased rate, motility, strength Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Sign
General Signs / Icterus, jaundice Sign
General Signs / Icterus, jaundice Sign
General Signs / Icterus, jaundice Sign
General Signs / Pale mucous membranes or skin, anemia Sign
General Signs / Pale mucous membranes or skin, anemia Sign
General Signs / Petechiae or ecchymoses, bruises, ecchymosis Sign
General Signs / Reluctant to move, refusal to move Sign
General Signs / Sudden death, found dead Sign
General Signs / Sudden death, found dead Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Seizures or syncope, convulsions, fits, collapse Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Skin pain Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Reproductive Signs / Bloody milk, red, pink, brown milk Sign
Reproductive Signs / Female infertility, repeat breeder Sign
Reproductive Signs / Mastitis, abnormal milk Sign
Reproductive Signs / Mummy, mummified fetus Sign
Reproductive Signs / Small litter size Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin erythema, inflammation, redness Sign
Urinary Signs / Haematuria, blood in urine Sign
Urinary Signs / Haematuria, blood in urine Sign
Urinary Signs / Haemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria Sign
Urinary Signs / Haemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria Sign
Urinary Signs / Haemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria Sign
Urinary Signs / Red or brown urine, pink Sign
Urinary Signs / Red or brown urine, pink Sign
Urinary Signs / Red or brown urine, pink Sign

Disease Course

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Disease in Cattle

Acute leptospirosis is seen mainly in calves. They show signs of fever, anorexia, pass red urine, are jaundiced and many die within 3 to 5 days. Survivors are usually unthrifty for the rest of their lives. Decreased reproductive performance can also indicate the presence of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis can cause stillbirths and abortions in late pregnancy. A cow may show no signs of illness before or after the abortion or stillbirth. Leptospirosis can decrease a calf drop by 40% or more during a bad epidemic. Mastitis may also be caused by leptospirosis. Cows show signs of fever and depression and go off their feed. The udder is flaccid in all four quarters and milk yield decreases. Milk is yellowish and may contain red flecks but usually returns to normal in 4 to 5 days, full production being restored after 2 to 3 weeks. Within a herd where there are cases of acute leptospiral mastitis, a large number of cows will show no signs of disease, but will have a fall in milk production. Several weeks later these cows may then abort.

Cattle that recover may become carriers and shed the organism in their urine. The organism can colonize the kidneys and cause nephritis and lead to excretion of the bacteria in urine (Yener and Keles, 2001; for further discussion, see Epidemiology section).

Leptospira pomona and L. hardjo can cause localized renal infections in young animals, leading to diarrhoea, anaemia, haemoglobinuria and abortion.The kidneys are swollen, with multi-focal petechial and ecchymotic haemorrhages that become pale with time. The liver may be swollen, with minute areas of focal necrosis. Petechial haemorrhages in other organs are seen in fulminating cases, however, in the more prevalent Leptospirahardjo infections, the lesions are primarily restricted to the kidneys.

Disease in Pigs

Leptospirosis in pigs causes reproductive losses in breeding herds throughout the world. Losses are due to abortion, stillbirths, weak piglets, and reduced fertility. Pigs are maintenance hosts for serovars of the pomona, australis and tarassovi serogroups, while strains of serogroups canicola, icterohaemorrhagiae, and grippotyphosa are often incidental infections. The most important serovar in pigs is pomona, which is found worldwide. Other serovars found in pigs are tarrassovi, bratislava, canicola, copenhageni, and icterohaemorrhagiae.

Epidemiology

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Cattle that recover from leptospirosis may become carriers and shed the organism in their urine. The organism can colonize the kidneys and cause nephritis and lead to excretion of the bacteria in urine (Yener and Keles, 2001). Cattle can shed leptospirosis in the urine for over 12 months.

If the urine is passed into an environment favourable to the bacteria, for example into moist, shaded areas with moderate temperatures, the bacteria can survive for a number of weeks. Survival in the environment can also be extended if the bacterium is picked up by carrier animals (rats, wild pigs, bandicoots, etc.) which can then re-infect the herd with their urine. Leptospires are able to penetrate the membranes of the mouth, nose, eyes and broken skin. Muddy areas around water troughs, water holes and dams are sites of infection. Pigs can act as long-term carriers of serovars pomona and tarassovi. Therefore leptospirosis is more likely on mixed dairy-pig properties or when feral pigs are present. As well as transmission via urine, sexual transmission is an important source of infection (Heinemann et al., 2000).

Zoonoses and Food Safety

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Leptospirosis presents an important zoonotic risk to people working closely with pigs.

Disease Treatment

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Treatment includes antibiotic therapy. Administration of streptomycin, chlortetracycline or oxytetracycline in the early stages of infection reduces the number of leptospires in the tissues and the amount of excreted organisms.

Prevention and Control

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It is possible to eradicate leptospirosis from infected farms by a combination of vaccination, diagnostic tests, drugs and improved hygiene and biosecurity. The greatest threat to eradication schemes is the introduction of infected animals and contact with infected rodents or wild animals (including contact with feral pigs). Vaccination against leptospirosis is common in pigs and cattle. Most vaccines are formalin inactivated, and contain one or more serovars, with aluminium hydroxide adjuvant. Pregnant cows should be vaccinated promptly with killed vaccine. All cattle aged more than 6 months should be vaccinated, with a booster, after 4 weeks. Cows should have an annual booster at mid-pregnancy or at drying off. A monovalent vaccine against Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo can prevent it colonising the kidneys and greatly reduce excretion of the bacteria (Bolin and Alt, 2001).

For pig farms, control depends on combined use of antibiotic therapy, vaccination, and husbandry (including strict biosecurity with rodent control). Outbreaks should be controlled with streptomycin at 25 mg/kg, and vaccination of at-risk stock, followed by a vaccination programme. If vaccination is not possible, a programme of medicated feed (chlortetracycline or oxytetracycline 600-800g/ton of feed) fed continuously or 'one month on one month off', can be used (Ellis, 1999)

References

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African Union-Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources, 2011. Panafrican Animal Health Yearbook 2011. Pan African Animal Health Yearbook, 2011:xiii + 90 pp. http://www.au-ibar.org/index.php?option=com_flexicontent&view=items&cid=71&id=109&Itemid=56&lang=en

Bolin CA, Alt DP, 2001. Use of a monovalent leptospiral vaccine to prevent renal colonization and urinary shedding in cattle exposed to Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 62(7):995-1000; 38 ref.

Ellis WA, 1999. Leptospirosis. In: Diseases of swine, 8th edition. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science, 483-354.

Heinemann MB, Garcia JF, Nunes CM, Gregori F, Higa ZMM, Vasconcellos SA, Richtzenhain LJ, 2000. Detection and differentiation of Leptospira spp. serovars in bovine semen by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Veterinary Microbiology, 73(4):261-267; 15 ref.

Naiman BM, Alt D, Bolin CA, Zuerner R, Baldwin CL, 2001. Protective killed Leptospira borgpetersenii vaccine induces potent Th1 immunity comprising responses by CD4 and gammadelta T lymphocytes. Infection and Immunity, 69(12):7550-7558.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

OIE, 2012. World Animal Health Information Database. Version 2. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Wahidhome/Home

Radostits OM, Blood DC, Gay CC, 1994. Diseases caused by Leptospira. In: Veterinary Medicine: a textbook of the diseases of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horses. London, UK: Bailliere Tindall, 884-898.

Yener Z, Keles H, 2001. Immunoperoxidase and histopathological examinations of leptospiral nephritis in cattle. Journal of Veterinary Medicine A, Physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine, 48(7):441-447.

Zaki SR, Shieh WJ, 1996. .

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
CFSPH – Fast factsheethttp://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/FastFacts/pdfs/leptospirosis_F.pdf
CFSPH – Technical factsheethttp://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/leptospirosis.pdf
CFSPH: Animal Disease Informationhttp://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/index.php"Animal Disease Information" provides links to various information sources, including fact sheets and images, on over 150 animal diseases of international significance.
Leptospirosis – CDC information pagehttp://www.cdc.gov/leptospirosis/
Leptospirosis – OIE Manualhttp://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/2.01.09_LEPTO.pdf
Leptospirosis – wetlands information factsheethttp://www.wwt.org.uk/uploads/documents/1341561607_RWDM4DiseaseFactsheetsLeptospirosis.pdf
Leptospirosis – WHO information pagehttp://www.who.int/zoonoses/institutions/Leptospirosis/en/index.html
Leptospirosis in Cattle – FAO Reporthttp://www.fao.org/prods/gap/database/gap/files/1358_LEPTO.PDF
OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animalshttp://www.oie.int/en/international-standard-setting/terrestrial-manual/access-online/The Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (Terrestrial Manual) aims to facilitate international trade in animals and animal products and to contribute to the improvement of animal health services world-wide. The principal target readership is laboratories carrying out veterinary diagnostic tests and surveillance, plus vaccine manufacturers and regulatory authorities in Member Countries. The objective is to provide internationally agreed diagnostic laboratory methods and requirements for the production and control of vaccines and other biological products.

Distribution Maps

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