Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris
(yellow disease phytoplasmas)

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Datasheet

Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas)

Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); malformed flowers of Callistephus chinensis (China aster) affected by AY diseases showing dwarfed youngest leaves and flower malformations. Right, healthy flower.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); malformed flowers of Callistephus chinensis (China aster) affected by AY diseases showing dwarfed youngest leaves and flower malformations. Right, healthy flower.
Copyright©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); malformed flowers of Callistephus chinensis (China aster) affected by AY diseases showing dwarfed youngest leaves and flower malformations. Right, healthy flower.
SymptomsCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); malformed flowers of Callistephus chinensis (China aster) affected by AY diseases showing dwarfed youngest leaves and flower malformations. Right, healthy flower.©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); bushy tops and stunted and hairy roots on AY-infected carrot (Daucus carota). Healthy plant on left.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); bushy tops and stunted and hairy roots on AY-infected carrot (Daucus carota). Healthy plant on left.
Copyright©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); bushy tops and stunted and hairy roots on AY-infected carrot (Daucus carota). Healthy plant on left.
SymptomsCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); bushy tops and stunted and hairy roots on AY-infected carrot (Daucus carota). Healthy plant on left.©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); AY-infected lettuce (Lactuca sativa) showing stunting and failure to head.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); AY-infected lettuce (Lactuca sativa) showing stunting and failure to head.
Copyright©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); AY-infected lettuce (Lactuca sativa) showing stunting and failure to head.
SymptomsCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); AY-infected lettuce (Lactuca sativa) showing stunting and failure to head.©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli), infected by AY, characterized by proliferation of the inflorescence, phyllody and virescence.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli), infected by AY, characterized by proliferation of the inflorescence, phyllody and virescence.
Copyright©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli), infected by AY, characterized by proliferation of the inflorescence, phyllody and virescence.
SymptomsCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli), infected by AY, characterized by proliferation of the inflorescence, phyllody and virescence.©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); foliar symptoms of clover phyllody on Trifolium repens. Top left, healthy leaves.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); foliar symptoms of clover phyllody on Trifolium repens. Top left, healthy leaves.
Copyright©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); foliar symptoms of clover phyllody on Trifolium repens. Top left, healthy leaves.
SymptomsCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); foliar symptoms of clover phyllody on Trifolium repens. Top left, healthy leaves.©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); healthy plant (left) and AY- infected plant of Primula, showing yellowing, virescence and dwarfed flowers.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); healthy plant (left) and AY- infected plant of Primula, showing yellowing, virescence and dwarfed flowers.
Copyright©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); healthy plant (left) and AY- infected plant of Primula, showing yellowing, virescence and dwarfed flowers.
SymptomsCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); healthy plant (left) and AY- infected plant of Primula, showing yellowing, virescence and dwarfed flowers.©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); virescent flowers of AY-infected Anemone coronaria. Top left, healthy flower.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); virescent flowers of AY-infected Anemone coronaria. Top left, healthy flower.
Copyright©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); virescent flowers of AY-infected Anemone coronaria. Top left, healthy flower.
SymptomsCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); virescent flowers of AY-infected Anemone coronaria. Top left, healthy flower.©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); phyllody symptoms of AY-disease on a Ranunculus sp.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); phyllody symptoms of AY-disease on a Ranunculus sp.
Copyright©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); phyllody symptoms of AY-disease on a Ranunculus sp.
SymptomsCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); phyllody symptoms of AY-disease on a Ranunculus sp.©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); AY- infected periwinkle plant (Catharanthus sp.) showing a pronounced enlargement of the calyx.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); AY- infected periwinkle plant (Catharanthus sp.) showing a pronounced enlargement of the calyx.
Copyright©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); AY- infected periwinkle plant (Catharanthus sp.) showing a pronounced enlargement of the calyx.
SymptomsCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); AY- infected periwinkle plant (Catharanthus sp.) showing a pronounced enlargement of the calyx.©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); larkspur (Delphinium sp.) plants, affected by AY disease, showing proliferation of axillary shoots. Right, healthy plant.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); larkspur (Delphinium sp.) plants, affected by AY disease, showing proliferation of axillary shoots. Right, healthy plant.
Copyright©C. Marcone
Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); larkspur (Delphinium sp.) plants, affected by AY disease, showing proliferation of axillary shoots. Right, healthy plant.
SymptomsCandidatus Phytoplasma asteris (yellow disease phytoplasmas); larkspur (Delphinium sp.) plants, affected by AY disease, showing proliferation of axillary shoots. Right, healthy plant.©C. Marcone

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris

Preferred Common Name

  • yellow disease phytoplasmas

Other Scientific Names

  • Aconitum proliferation
  • Aconitum virescence
  • Alberta aster yellows
  • alfalfa stunt
  • Alstroemeria decline
  • American aster yellows
  • Anemone virescence
  • apple sessile leaf
  • apricot chlorotic leaf roll
  • azalea little leaf
  • banana elephantiasis
  • basil little leaf
  • Bermuda grass white leaf
  • black currant reversion
  • black pepper yellows
  • blueberry stunt
  • broccoli phyllody
  • Bunias phyllody
  • cactus virescence
  • cactus witches'-broom
  • Calendula virescence
  • canola yellows
  • Cardaria phyllody
  • carrot proliferation
  • carrot yellows
  • cassava phyllody phytoplasma
  • cassava witches' broom
  • Catharanthus little leaf
  • Catharanthus virescence
  • chayote witches'-broom
  • cherry bunch leaf
  • cherry little leaf
  • chlorantie
  • Chrysanthemum witches'-broom
  • Chrysanthemum yellows
  • Cirsium stunt
  • Cirsium yellows
  • clover phyllody
  • columbine virescence
  • coorg black pepper yellows
  • cosmos phyllody
  • Cyclamen virescence
  • dandelion yellows
  • Delphinium virescence
  • dill yellows
  • Diplotaxis virescence
  • dogfennel yellows
  • dogwood stunt
  • dwarf western aster yellows
  • eastern aster yellows
  • Echinacea phyllody
  • eggplant dwarf
  • eggplant little leaf
  • Epilobium phyllody
  • Erigeron yellows
  • European aster yellows
  • false ragweed
  • Festuca yelllows
  • Gaillardia yellows
  • Gladiolus virescence
  • grapevine yellows
  • grey dogwood stunt
  • hyacinth yellows
  • Hydrangea phyllody and virescence
  • Ipomoea obscura witches' broom
  • Italian cabbage yellows
  • Italian lettuce yellows
  • kale phyllody
  • larkspur virescence
  • lazy daisy yellows
  • lettuce yellows
  • lilac little leaf
  • Limonium proliferation
  • Limonium yellows
  • Lotus yellows
  • maize bushy stunt
  • mallow yellows
  • marguerite yellows
  • marigold phyllody
  • marigold virescence
  • Maryland aster yellows
  • Mitsuba witches' broom
  • monarda yellows
  • mulberry dwarf
  • multiplier disease
  • New England aster yellows
  • New Jersey aster yellows
  • oat proliferation
  • Oenothera virescence
  • olive witches'-broom
  • onion phyllody
  • onion virescence
  • onion yellows
  • Papaver virescence
  • parsley yellows
  • Paulownia witches' broom
  • peach red leaf disease
  • pear proliferation and decline
  • periwinkle little leaf
  • periwinkle witches' broom and virescence
  • periwinkle yellows
  • Phytoplasma asteris
  • plantain virescence
  • Poa stunt
  • poplar witches' broom
  • poplar yellows
  • Portulaca yellows
  • potato purple top
  • prickly lettuce yellows
  • Primula yellows
  • pumpkin yellows
  • purple coneflower yellows
  • Quercus proliferation
  • ragweed yellows
  • Ranunculus phyllody
  • rape phyllody
  • rape virescence
  • rose witches'-broom
  • ryegrass yellows
  • safflower phyllody
  • Salix proliferation
  • sandal spike
  • Saponaria proliferation
  • Schizanthus proliferation
  • severe western aster yellows
  • soybean purple stem
  • Spirea stunt
  • Stellaria yellows
  • strawberry green petal
  • strawberry phylloid fruit
  • strawberry stunting
  • Symphytum proliferation
  • Tacaco witches'-broom
  • Tagetes witches' broom
  • Thalictrum proliferation
  • tomato big bud
  • tomato yellows
  • turnip virescence
  • Veronica phyllody
  • watercress witches'-broom
  • western aster yellows
  • wild radish yellows

International Common Names

  • English: aster yellows phytoplasmas; AY

EPPO code

  • PHYP01 (Tomato big bud phytoplasma)
  • PHYPAS

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Mollicutes
  •             Order: Acholeplasmatales
  •                 Family: Acholeplasmataceae
  •                     Genus: Phytoplasma
  •                         Species: Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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'CandidatusPhytoplasma asteris' is a member of the aster yellows (AY) phytoplasma group or 16SrI group, the largest and most diverse phytoplasma group (IRPCM, 2004; Lee et al., 2004). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the AY phytoplasma group is relatively homogeneous, differing in not more than 3% of the nucleotide positions (Lee et al., 2004). Despite this low variation, the AY phytoplasma group could be subdivided into several distinct restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) subgroups (16SrI subgroups) by extensive RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, employing 17 restriction enzymes (Lee et al., 1993a, 1998a, 2007a; Jomantiene et al., 1998, 2011a; Wei et al., 2011). A more detailed differentiation has been obtained by sequence and RFLP analyses of ribosomal protein (rpsV and rpsC), tuf, secA, secY, nusA and groEL genes, and the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region sequences (Marcone et al., 2000; Shao et al., 2006; Martini et al., 2007; Hodgetts et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2010; Mitrovic et al., 2011). Within the phytoplasma phylogenetic clade, AY group phytoplasmas are most closely related to stolbur phytoplasma group (16SrXII group), based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The 'CandidatusPhytoplasma asteris' concept encompasses all known 16SrI subgroups within the AY phytoplasma group (Lee et al., 2004). To date, more than 17 16SrI subgroups have been delineated. Subgroup 16SrI-B represents the largest strain cluster in the AY group.

Description

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Ultrastructural aspects of AY group phytoplasmas in sieve tube elements of diseased plants have been studied by several researchers using transmission and scanning electron microscope observations (Hirumi and Maramorosch, 1973; Haggis and Sinha, 1978; Marcone et al., 1995; Marcone and Ragozzino, 1996; Fránová and Šimková, 2009; Fránová et al., 2009). The phytoplasma bodies varied in size and shape. They showed a very high polymorphism, appearing in round, ovoid, encurved and elongated forms. Octopus-like structures, as well as budding, dimpled- and dumbbell-shaped forms were also observed. The size of spherical forms ranged from 100 to 800 nm and filamentous bodies were up to 2600 nm in length. However, the morphological variations observed most probably represented various developmental stages of phytoplasmas and they cannot be considered as distinctive characteristics.

Distribution

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AY phytoplasma group is the most widespread phytoplasma group. However, there are significant differences in the geographic distribution of the various subgroups (Lee et al., 1998a, b; Seemüller et al., 1998; Marcone et al., 2000; Lee et al., 2004; Jomantiene et al., 2011a). Subgroups 16SrI-A, 16SrI-B and 16SrI-C are known to occur worldwide whereas subgroups 16SrI-L and 16SrI-M appear to be restricted to the European continent. Subgroups 16SrI-D, 16SrI-E and 16SrI-F seem to show pronounced host specificity. Each of them has been identified in only one host. This host specificity may be responsible for a restricted geographic distribution (Lee et al., 2004). The current information about distribution is likely to be just a temporary picture subject to change with further research. There are several reports of phytoplasmas diseases of weed, and ornamental and vegetable crop plants from Europe as well as from North America which have previously been described, mostly on the basis of symptomatology and microscopical examination. The identity of phytoplasmas occurring in these plants has not been determined.

Records of Ca. P. asteris in Victoria (EPPO, 2014) and Western Australia (EPPO, 2014) published in previous versions of the Compendium are invalid (Plant Health Australia, communication to CABI, 2019). EPPO (2019) does not include a record of Ca. P. asteris in Victoria. The original record may have been a misidentification of Buckland Valley grapevine yellows phytoplasma, which is closely related to Ca. P. asteris (group 16SrI) and Ca. P. australiense (16SrXII) but is a separate species. The original source of the record of Ca. P. asteris in Western Australia is Chambers (1961), cited in CMI (1976). The record of aster yellows on lettuce is based on disease symptoms observed in 1951 but the pathogen was never identified. It is likely to be due to Tomato big bud phytoplasma (16SrII).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 01 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MozambiqueAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
South AfricaPresent, Localized
ZambiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)

Asia

ChinaPresent, Localized
-GuangdongPresent
-HainanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-JiangsuPresentNanjing
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-SichuanPresent
-XinjiangPresent
-YunnanPresent
IndiaPresent
-DelhiPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-TripuraPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent
IranPresentFiruzabad, Shiraz and Darab in Fars Province
IsraelAbsent
JapanPresent
LebanonPresent
MalaysiaPresent
MyanmarPresent
PakistanPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent2012
TaiwanPresent, Widespread
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresentOriginal citation: Çaglayan et al. (2013)

Europe

BelarusPresent
BelgiumPresent
CzechiaPresent
DenmarkPresent
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent, Widespread
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent, Widespread
ItalyPresent, Widespread
LithuaniaPresentVilnius
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent, Localized
Serbia and MontenegroPresent, Localized
SpainPresent, LocalizedOriginal citation: Seemüller et al. (1998)
UkrainePresentOriginal citation: Jomantiene et al. (2011)
United KingdomPresentOriginal recorded location: England and Wales
-EnglandPresentOriginal recorded location: England and Wales
-ScotlandPresent, Widespread2013
-WalesPresentOriginal recorded location: England and Wales

North America

BermudaPresent
CanadaPresent, Widespread
-AlbertaPresent, Widespread
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
GuatemalaPresent
MexicoPresent, Widespread
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-AlaskaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-FloridaPresent, Widespread
-MarylandPresent, Widespread
-MichiganPresent, Widespread
-MinnesotaPresent
-MissouriPresent, Widespread
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-OhioPresent, Widespread
-OklahomaPresent, Widespread
-South DakotaPresent
-TexasPresent
-WisconsinPresent

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Original citation: Plant Health Australia, communication to CABI (2019)
-VictoriaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Original citation: Plant Health Australia, communication to CABI (2019)
-Western AustraliaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Original citation: Plant Health Australia, communication to CABI (2019)

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
ColombiaPresent
PeruPresent

Risk of Introduction

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AY group phytoplasmas are not listed as quarantine pests by EPPO. However, they are of quarantine significance for the Inter-African Phytosanitary Commission.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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AY group phytoplasmas appear to have a wide host range. The vast majority of strains in the AY group infect herbaceous dicotyledonous plant hosts. However, a number of strains that belong to subgroups 16SrI-A, 16SrI-B and 16SrI-C are capable of infecting monocotyledonous plants (e.g., maize, onion, gladiolus, oat, wheat and grass). Some strains in subgroups 16SrI-A, 16SrI-B, 16SrI-D, 16SrI-E, 16SrI-F and 16SrI-Q can induce disease in woody plants (e.g., grey dogwood, sandalwood, blueberry, mulberry, peach, cherry, olive, grapevine and paulownia). For many of the plant hosts which have previously been reported to be affected by AY diseases on the basis of symptomatology and/or microscopic examinations (see McCoy et al., 1989), the identity of the infecting phytoplasmas has never been determined with molecular techniques, or proved to be different from that of other established AY phytoplasma strains (Schneider et al., 1997; Marcone et al., 2000). 

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Acer negundo (box elder)AceraceaeOther
    Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)AmaranthaceaeOther
      Aconitum napellus (aconite monkshood)RanunculaceaeOther
        Adenium obesumApocynaceaeOther
          Allium ampeloprasum (wild leek)LiliaceaeOther
            Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeMain
              Allium sativum (garlic)LiliaceaeOther
                Alstroemeria (Inca lily)AlstroemeriaceaeMain
                  Amaranthus (amaranth)AmaranthaceaeWild host
                    Amaranthus hypochondriacusAmaranthaceaeOther
                      Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed)AsteraceaeWild host
                        Ammi majus (Bishop's-weed)ApiaceaeOther
                          Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (Amur amelopsis)VitaceaeOther
                            Ananas comosus (pineapple)BromeliaceaeOther
                              Anemone coronaria (Poppy anemone)RanunculaceaeMain
                                Anethum graveolens (dill)ApiaceaeMain
                                  Apium graveolens (celery)ApiaceaeMain
                                    Asparagus officinalis (asparagus)LiliaceaeOther
                                      Avena sativa (oats)PoaceaeOther
                                        Bellis perennis (common daisy)AsteraceaeOther
                                          Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeOther
                                            Bougainvillea spectabilis (great bougainvillea)NyctaginaceaeOther
                                              Brachyscome multifidaAsteraceaeOther
                                                Brassica napusBrassicaceaeOther
                                                  Brassica napus var. napus (rape)BrassicaceaeMain
                                                    Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                      Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)BrassicaceaeMain
                                                        Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli)BrassicaceaeMain
                                                          Brassica rapa subsp. rapa (turnip)BrassicaceaeMain
                                                            Bromus inermis (Awnless brome)PoaceaeOther
                                                              Bunias orientalis (Turkish warty-cabbage)BrassicaceaeWild host
                                                                Bupleurum falcatumApiaceaeWild host
                                                                  Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea)FabaceaeOther
                                                                    Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                      Callistephus chinensis (China aster)AsteraceaeMain
                                                                        Camelina sativaBrassicaceaeOther
                                                                          Cannabis sativa (hemp)CannabaceaeOther
                                                                            Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                              Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
                                                                                Carthamus tinctorius (safflower)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                  Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)ApocynaceaeOther
                                                                                    Celosia argentea (celosia)AmaranthaceaeMain
                                                                                      Celtis australis (European nettle wood)UlmaceaeOther
                                                                                        Chrysanthemum coronarium (garland chrysanthemum)AsteraceaeMain
                                                                                          Chrysanthemum frutescens (marguerite)AsteraceaeMain
                                                                                            Chrysanthemum morifolium (chrysanthemum (florists'))AsteraceaeMain
                                                                                              Cirsium arvense (creeping thistle)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                                Citrus maxima (pummelo)RutaceaeOther
                                                                                                  Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeOther
                                                                                                    Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeOther
                                                                                                      Clarkia unguiculataOnagraceaeOther
                                                                                                        Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeOther
                                                                                                          Consolida ambigua (rocket larkspur)RanunculaceaeOther
                                                                                                            Conyza bonariensis (hairy fleabane)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                                              Conyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                Coreopsis lanceolataAsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                  Coreopsis tinctoriaAsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                    Coriandrum sativum (coriander)ApiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                      Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood)CornaceaeOther
                                                                                                                        Corylus avellana (hazel)BetulaceaeOther
                                                                                                                          Cosmos bipinnatus (garden cosmos)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                            Crotalaria spectabilis (showy rattlepod)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                              Crotalaria tetragonaFabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                CrotonEuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                  Cryptotaenia canadensis (honewort)ApiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                    Cryptotaenia japonicaApiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                      Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                        Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                          Cuscuta (dodder)CuscutaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                            Cyclamen persicum (cyclamens)PrimulaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                              Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)PoaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                Cyrtostachys rendaArecaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                  DahliaAsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                    Dahlia hortensisUnknown
                                                                                                                                                    Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                      Delphinium hybrids (florist's larkspur)RanunculaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                        Dicentra formosaPapaveraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                          Dicentra spectabilis (bleeding heart)PapaveraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                            Digitalis lanata (Grecian foxglove)ScrophulariaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                              Diplotaxis erucoidesBrassicaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                Dysphania ambrosioides (Mexican tea)ChenopodiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                  Echinacea purpurea (purple coneflower)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                    Eclipta prostrata (eclipta)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                      Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive)ElaeagnaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                        Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)ArecaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                          Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                            Epilobium (willowherbs)OnagraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                              Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                Eryngium alpinumApiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                  Erysimum linifoliumBrassicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                    Eschscholzia californica (california poppy)PapaveraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                      Etlingera elatior (torch ginger)ZingiberaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                        EucalyptusMyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                          Eucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                            Eupatorium capillifolium (Dog fennel)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                              Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fortunella japonica (round kumquat)RutaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Fraxinus uhdei (tropical ash)OleaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                        FreesiaIridaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Gerbera jamesonii (African daisy)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Geum coccineumRosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Gladiolus hybrids (sword lily)IridaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Gomphocarpus physocarpus (balloon cotton bush)AsclepiadaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Guizotia abyssinica (niger)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Helianthus debilis (beach sunflower)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Humulus lupulus (hop)CannabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hyacinthus orientalis (hyacinth)LiliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hydrangea macrophylla (French hydrangea)HydrangeaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)BalsaminaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ipomoea obscuraConvolvulaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Isopyrum thalictroidesRanunculaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Jatropha curcas (jatropha)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Juniperus (junipers)CupressaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Koelreuteria paniculata (golden rain tree)SapindaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Lactuca serriola (prickly lettuce)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Larix (larches)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Lepidium draba (hoary cress)BrassicaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Lilium (lily)LiliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Limonium sinuatum (sea pink)PlumbaginaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lotus corniculatus (bird's-foot trefoil)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LuffaCucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Luffa aegyptiaca (loofah)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Lupinus (lupins)FabaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Macadamia integrifolia (macadamia nut)ProteaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            MagnoliaMagnoliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Malva (mallow)MalvaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Matricaria perforata (false chamomile)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)MeliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Melochia corchorifolia (redweed)SterculiaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Morus bombycis (Japanese mulberry)MoraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Musa acuminata (wild banana)MusaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Musa balbisianaMusaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Muscari armeniacumLiliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Myriophyllum aquaticum (parrot's feather)HaloragidaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Myrtus communis (myrtle)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Nasturtium officinale (watercress)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Nigella damascena (Love-in-a-mist)RanunculaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ocimum basilicum (basil)LamiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Olea europaea subsp. europaea (European olive)OleaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear)CactaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Opuntia sp. (pricklypear)CactaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pachysandra terminalis (Japanese spurge)BuxaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Papaver rhoeas (common poppy)PapaveraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Paulownia tomentosa (paulownia)ScrophulariaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pelargonium (pelargoniums)GeraniaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Petroselinum crispum (parsley)ApiaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PetuniaSolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Phlox drummondii (Annual phlox)PolemoniaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Phoenix dactylifera (date-palm)ArecaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Physalis ixocarpaSolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Piper nigrum (black pepper)PiperaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pittosporum undulatum (Australian cheesewood)PittosporaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Plantago (Plantain)PlantaginaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Poa pratensis (smooth meadow-grass)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Populus (poplars)SalicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Populus nigra (black poplar)SalicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Portulaca oleracea (purslane)PortulacaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Primula sp. (primrose)PrimulaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Prunus armeniaca (apricot)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Prunus avium (sweet cherry)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Prunus cerasus (sour cherry)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Prunus persica var. nucipersica (nectarine)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Psylliostachys suworowiiPlumbaginaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pterocarya stenoptera (chinese wing nut)JuglandaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Quercus robur (common oak)FagaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ranunculus asiaticus (garden crowfoot)RanunculaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish)BrassicaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Raphanus sativus (radish)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Rhododendron (Azalea)EricaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ribes nigrum (blackcurrant)GrossulariaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ribes rubrum (red currant)GrossulariaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Roystonea regia (cuban royal palm)ArecaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Rubus fruticosus (blackberry)RosaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Rudbeckia hirtaAsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                SaccharumPoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Salix (willows)SalicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Salix babylonica (weeping willow)SalicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Salix guebriantianaSalicaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Santalum album (Indian sandalwood)SantalaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Saponaria officinalis (soapwort)CaryophyllaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scabiosa atropurpurea (Pincushion)DipsacaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Schizanthus pinnatusSolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sechium edule (chayote)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sedum spectabile (showy stonecrop)CrassulaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Senecio jacobaea (common ragwort)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sesamum indicum (sesame)PedaliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Solidago (Goldenrod)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sonchus asper (spiny sow-thistle)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle)AsteraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Spinacia oleracea (spinach)ChenopodiaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Spiraea bumaldaRosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Spiraea tomentosa (Hardhack)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Stellaria media (common chickweed)CaryophyllaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Streblus asperMoraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Syringa oblataOleaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Syringa reticulataOleaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Syringa vulgaris (lilac)OleaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Tagetes erecta (Mexican marigold)AsteraceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Tagetes patula (French marigold)AsteraceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Tanacetum cinerariifolium (Pyrethrum)Other
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Tanacetum parthenium (Feverfew)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Toona ciliata (toon)MeliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Trifolium hybridum (alsike clover)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Trifolium pratense (red clover)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Trifolium repens (white clover)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ulmus (elms)UlmaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Vaccinium (blueberries)EricaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Valeriana officinalis (common valerian)ValerianaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Verbascum densiflorumScrophulariaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Withania somnifera (poisonous gooseberry)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Wodyetia bifurcata (foxtail palm)ArecaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Xanthoceras sorbifoliumSapindaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yucca constrictaAgavaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Zanthoxylum schinifoliumRutaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Zinnia elegans (zinnia)AsteraceaeOther

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Growth Stages

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Symptoms

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  AY group phytoplasmas affect plants by causing extensive abnormalities in plant growth and development, suggestive of profound disturbance in plant hormone balance. Symptoms typical on herbaceous plant hosts include yellowing of the leaves, stunting, proliferation of auxiliary shoots resulting in a witches'-broom appearance, bunchy appearance of growth at the ends of stems, virescence of flowers and sterility, phyllody, shortening of internodes, elongation and etiolation of internodes, small and deformed leaves. Yellowing, decline, sparse foliage and dieback are predominant in woody plant hosts. However, it is well-known that distantly related phytoplasmas can cause identical symptoms in a given host plant, whereas closely related phytoplasmas can cause distinctly different symptoms. Lee et al. (1992) determined that different symptoms could be induced in Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) by closely related strains of the AY phytoplasma group.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  SignLife StagesType
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fruit / abnormal patterns
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fruit / abnormal shape
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fruit / discoloration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fruit / premature drop
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fruit / reduced size
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Growing point / dieback
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Growing point / discoloration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Growing point / distortion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Inflorescence / abnormal leaves (phyllody)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Inflorescence / discoloration (non-graminaceous plants)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Inflorescence / distortion (non-graminaceous plants)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Leaves / abnormal colours
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Leaves / abnormal forms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Leaves / yellowed or dead
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Roots / hairy root
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Roots / reduced root system
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Roots / stubby roots
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Stems / dieback
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Stems / internal red necrosis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Stems / stunting or rosetting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Stems / witches broom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Whole plant / dwarfing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Whole plant / early senescence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Whole plant / elongation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Whole plant / uprooted or toppled

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Biology and Ecology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  AY group phytoplasmas are graft- but not seed-transmissible and spread naturally by insect vectors. Several leafhoppers, including Macrosteles fascifrons [M. quadrilineatus], M. laevis, M. striiformis, M. quadripunctulatus, M. sexnotatus, M. viridigriseus, Euscelis plebeja, E. lineolatus, E. incisus, Euscelidius variegatus, Aphrodes bicinctus, Hishimonoides sellatiformis, Scaphytopius acutus, Dalbulus elimatus, Colladonus montanus and C. geminatus, are reported to transmit them. However, M. quadrilineatus is reported to be the principal vector. These leafhopper species are polyphagous and can transmit the pathogens to a wide range of host plants (Lee et al., 1998b, 2004; Weintraub and Beanland, 2006).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  AY group phytoplasmas are also readily transmissible by dodder (Cuscuta spp.). More than 50 strains of AY phytoplasma group have been transmitted by means of dodder from naturally infected plants to the experimental plant Catharanthus roseus and are maintained in this host by periodic grafting (Gundersen et al., 1996; Seemüller et al., 1998; Marcone et al., 2000).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Climate

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Df - Continental climate, wet all year Tolerated Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Means of Movement and Dispersal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Natural dispersal

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Abiotic factors are not involved in natural spread of 'CandidatusPhytoplasma asteris'.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Vector transmission

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' is naturally transmitted by a wide range of leafhoppers. However, Macrosteles fascifrons [M. quadrilineatus] is reported to be the principal vector (Lee et al., 1998b, 2004; Weintraub and Beanland, 2006).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Accidental introduction

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Like other phytoplasmas, 'CandidatusPhytoplasma asteris' is not seed-transmissible. However, it may be introduced into new areas where it may have never existed before by importing vegetative propagating materials that carry the pathogen undetected.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Intentional introduction

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The use of infected vegetative propagating material is responsible for long-distance movement of the pathogen and intentional introduction into new areas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pathway Causes

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Breeding and propagation Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Crop production Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Nursery trade Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  People sharing resources Yes Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pathway Vectors

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Germplasm Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Host and vector organisms Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Plant Trade

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fruits (inc. pods)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Growing medium accompanying plants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  True seeds (inc. grain)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Impact Summary

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  CategoryImpact
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cultural/amenity Negative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Economic/livelihood Negative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Environment (generally) Negative

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Impact

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aster  yellows (AY) group phytoplasmas affect plants by causing a general reduction in quantity and quality of yield. The most severely affected hosts are carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach and several ornamental crops, including aster, gladiolus, hydrangea, chrysanthemum and purple coneflower. Disease incidence may vary from year to year depending on the population trend of the vectors in the field. Infection rates varying from 20 to 30% were observed in lettuce and ranunculus fields in southern Italy (Marcone et al., 1995; Parrella et al., 2008). In Oklahoma, USA, according to Errampalli et al. (1991), AY group phytoplasma infections occurred in 80% of lettuce plants and 28% of carrots. In Ohio, disease incidence of 100% has been recorded in lettuce fields (Zhang et al., 2004). A major outbreak of AY disease occurred in 2000 in Texas that affected several vegetable crops. Among them, carrot was most severely damaged with infection rates that ranged from to 50 to near 100% (Lee et al., 2003). A severe AY disease of chrysanthemum which induced losses of 70 to 80% of the crop has been reported from China (Min et al., 2008) whereas losses of 90% were recorded in AY-affected aubergines in Bangladesh (Kelly et al., 2009). Infection rates of 60 and 99% were recorded in Hungary for AY-affected sugarbeet plants and India for AY-affected Jatropha curcas plants, respectively (Mumford et al., 2000; Kumar et al., 2010b). However, there are also several reports on sporadic occurrence and generally low incidence of AY group phytoplasmas in vegetable and ornamental crops (Smith et al., 1988; Vibio et al., 1995; Bertaccini et al., 1998). Cassava witches’ broom, a disease affecting cassava in South East Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, China and the Philippines) is caused by 16SrI phytoplasma. The disease has resulted in significant reductions in cassava root starch content and up to 80% yield loss in parts of Vietnam (Anon., 2014).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Risk and Impact Factors

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Impact outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Negatively impacts agriculture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Negatively impacts forestry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Reduced native biodiversity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Damages animal/plant products
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Impact mechanisms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Pathogenic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Likelihood of entry/control
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Difficult/costly to control

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Diagnosis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Detection of 'CandidatusPhytoplasma asteris' infections is possible by microscopic examination of phloem tissue sections stained with the DNA fluorochrome 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) as well as by electron microscopy. However, microscopic methods do not allow specific detection of the various phytoplasma types, and are not always sufficiently sensitive to detect the pathogens in low-titre hosts such as woody plants. Serological assays using monoclonal antibodies have been successfully employed for detection and identification of AY group phytoplasmas in samples from hosts with a sufficiently high titre (Clark et al., 1989; Lee et al., 1993b; Keane et al., 1996; Loi et al., 1998).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Currently, PCR technology is the method of choice for detection and identification of AY group phytoplasmas and has completely replaced the other techniques. It offers several advantages, including versatility, relative simplicity, specificity and high sensitivity. Universal, group- and pathogen-specific phytoplasma primers have been designed, directed to ribosomal DNA sequences. The sensitivity of PCR detection can be further improved by reamplifying the DNA fragments obtained in the first amplification using internal primers (nested PCR) (Lee et al., 1994; Gundersen and Lee, 1996; Bertaccini et al., 1998, 2005; Marcone et al., 2000; Lee et al., 2004, 2010). Quantitative real-time PCR assays were also employed to quantify AY group phytoplasma infections in chrysanthemum plants (Wei et al., 2004; Saracco et al., 2006).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Detection and Inspection

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  For reliable diagnosis, the identity of phytoplasmas occurring in plants characterized by the symptoms described (see Symptoms), should be determined by molecular techniques.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There are several reports where two or more distinctly different phytoplasmas may induce identical symptoms in a given host plant. Some examples are grapevine affected by grapevine yellows syndrome which can be caused by either phytoplasmas of the elm yellows (16srV) group or by organisms from the stolbur (16SrXII), aster yellows (16SrI) and peach X-disease (16SrIII) groups, tomato affected by 'big bud' disease which can be associated with either the stolbur agent or phytoplasmas from aster yellows, peanut witches’-broom (16SrII), elm yellows and X-disease groups and clover affected by clover phyllody disease which can be caused by phytoplasmas from the aster yellows and X-disease groups (Seemüller et al., 1998; IRPCM, 2004). In all these cases, AY group phytoplasmas can be distinguished using molecular-based tools.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Prevention and Control

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The incidence of aster yellows (AY) disease can be reduced significantly if proper attention is given to all control measures. These mainly include the use of healthy plant material, eradication of perennial or biennial weed hosts from the field, roadways and fences, control of the leafhopper vectors in the crop and on weeds with insecticides as early in the season as possible and avoidance of planting a susceptible crop next to a crop harbouring the pathogens. Application of tetracyclines may be appropriate for the treatment of particularly valuable trees, but tetracyclines are not registered in some countries for this purpose.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  References

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Reeder R, Arocha Y, 2008. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' identified in Senecio jacobaea in the United Kingdom. Plant Pathology. 57 (4), 769. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2008.01849.x

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Renu Maurya, Madhupriya, Yamini Chaturvedi, Upadhyaya P P, Rao G P, 2014. Association of 'Candidatus phytoplasma asteris' (16SrI group) with chlorosis and little leaf disease of Streblus asper. Medicinal Plants - International Journal of Phytomedicines and Related Industries. 6 (1), 68-70. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:mpijpri&volume=6&issue=1&article=010 DOI:10.5958/j.0975-6892.6.1.010

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Stanosz G R, Heimann M F, Lee I M, 1997. Purple coneflower is a host of the aster yellows phytoplasma. Plant Disease. 81 (4), 424. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.1997.81.4.424C

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Surabhi Mitra, Prasenjit Debnath, Amar Bahadur, Das S C, Amit Yadav, Rao G P, 2019. First report on 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' (16SrI-B subgroup) strain associated with pineapple shoot proliferation and witches' broom symptoms in Tripura, India. Plant Disease. 103 (11), 2941-2941. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-19-0900-PDN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tiwari A K, Khan M S, Iqbal A, Chun S C, Priya M, 2013. Molecular identification of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' (16SRI-B) associated with the little leaf disease of potato in India. Journal of Plant Pathology. 95 (3), 662. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/2973

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tripathi S, Thorat V, Verma R, Shouche Y, Yadav A, 2017. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' (subgroup 16SrI-X) associated with bottle gourd virescence and phyllody disease in India. Plant Disease. 101 (11), 1949-1950. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-17-0368-PDN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Vali-Sichani F, Bahar M, Zirak L, 2014. Characterization of phytoplasmas related to 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' subgroup rpI-L in Iran. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 54 (2), 199-203. http://www.plantprotection.pl/index.php?option=com_frontpage&Itemid=1 DOI:10.2478/jppr-2014-0030

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wan Q, Chen L, Ming S, Gong L, Huang X, Yu K, Che H Y, Luo D Q, 2018. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' related strain associated with Atractylodes lancea malformations in Hubei Province of China. Plant Disease. 102 (12), 2635. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-18-0177-PDN

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wei W, Pérez-López E, Zhao Y, 2020. First report of Bougainvillea floral bract proliferation disease in Cuba and its association with phytoplasmal infection. Plant Disease. 104 (3), 967-967. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-19-2052-PDN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Win NangKyuKyu, Kim YoungHwan, Jung HeeYoung, 2014. Bitter gourd little leaf disease associated to 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris'. Tropical Plant Pathology. 39 (1), 82-88. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-56762014000100010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en DOI:10.1590/S1982-56762014000100010

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Xu X J, Chang W C, Gao R, Wei D F, Chen X Z, Li X D, 2018. First report of 'Candidatus phytoplasma asteris' subgroup 16SrI-AE associated with winter jasmine witches' broom in Shandong, China. Plant Disease. 102 (10), 2026-2027. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-17-2026-PDN

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Zak L F, Yáñez-Morales M de J, Alanis-Martínez I, González-Pérez E, 2011. New hosts of 16SrI phytoplasma group associated with edible Opuntia ficus-indica crop and its pests in Mexico. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 5 (8), 910-918. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr/abstracts/abstracts/abstract%202011/April/18April/Zak%20et%20al.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Zamora L, Acosta K, Martínez Y, 2012. First report of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' (16SrI group) affecting common bean in Cuba. New Disease Reports. 4. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=025004 DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2012.025.004

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Zamora L, Acosta K, Piñol B, Quiñones M, Bertaccini A, 2014. First report of 'Candidatus phytoplasma asteris' (16sri group) causing stunt of tomato in Cuba. New Disease Reports. 10. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030010

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Zhang Lei, Li ZhengNan, Zhang HuaWei, Tao Ye, Wu YunFeng, 2013. Detection and identification of aster yellows group phytoplasma (16SrI-C) associated with peach red leaf disease. Journal of Phytopathology. 161 (5), 359-362. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434 DOI:10.1111/jph.12064

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Zwolińska A, Borodynko N, Krawczyk K, Pospieszny H, 2016. First report of aster yellows related phytoplasma affecting sugar beets in Poland. Plant Disease. 100 (11), 2158. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Zwolińska A, Borodynko-Filas N, Nowaczyk D, Hasiów-Jaroszewska B, 2019. First report of Prunus domestica as the host of a phytoplasma belonging to group 16SrI, subgroup B/L. Plant Disease. 103 (1), 145-146. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-18-0963-PDN

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  WebsiteURLComment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO)http://www.eppo.org/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  International Phytoplasmologist Working Grouphttp://www.ipwgnet.org/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Q-bank Phytoplasmahttp://www.q-bank.eu/Phytoplasmas/

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  05/12/11 Updated by:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Carmine Marcone, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche e Biomediche, Via Ponte Don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Salerno), Italy.

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