Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

lumpy skin disease virus

Toolbox

Datasheet

lumpy skin disease virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Vector of Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • lumpy skin disease virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •       Family: Poxviridae
  •         Subfamily: Chordopoxvirinae

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Electron micrograph of virus particles (scale bar = 200 nm)
TitleVirus particles
CaptionElectron micrograph of virus particles (scale bar = 200 nm)
CopyrightF. Glyn Davies
Electron micrograph of virus particles (scale bar = 200 nm)
Virus particlesElectron micrograph of virus particles (scale bar = 200 nm)F. Glyn Davies

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • lumpy skin disease virus

International Common Names

  • English: Neethling virus

English acronym

  • LSDV

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •             Family: Poxviridae
  •                 Subfamily: Chordopoxvirinae
  •                     Genus: Capripoxvirus
  •                         Species: lumpy skin disease virus

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AzerbaijanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
BangladeshDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitLast reported1991OIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanLast reported1984OIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saudi ArabiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptLast reported1990OIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigerReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanLast reported1990OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
USADisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

Top of page

The early studies in South Africa showed that a transmissible agent was involved in the aetiology of LSD, and that it was not due to an allergic response to insect bites. However, early attempts to isolate the virus in tissue cultures were complicated by the isolation of three different virus groups from tissues that were taken from lesion samples. Firstly researchers isolated a herpes virus, which was subsequently shown to be bovine herpes virus group 2, subsequently known to cause Allerton or pseudo lumpy skin disease. On sub-inoculation into cattle, it produces an initial reaction, which for 1-2 days resembles that produced by LSD. This is a focal inflammation of the skin, which after 3-4 days rapidly becomes necrotic only in the very superficial epidermal and dermal layers (Alexander et al.,1957); the same virus causes bovine herpes mammilitis, which is a similar superficial necrotic disease affecting mainly the udder (Gibbs and Rweyemamu, 1977). A second herpes virus was isolated which belonged to the orphan herpes virus group 3. These are regularly isolated from the skin and other tissues of cattle and are not known to be associated with any disease problem. They do mislead diagnosticians however, who find herpes virus particles in LSD skin lesions (House et al., 1990).

A third virus isolate from the LSD lesions proved to be the one that reproduced the disease upon sub-inoculation into cattle. This was a poxvirus whose morphology and other characteristics suggested that it might be an orthopox virus. Further tests showed that the LSD virus was serologically and immunologically virtually identical with sheep and goat poxviruses of the Capripox genus (Alexander et al., 1957; Haig, 1957; Davies et al., 1971: Davies and Atema, 1981).

Capripox virus particles are ovoid in shape and both LSD and the sheep and goat isolates appear to be of similar size; 294 nm long and 262 nm wide with standard deviations of approximately +/- 20 nm. They have double stranded DNA and appear in forms covered by a membrane or mulberry-like components, similar to those described for members of the Orthopox viruses, which they closely resemble (Munz and Owen, 1966). The core has a characteristic dumbbell shape. The virus is ether- and chloroform-sensitive, it loses infectivity after 1 h at 60°C, is sensitive to sodium desoxycholate, losing infectivity after 1 h and is acid sensitive (Weiss, 1968). The virus, like most poxviruses, is stable over a wide range of temperatures and is highly resistant to desiccation in the presence of proteinaceous material. The virus can persist in the environment for long periods of time.


Strain variation


All strains that have been isolated are serologically and immunologically identical. All Capripox viruses are very closely related with 95.8% homology of the nucleotide sequences, but LSD is most closely allied to the African group of Capripox viruses, which include the sheep and goat poxviruses found in Africa. Other groups are from sheep or goats in other parts of the world and from either sheep or goats in Africa and the Middle East (Kitching et al., 1989). LSD virus is virtually indistinguishable from the African sheeppox and goatpox strains other than by its level of host adaptation in producing clinical LSD in cattle (Davies and Atema, 1981).

All the natural strains of LSD that have been isolated have been pathogenic, and no naturally occurring strains with modified virulence have been found. A strain from South Africa has been found to have greatly reduced virulence after 60 passages in tissue cultures and then 20 times in embryonated eggs. It is immunogenic and is extensively used as a vaccine despite the fact that it produces a granulomatous reaction at the site of inoculation (Weiss, 1968). A Kenyan LSD strain showed no modification of virulence after 70 passages in a foetal muscle cell line.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

Top of page
Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Aepyceros melampusExperimental settings
Bos grunniens (yaks)Wild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Experimental settings
GallusExperimental settings
Gazella thomsoniiExperimental settings
Giraffa camelopardalisExperimental settings
Oryx leucoryxWild host
Ovis aries (sheep)Experimental settings

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

Top of page
VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
CulicidaeInsect
Musca confiscataInsect
Stomoxys calcitransInsect

References

Top of page

Alexander RA; Plowright W; Haig DA, 1957. Cytopathic agents associated with lumpy skin disease of cattle. Bulletin Epizootic Diseases of Africa, 5:489-492.

Davies FG; Atema C, 1981. Relationships of capripox viruses found in Kenya with two Middle eastern strains and some orthopox viruses. Res. Vet. Sci., 31:253-255.

Davies FG; Krauss H; Lund LJ; Taylor M, 1971. The laboratory diagnosis of lumpy skin disease. Res. Vet. Sci., 12:123-127.

Gibbs EPJ; Rweyemamu MM, 1977. Bovine herpes viruses 2 & 3. Vet. Bull., 47:411-425.

Haig DA, 1957. Lumpy Skin disease. Bull. Epiz. Dis. Afr., 5:421-430.

House JA; Wilson TM; El Nakashly S; Karim IA; Ismail I; El Danaf N; Moussa AM; Ayoub NN, 1990. The isolation of lumpy skin disease virus and bovine herpesvirus-4 from cattle in Egypt. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 2(2):111-115; 15 ref.

Kitching PR; Bhat BP; Black DN, 1989. The characterisation of African strains of capripoxvirus. Epid. Inf., 102:335-343.

Munz EK; Owen NC, 1966. Electron microscope studies on Lumpy skin disease virus type Neethling. Onderstepoort, J. Vet. Res., 33:1-8.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Weiss KE, 1968. Lumpy skin disease. In: Virology Monographs, Vol. 3. Vienna, Austria; New York, USA: Springer-Verlag, 111-131.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map