Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Gallid herpesvirus 2

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Datasheet

Gallid herpesvirus 2

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gallid herpesvirus 2
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •       Order: Herpesvirales
  •         Family: Herpesviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Feather follicle epithelium showing Marek's Disease viral genome by in situ hybridisation.
TitleViral genome
CaptionFeather follicle epithelium showing Marek's Disease viral genome by in situ hybridisation.
CopyrightK. Venugopal
Feather follicle epithelium showing Marek's Disease viral genome by in situ hybridisation.
Viral genomeFeather follicle epithelium showing Marek's Disease viral genome by in situ hybridisation. K. Venugopal

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gallid herpesvirus 2 ICTV

International Common Names

  • English: Marek's disease herpesvirus 1; Marek's disease virus; MD virus

English acronym

  • MDV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "ssDNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "DNA viruses"
  •             Order: Herpesvirales
  •                 Family: Herpesviridae
  •                     Subfamily: Alphaherpesvirinae
  •                         Genus: Mardivirus
  •                             Species: Gallid herpesvirus 2

Diseases Table

Top of page Marek's disease

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanLast reported1994OIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Hong KongReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Last reported1991OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPROIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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The causative agent of MD is a cell-associated lymphotropic alphaherpesvirus. The virion has a spherical structure consisting of an electron-opaque core containing viral DNA, an icosadeltahedral capsid surrounding the core, an amorphous tegument surrounding the capsid, and an outer envelope containing viral glycoprotein spikes on the surface. MDV DNA is a linear double-stranded molecule of about 170 kb consisting of a unique long region (UL) flanked by a set of inverted repeat (TRL and IRL) regions and a unique short region (US) flanked by another set of inverted repeat (IRS and TRS) regions (Ross, 1999). The complete genomic sequence of MDV has recently been described (Lee et al., 2000; Tulman et al., 2000). The viral genomes in the infected cells are maintained either as circular episomes or as integrated forms. Three serotypes of MDV are recognised. Serotype 1 includes all the pathogenic or oncogenic strains of MDV, as well as the attenuated strains of these viruses. Serotype 2 includes naturally occurring non-pathogenic strains of MDV. Serotype3 includes turkey herpesvirus (HVT), the non-oncogenic MDV-related virus isolated from turkeys. A large diversity exists within serotype 1, with viruses varying in their virulence and oncogenicity. On the basis of their ability to induce MD lesions in vaccinated chickens, serotype 1 viruses are classified as mild (mMDV), virulent (vMDV), very virulent (vvMDV) and very virulent + (vv+MDV) pathotypes.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Anser (geese)
CoturnixDomesticated host
GallusDomesticated host
MeleagrisDomesticated host
Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Alphitobius diaperinusInsectWorld

References

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Lee LF; Wu P; Sui D; Ren D; Kamil J; Kung HJ; Witter RL, 2000. The complete unique long sequence and the overall genomic organization of the GA strain of Marek's disease virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 97(11):6091-6096.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Ross LJN, 1999. T cell transformation by Marek's disease virus. Trends in Microbiology, 7:22-29.

Tulman ER; Afonso CL; Lu Z; Zsak L; Rock DL; Kutish GF, 2000. The genome of a very virulent Marek's disease virus. Journal of Virology, 74(17):7980-7988.

Distribution Maps

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