Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Gallid herpesvirus 2

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Datasheet

Gallid herpesvirus 2

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gallid herpesvirus 2
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Group: "DNA viruses"
  •       Order: Herpesvirales
  •         Family: Herpesviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Feather follicle epithelium showing Marek's Disease viral genome by in situ hybridisation.
TitleViral genome
CaptionFeather follicle epithelium showing Marek's Disease viral genome by in situ hybridisation.
CopyrightK. Venugopal
Feather follicle epithelium showing Marek's Disease viral genome by in situ hybridisation.
Viral genomeFeather follicle epithelium showing Marek's Disease viral genome by in situ hybridisation. K. Venugopal

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gallid herpesvirus 2 ICTV

International Common Names

  • English: Marek's disease herpesvirus 1; Marek's disease virus; MD virus

English acronym

  • MDV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Group: "DNA viruses"
  •             Order: Herpesvirales
  •                 Family: Herpesviridae
  •                     Subfamily: Alphaherpesvirinae
  •                         Genus: Mardivirus
  •                             Species: Gallid herpesvirus 2

Diseases Table

Top of page Marek's disease

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BeninPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
Cabo VerdePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CameroonPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoirePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
LibyaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoroccoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NigeriaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
São Tomé and PríncipePresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

BhutanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
Hong KongPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JapanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MyanmarPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NepalPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
South KoreaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TaiwanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TajikistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VietnamPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelarusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
DenmarkPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
FinlandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
FrancePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
HungaryPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
NetherlandsPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
North MacedoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PolandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
RussiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United KingdomPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-Northern IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniquePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MexicoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
French PolynesiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ChilePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ColombiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PeruPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

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The causative agent of MD is a cell-associated lymphotropic alphaherpesvirus. The virion has a spherical structure consisting of an electron-opaque core containing viral DNA, an icosadeltahedral capsid surrounding the core, an amorphous tegument surrounding the capsid, and an outer envelope containing viral glycoprotein spikes on the surface. MDV DNA is a linear double-stranded molecule of about 170 kb consisting of a unique long region (UL) flanked by a set of inverted repeat (TRL and IRL) regions and a unique short region (US) flanked by another set of inverted repeat (IRS and TRS) regions (Ross, 1999). The complete genomic sequence of MDV has recently been described (Lee et al., 2000; Tulman et al., 2000). The viral genomes in the infected cells are maintained either as circular episomes or as integrated forms. Three serotypes of MDV are recognised. Serotype 1 includes all the pathogenic or oncogenic strains of MDV, as well as the attenuated strains of these viruses. Serotype 2 includes naturally occurring non-pathogenic strains of MDV. Serotype3 includes turkey herpesvirus (HVT), the non-oncogenic MDV-related virus isolated from turkeys. A large diversity exists within serotype 1, with viruses varying in their virulence and oncogenicity. On the basis of their ability to induce MD lesions in vaccinated chickens, serotype 1 viruses are classified as mild (mMDV), virulent (vMDV), very virulent (vvMDV) and very virulent + (vv+MDV) pathotypes.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Anser (geese)
CoturnixDomesticated host
GallusDomesticated host
MeleagrisDomesticated host
Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Alphitobius diaperinusInsectWorld

References

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Lee LF; Wu P; Sui D; Ren D; Kamil J; Kung HJ; Witter RL, 2000. The complete unique long sequence and the overall genomic organization of the GA strain of Marek's disease virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 97(11):6091-6096.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Ross LJN, 1999. T cell transformation by Marek's disease virus. Trends in Microbiology, 7:22-29.

Tulman ER; Afonso CL; Lu Z; Zsak L; Rock DL; Kutish GF, 2000. The genome of a very virulent Marek's disease virus. Journal of Virology, 74(17):7980-7988.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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