Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Gallid herpesvirus 2

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Datasheet

Gallid herpesvirus 2

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 May 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gallid herpesvirus 2
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Group: "DNA viruses"
  •       Order: Herpesvirales
  •         Family: Herpesviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Feather follicle epithelium showing Marek's Disease viral genome by in situ hybridisation.
TitleViral genome
CaptionFeather follicle epithelium showing Marek's Disease viral genome by in situ hybridisation.
CopyrightK. Venugopal
Feather follicle epithelium showing Marek's Disease viral genome by in situ hybridisation.
Viral genomeFeather follicle epithelium showing Marek's Disease viral genome by in situ hybridisation. K. Venugopal

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gallid herpesvirus 2 ICTV

International Common Names

  • English: Marek's disease herpesvirus 1; Marek's disease virus; MD virus

English acronym

  • GaHV-2
  • MDV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Group: "DNA viruses"
  •             Order: Herpesvirales
  •                 Family: Herpesviridae
  •                     Subfamily: Alphaherpesvirinae
  •                         Genus: Mardivirus
  •                             Species: Gallid herpesvirus 2

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BeninPresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining
Cabo VerdePresent
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
Côte d'IvoirePresent
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoroccoPresent
NigeriaPresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
SeychellesPresent
South AfricaPresent
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)

Asia

BhutanPresent
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
Hong KongPresent
IndonesiaPresent
IraqPresent
JapanPresent
JordanPresent
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
-SarawakPresent
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)
PhilippinesPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
TaiwanPresent
TajikistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelarusPresent
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresent
CzechiaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
DenmarkPresent
EstoniaPresent
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
HungaryPresent
IrelandPresent
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
LithuaniaPresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining
NetherlandsPresent
North MacedoniaPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RussiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
United KingdomPresent
-Northern IrelandPresent

North America

BarbadosPresent
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaPresent
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CubaPresent
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicPresent
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)

South America

ArgentinaPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ParaguayPresent
PeruPresent
UruguayPresent

Pathogen Characteristics

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Marek’s disease virus (MDV), or Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2), is a lymphotropic alphaherpesvirus which infects avian species. The virion has a spherical structure consisting of an electron-opaque core containing viral DNA, an icosadeltahedral capsid surrounding the core, an amorphous tegument surrounding the capsid, and an outer envelope containing viral glycoprotein spikes on the surface. MDV DNA is a linear double-stranded molecule of about 170 kb consisting of a unique long region (UL) flanked by a set of inverted repeat (TRL and IRL) regions and a unique short region (US) flanked by another set of inverted repeat (IRS and TRS) regions (Ross, 1999). The complete genomic sequence of MDV has been described (Lee et al., 2000; Tulman et al., 2000). The viral genomes in the infected cells are maintained either as circular episomes or as integrated forms. MDV is a member of the genus Mardivirus which has three closely related but distinct serotypes; Gallid herpesvirus 2 (serotype 1), Gallid herpesvirus 3 (serotype 2) and turkey herpesvirus (serotype 3). All the virulent strains and some attenuated vaccine strains belong to the serotype 1. Serotype 2 includes naturally occurring non-pathogenic strains of MDV. Serotype 3 includes turkey herpesvirus (HVT), the non-oncogenic MDV-related virus isolated from turkeys. A large diversity exists within serotype 1, with viruses varying in their virulence and oncogenicity. On the basis of their ability to induce MD lesions in vaccinated chickens, serotype 1 viruses are classified as mild (mMDV), virulent (vMDV), very virulent (vvMDV) and very virulent + (vv+MDV) pathotypes (Witter, 1998).

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Anser (geese)
CoturnixDomesticated host
GallusDomesticated host
MeleagrisDomesticated host
Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Alphitobius diaperinusInsectWorld

References

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Lee LF, Wu P, Sui D, Ren D, Kamil J, Kung HJ, Witter RL, 2000. The complete unique long sequence and the overall genomic organization of the GA strain of Marek's disease virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 97(11):6091-6096

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

Ross LJN, 1999. T cell transformation by Marek's disease virus. Trends in Microbiology, 7:22-29

Tulman ER, Afonso CL, Lu Z, Zsak L, Rock DL, Kutish GF, 2000. The genome of a very virulent Marek's disease virus. Journal of Virology, 74(17):7980-7988

Witter, R. L., 1998. Control strategies for Marek's disease: a perspective for the future. In: Poultry Science , 77(8) . 1197-1203. doi: 10.1093/ps/77.8.1197

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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