Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Mangroves

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Datasheet

Mangroves

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Habitat
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mangroves
  • Overview
  • Mangroves have been highly favoured sites for human settlement throughout recorded history (Lacerda et al., 2002). Mangrove...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
An intact mangrove forest dominated by silt-rooted Rhizophora trees in Cambodia.
TitleIntact mangrove forest
CaptionAn intact mangrove forest dominated by silt-rooted Rhizophora trees in Cambodia.
Copyright©Donald J. Macintosh
An intact mangrove forest dominated by silt-rooted Rhizophora trees in Cambodia.
Intact mangrove forestAn intact mangrove forest dominated by silt-rooted Rhizophora trees in Cambodia.©Donald J. Macintosh
A traditional mangrove-dwelling fishing community, with floating cages for grouper and sea bass rearing, in southern Thailand.
TitleTraditional mangrove-dwelling fishing community
CaptionA traditional mangrove-dwelling fishing community, with floating cages for grouper and sea bass rearing, in southern Thailand.
Copyright©Donald J. Macintosh
A traditional mangrove-dwelling fishing community, with floating cages for grouper and sea bass rearing, in southern Thailand.
Traditional mangrove-dwelling fishing communityA traditional mangrove-dwelling fishing community, with floating cages for grouper and sea bass rearing, in southern Thailand.©Donald J. Macintosh
Feeding caged groupers in a mangrove-fringed estuary in southern Thailand. The grouper are caught as fingerlings using baited traps.
TitleFeeding caged groupers
CaptionFeeding caged groupers in a mangrove-fringed estuary in southern Thailand. The grouper are caught as fingerlings using baited traps.
Copyright©Donald J. Macintosh
Feeding caged groupers in a mangrove-fringed estuary in southern Thailand. The grouper are caught as fingerlings using baited traps.
Feeding caged groupersFeeding caged groupers in a mangrove-fringed estuary in southern Thailand. The grouper are caught as fingerlings using baited traps.©Donald J. Macintosh
Labourers constructing the dyke and inner canal of an integrated mangrove-aquaculture pond, Cambodia.
TitlePond construction
CaptionLabourers constructing the dyke and inner canal of an integrated mangrove-aquaculture pond, Cambodia.
Copyright©Donald J. Macintosh
Labourers constructing the dyke and inner canal of an integrated mangrove-aquaculture pond, Cambodia.
Pond constructionLabourers constructing the dyke and inner canal of an integrated mangrove-aquaculture pond, Cambodia.©Donald J. Macintosh
The integrated shrimp-mangrove farming system. Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
TitleThe integrated shrimp-mangrove farming system
CaptionThe integrated shrimp-mangrove farming system. Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
Copyright©Tran Ngoc Hai
The integrated shrimp-mangrove farming system. Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
The integrated shrimp-mangrove farming systemThe integrated shrimp-mangrove farming system. Mekong Delta, Vietnam.©Tran Ngoc Hai
A floating raft for hanging rope culture of green mussels (Perna viridis) in a mangrove-fringed estuary, southern Thailand.  The raft can also be used for oyster culture (Crassostrea species).
TitleFloating raft for culture of green mussels
CaptionA floating raft for hanging rope culture of green mussels (Perna viridis) in a mangrove-fringed estuary, southern Thailand. The raft can also be used for oyster culture (Crassostrea species).
Copyright©Donald J. Macintosh
A floating raft for hanging rope culture of green mussels (Perna viridis) in a mangrove-fringed estuary, southern Thailand.  The raft can also be used for oyster culture (Crassostrea species).
Floating raft for culture of green musselsA floating raft for hanging rope culture of green mussels (Perna viridis) in a mangrove-fringed estuary, southern Thailand. The raft can also be used for oyster culture (Crassostrea species).©Donald J. Macintosh
A mangrove pen for rearing mud crabs (Scylla species) in the Philippines.
TitlePen for rearing mud crabs
CaptionA mangrove pen for rearing mud crabs (Scylla species) in the Philippines.
Copyright©Donald J. Macintosh
A mangrove pen for rearing mud crabs (Scylla species) in the Philippines.
Pen for rearing mud crabsA mangrove pen for rearing mud crabs (Scylla species) in the Philippines.©Donald J. Macintosh
A traditional wooden sluice gate providing water exchange for an integrated mangrove-aquaculture pond in Cambodia.
TitleTraditional wooden sluice gate
CaptionA traditional wooden sluice gate providing water exchange for an integrated mangrove-aquaculture pond in Cambodia.
Copyright©Donald J. Macintosh
A traditional wooden sluice gate providing water exchange for an integrated mangrove-aquaculture pond in Cambodia.
Traditional wooden sluice gateA traditional wooden sluice gate providing water exchange for an integrated mangrove-aquaculture pond in Cambodia.©Donald J. Macintosh
Mud crab seed caught in mangrove channels ready for stocking in mangrove-aquaculture ponds in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
TitleMud crab seed
CaptionMud crab seed caught in mangrove channels ready for stocking in mangrove-aquaculture ponds in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
Copyright©Donald J. Macintosh
Mud crab seed caught in mangrove channels ready for stocking in mangrove-aquaculture ponds in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
Mud crab seedMud crab seed caught in mangrove channels ready for stocking in mangrove-aquaculture ponds in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.©Donald J. Macintosh
Mud crab culture ponds lined with bamboo and net fencing (to prevent crabs escaping) in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh.
TitleMud crab culture ponds
CaptionMud crab culture ponds lined with bamboo and net fencing (to prevent crabs escaping) in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh.
Copyright©Donald J. Macintosh
Mud crab culture ponds lined with bamboo and net fencing (to prevent crabs escaping) in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh.
Mud crab culture pondsMud crab culture ponds lined with bamboo and net fencing (to prevent crabs escaping) in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh.©Donald J. Macintosh
Mud crabs (Scylla paramamosain) harvested from a mangrove-aquaculture pond in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.|Scylla paramamosain harvested from a mangrove-aquaculture pond in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
TitleMud crabs
CaptionMud crabs (Scylla paramamosain) harvested from a mangrove-aquaculture pond in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.|Scylla paramamosain harvested from a mangrove-aquaculture pond in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
Copyright©Donald J. Macintosh
Mud crabs (Scylla paramamosain) harvested from a mangrove-aquaculture pond in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.|Scylla paramamosain harvested from a mangrove-aquaculture pond in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
Mud crabsMud crabs (Scylla paramamosain) harvested from a mangrove-aquaculture pond in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.|Scylla paramamosain harvested from a mangrove-aquaculture pond in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.©Donald J. Macintosh
Flushing wastes from an intensively farmed shrimp pond after harvesting in southern Thailand.  The pond bottom has been lined with laterite soil to prevent acidification of the underling mangrove substratum.|Flushing wastes from an intensively farmed shrimp pond after harvesting in southern Thailand. The pond bottom has been lined with laterite soil to prevent acidification of the underling mangrove substratum.
TitleFlushing wastes from shrimp pond
CaptionFlushing wastes from an intensively farmed shrimp pond after harvesting in southern Thailand. The pond bottom has been lined with laterite soil to prevent acidification of the underling mangrove substratum.|Flushing wastes from an intensively farmed shrimp pond after harvesting in southern Thailand. The pond bottom has been lined with laterite soil to prevent acidification of the underling mangrove substratum.
Copyright©Donald J. Macintosh
Flushing wastes from an intensively farmed shrimp pond after harvesting in southern Thailand.  The pond bottom has been lined with laterite soil to prevent acidification of the underling mangrove substratum.|Flushing wastes from an intensively farmed shrimp pond after harvesting in southern Thailand. The pond bottom has been lined with laterite soil to prevent acidification of the underling mangrove substratum.
Flushing wastes from shrimp pondFlushing wastes from an intensively farmed shrimp pond after harvesting in southern Thailand. The pond bottom has been lined with laterite soil to prevent acidification of the underling mangrove substratum.|Flushing wastes from an intensively farmed shrimp pond after harvesting in southern Thailand. The pond bottom has been lined with laterite soil to prevent acidification of the underling mangrove substratum.©Donald J. Macintosh
An integrated mangrove-aquaculture pond in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
TitleMangrove-aquaculture pond
CaptionAn integrated mangrove-aquaculture pond in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
Copyright©Donald J. Macintosh
An integrated mangrove-aquaculture pond in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
Mangrove-aquaculture pond An integrated mangrove-aquaculture pond in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.©Donald J. Macintosh
Mudskippers (Pseudapocryptes elongatus) are an important new aquaculture species in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
TitleMudskippers
CaptionMudskippers (Pseudapocryptes elongatus) are an important new aquaculture species in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
Copyright©Donald J. Macintosh
Mudskippers (Pseudapocryptes elongatus) are an important new aquaculture species in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
MudskippersMudskippers (Pseudapocryptes elongatus) are an important new aquaculture species in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.©Donald J. Macintosh
Rehabilitation of a former shrimp pond using planted Rhizophora apiculata in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
TitleRehabilitation of a former shrimp pond
CaptionRehabilitation of a former shrimp pond using planted Rhizophora apiculata in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
Copyright©Donald J. Macintosh
Rehabilitation of a former shrimp pond using planted Rhizophora apiculata in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
Rehabilitation of a former shrimp pondRehabilitation of a former shrimp pond using planted Rhizophora apiculata in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.©Donald J. Macintosh

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mangroves

International Common Names

  • English: Mangal; Mangrove forests; Mangrove swamps; Mangrove wetlands
  • Spanish: Manglares; Mangle

Local Common Names

  • Portugal: Manglares; Mangle

Overview

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Mangroves have been highly favoured sites for human settlement throughout recorded history (Lacerda et al., 2002). Mangrove ecosystems have also been exploited heavily in various ways for aquaculture; directly, as sites for aquatic production systems (including in some countries excessive conversion of mangrove habitat into shrimp farms); and indirectly, as collecting areas for fish and shellfish harvested as ‘seed’ or feed for aquaculture (Macintosh, 1982).

The main limitation on species selection for mangrove-aquaculture is the characteristically wide salinity fluctuation experienced in mangrove ecosystems, particularly within estuarine and lagoon settings (Macintosh, 1993). Thus, euryhaline species, especially those actually associated with mangroves, have been preferred for mangrove-aquaculture (Macintosh, 1988; Robertson and Duke, 1990; Blaber, 2000).

There has been a gradual evolution of various mangrove-aquaculture production systems for molluscs (especially oysters, mussels and cockles), crustaceans (predominantly penaeid shrimps and mud crabs, Genus Scylla), and a wide variety of finfishes (e.g. milkfish, groupers, Lates calcarifer or Asian seabass, mullets and even mudskippers).

Some tilapia species have also proved highly suitable for mangrove-aquaculture pond systems and brackishwater cage culture, in addition to the significant contribution that tilapias make to coastal lagoon fisheries, such as the acadjas (or brush-park fisheries) of West Africa (Kapetsky, 1984; Takashima, 2000).

Beginning as a progression from food gathering and fishing, mangrove pond culture has developed through several stages: (a) trapping and holding of natural species, e.g. milkfish (Schuster 1952); (b) wild seed collecting and selective stocking of higher value species, e.g. mud crabs; (c) improved extensive to semi-intensive culture of both wild and hatchery produced seed, e.g. natural white shrimp plus stocked black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon); and (d) intensive aquaculture, especially of black tiger shrimp, with heavy reliance on hatchery produced seed, artificial feeds and artificial aeration.

The earliest form of mangrove-aquaculture was probably milkfish rearing (Chanos chanos), which developed in Indonesia from the 15th Century, using simple ponds integrated with the mangrove forest and operated by tidally dependent water exchange. By the mid 1800s there were already more than 73,000 hectares of ponds in Java (Schuster, 1952). Originally created for milkfish rearing, with shrimp and crabs providing a secondary crop, this extensive aquaculture system continues today in various forms collectively known as tambak culture, but for economic reasons the target species have changed in favour of shrimp (Macintosh and Zisman, 1997).

A more recent development based on the same principal of integrating mangroves with pond culture is the silvo-fishery system promoted in Indonesia since the 1970s. There are two basic silvo-fishery models; the first consists of mangroves planted within a pond to give 60-80% tree cover and 20-40% canal area for aquaculture; the second involves strips of mangrove planted outside the pond, with a similar ratio of mangrove to pond area (Fitzgerald, 2000). A range of natural species (mullet, seabass, mud crab, Metapenaeus shrimp, black tiger shrimp), plus stocked milkfish and tilapia, are produced (Takashima, 2000).

Similar integrated systems are found in the Lower Mekong Delta of Vietnam, based on a governmental decree stipulating that 60-70% of the land cover should be mangroves and 30-40% should be for aquaculture or other economic uses of the land and water. Originally developed with a central platform planted with mangroves and a surrounding channel for shrimp culture, this model has become more diversified to include both natural shrimp (mainly Metapenaeus spp.) and hatchery-produced black tiger shrimp, mangrove crab and even blood cockle (Johnston et al., 2000; Minh et al., 2001). Recently, however, many farmers in the delta have chosen to separate the mangrove and aquaculture production units in order to make their management easier (Hjortso et al., 2005).

Due to some serious environmental problems, most notably from the widespread destruction of mangroves to create shrimp farms, there is today much more understanding about the need for sustainable mangrove-aquaculture development. This new awareness is being translated into practical steps to (1) rehabilitate degraded mangroves, including abandoned/dis-used ponds; (2) zone coastal land and water areas to protect the ecological functions that mangroves provide to support aquaculture; (3) promote more environmentally sustainable aquaculture practices; and (4) introduce codes of conduct to improve aquaculture management in and adjacent to mangrove areas. Further information on these subjects can be found in Robertson and Phillips, 1995; Field, 1996; Stevenson et al., 1999; Macintosh and Ashton, 2002; Lewis et al., 2003.

References

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Blaber SJM, 2000. Tropical Estuarine Fishes: Ecology, Exploitation and Conservation. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Limited.

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Chapman VJ, 1975. Mangrove Biogeography. In: Walsh GE, Snedaker SC, Teas HJ, eds. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biology and Management of Mangroves, University of Florida, Gainesville, 3-21.

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Field CD; ed, 1996. Restoration of Mangrove Ecosystems. Okinawa, Japan: International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems.

Fitzgerald WJ Jr, 2000. Integrated mangrove forest and aquaculture systems in Indonesia. In: Primavera JH, Garcia LMaB, Castanos MT, Surtida MB, eds. Proceedings of the Workshop on Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture, 11-15 January 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines: Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 21-34.

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Johnston D; Lourey M; Van Tien D; Luu TT; Xuan TT, 2002. Water quality and plankton densities in mixed shrimp-mangrove forestry farming systems in Vietnam. Aquaculture Research, 33(10):785-798.

Johnston D; Ngyuen Van Trong; Doan Van Tien; Tran Thanh Xuan, 2000. Shrimp yields and harvest characteristics of mixed shrimp-mangrove forestry farms in southern Vietnam: factors affecting production. Aquaculture, 188(3/4):263-284.

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Kapetsky J, 1985. Mangroves, Fisheries and Áquaculture. Rome, Italy: FAO Fish. Report 338 (Supplement).

Kjerfve B, 1990. Manual for Investigation of Hydrological Processes in Mangrove Ecosystems. New Delhi, India: UNESCO/UNDP.

Krishnamoorthy A; de Jesus O, 2003. Sustainable Shrimp Culture and Mangrove Management. A Survey Commissioned by the United Nations Volunteers Programme (UNV). www.undp.org.vn/download/enviro-vlc/sustshrimp092003.doc.

Lacerda LD; Conde JE; Kjerfve B; Alvarez-Leon R; Alarcon C; Polania J, 2002. American Mangroves. In: Lacerda LD, ed. Mangrove ecosystems: function and management. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1-62.

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Macintosh D J; Zisman S, 1997. The Status of Mangrove Ecosystems. In: Trends in the Utilisation and Management of Mangrove Resources. International Union of Forest Research Organisations (IUFRO). http://iufro.boku.ac.at/iufro/iufronet/d1/wu10700/unpub/macint95.htm.

Macintosh D, 1982. Fisheries and aquaculture significance of mangrove swamps, with special reference to the Indo-West Pacific region. Recent advances in aquaculture., 4-85.

Macintosh DJ, 1988. The ecology and physiology of decapods of mangrove swamps. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, 59:315-341.

Macintosh DJ, 1993. Aquaculture in Coastal Lagoons. In: Kjerfve B, ed. Coastal Lagoon Processes. Elsevier Oceanography Series 60. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, 377-419.

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Smith PT ed, 1999. Towards Sustainable Shrimp Culture in Thailand and the Region. ACIAR Proceedings No. 90. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.

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Stevenson; NJ; Lewis; RR; Burbridge; PR, 1999. Disused Shrimp Ponds and Mangrove Rehabilitation. In: Streever W, ed. An International Perspective on Wetland Rehabilitation. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer: Academic Publishers, 277-297.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Centre for Tropical Ecosystems Research (cenTER Aarhus), University of Aarhus, Denmarkhttp://mit.biology.au.dk/cenTER/
Coral reefs & mangroves of the worldhttp://www.unep-wcmc.org/marine/data/coral_mangrove/index.html
Mangrove action projecthttp://www.earthisland.org/map/rdstb.htm
NACA - Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacifichttp://www.enaca.org/NACA is an intergovernmental organization that promotes rural development through sustainable aquaculture. NACA seeks to improve rural income, increase food production and foreign exchange earnings and to diversify farm production. The ultimate beneficiaries of NACA activities are farmers and rural communities.

Contributors

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Main Author
Donald Macintosh
Centre for Tropical Ecosystems Research (cenTER Aarhus), Department of Ecology & Genetics, University of Aarhus, Building 540, DK-8000 Aarhus C., Denmark