Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
International Common Names
- English: Mangal; Mangrove forests; Mangrove swamps; Mangrove wetlands
- Spanish: Manglares; Mangle
Local Common Names
- Portugal: Manglares; Mangle
OverviewTop of page
Mangroves have been highly favoured sites for human settlement throughout recorded history (Lacerda et al., 2002). Mangrove ecosystems have also been exploited heavily in various ways for aquaculture; directly, as sites for aquatic production systems (including in some countries excessive conversion of mangrove habitat into shrimp farms); and indirectly, as collecting areas for fish and shellfish harvested as ‘seed’ or feed for aquaculture (Macintosh, 1982).
The main limitation on species selection for mangrove-aquaculture is the characteristically wide salinity fluctuation experienced in mangrove ecosystems, particularly within estuarine and lagoon settings (Macintosh, 1993). Thus, euryhaline species, especially those actually associated with mangroves, have been preferred for mangrove-aquaculture (Macintosh, 1988; Robertson and Duke, 1990; Blaber, 2000).
There has been a gradual evolution of various mangrove-aquaculture production systems for molluscs (especially oysters, mussels and cockles), crustaceans (predominantly penaeid shrimps and mud crabs, Genus Scylla), and a wide variety of finfishes (e.g. milkfish, groupers, Lates calcarifer or Asian seabass, mullets and even mudskippers).
Some tilapia species have also proved highly suitable for mangrove-aquaculture pond systems and brackishwater cage culture, in addition to the significant contribution that tilapias make to coastal lagoon fisheries, such as the acadjas (or brush-park fisheries) of West Africa (Kapetsky, 1984; Takashima, 2000).
Beginning as a progression from food gathering and fishing, mangrove pond culture has developed through several stages: (a) trapping and holding of natural species, e.g. milkfish (Schuster 1952); (b) wild seed collecting and selective stocking of higher value species, e.g. mud crabs; (c) improved extensive to semi-intensive culture of both wild and hatchery produced seed, e.g. natural white shrimp plus stocked black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon); and (d) intensive aquaculture, especially of black tiger shrimp, with heavy reliance on hatchery produced seed, artificial feeds and artificial aeration.
The earliest form of mangrove-aquaculture was probably milkfish rearing (Chanos chanos), which developed in Indonesia from the 15th Century, using simple ponds integrated with the mangrove forest and operated by tidally dependent water exchange. By the mid 1800s there were already more than 73,000 hectares of ponds in Java (Schuster, 1952). Originally created for milkfish rearing, with shrimp and crabs providing a secondary crop, this extensive aquaculture system continues today in various forms collectively known as tambak culture, but for economic reasons the target species have changed in favour of shrimp (Macintosh and Zisman, 1997).
A more recent development based on the same principal of integrating mangroves with pond culture is the silvo-fishery system promoted in Indonesia since the 1970s. There are two basic silvo-fishery models; the first consists of mangroves planted within a pond to give 60-80% tree cover and 20-40% canal area for aquaculture; the second involves strips of mangrove planted outside the pond, with a similar ratio of mangrove to pond area (Fitzgerald, 2000). A range of natural species (mullet, seabass, mud crab, Metapenaeus shrimp, black tiger shrimp), plus stocked milkfish and tilapia, are produced (Takashima, 2000).
Similar integrated systems are found in the Lower Mekong Delta of Vietnam, based on a governmental decree stipulating that 60-70% of the land cover should be mangroves and 30-40% should be for aquaculture or other economic uses of the land and water. Originally developed with a central platform planted with mangroves and a surrounding channel for shrimp culture, this model has become more diversified to include both natural shrimp (mainly Metapenaeus spp.) and hatchery-produced black tiger shrimp, mangrove crab and even blood cockle (Johnston et al., 2000; Minh et al., 2001). Recently, however, many farmers in the delta have chosen to separate the mangrove and aquaculture production units in order to make their management easier (Hjortso et al., 2005).
Due to some serious environmental problems, most notably from the widespread destruction of mangroves to create shrimp farms, there is today much more understanding about the need for sustainable mangrove-aquaculture development. This new awareness is being translated into practical steps to (1) rehabilitate degraded mangroves, including abandoned/dis-used ponds; (2) zone coastal land and water areas to protect the ecological functions that mangroves provide to support aquaculture; (3) promote more environmentally sustainable aquaculture practices; and (4) introduce codes of conduct to improve aquaculture management in and adjacent to mangrove areas. Further information on these subjects can be found in Robertson and Phillips, 1995; Field, 1996; Stevenson et al., 1999; Macintosh and Ashton, 2002; Lewis et al., 2003.
ReferencesTop of page
Agbayani; RF, 2000. Property rights and collective action in the management of mangrove ecosystems: implications of the adoption of mangrove-friendly aquaculture. In: Primavera JH, Garcia LMaB, Castanos MT, Surtida MB, eds. Proceedings of the Workshop on Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture, 11-15 January 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines: Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 163-170.
Aksornkoae S, 1993. Ecology and Management of Mangroves. Bangkok, Thailand: International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
Alauddin M; Hamid MA, 1999. Shrimp culture in Bangladesh with emphasis on social and economic aspects. Towards sustainable shrimp culture in Thailand and the region. Proceedings of a workshop held at Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand, 28 October-1 November 1996., 53-62; [ACIAR Proceedings No. 90].
Blaber SJM, 2000. Tropical Estuarine Fishes: Ecology, Exploitation and Conservation. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Limited.
Boto KG, 1984. Waterlogged saline soils. In: Snedaker SC, Snedaker JG, eds. The Mangrove Ecosystem: Research Methods. Paris, France: UNESCO, 114-130.
Chanratchakool P; Turnbull JF; Funge-Smith S; Limsuwan C, 1995. Health Management in Shrimp Ponds. Bangkok, Thailand: Aquatic Animal Health Research Institute, Department of Fisheries Thailand.
Chapman VJ, 1975. Mangrove Biogeography. In: Walsh GE, Snedaker SC, Teas HJ, eds. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Biology and Management of Mangroves, University of Florida, Gainesville, 3-21.
Chong VC; Sasekumar A; Leh MUC; D’Cruz R, 1990. The fish and prawn communities of a Malaysian coastal mangrove system, with comparison to adjacent mud flats and inshore waters. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 31:703-722.
FAO, 2004. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2004. Rome, Italy: Fisheries Department, Food and Agricultural Organisation.
Field CD; ed, 1996. Restoration of Mangrove Ecosystems. Okinawa, Japan: International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems.
Fitzgerald WJ Jr, 2000. Integrated mangrove forest and aquaculture systems in Indonesia. In: Primavera JH, Garcia LMaB, Castanos MT, Surtida MB, eds. Proceedings of the Workshop on Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture, 11-15 January 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines: Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 21-34.
Gan BK, 1995. A working plan for the Matang mangrove forest reserve, revision 4. State Forest Department of Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia.
Haitook T Kaewpaitoon K Derun Y, 2000. Community participation in mangrove reforestation in Samut Songkhram Province, Thailand. AARM Newsletter, 5(4):8. Aquaculture and Aquatic Resources Management, Bangkok, Thailand: Asian Institute of Technology (AIT).
Hjortsø CN; Christensen; SM Tarp P, 2005. Rapid stakeholder and conflict assessment for natural resource management using cognitive mapping: The case of Damdoi Forest Enterprise, Vietnam. Agriculture and Human Values, 22:149-167.
Hong PN; San TH, 1993. Mangroves of Vietnam. Bangkok, Thailand: International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
IIRR; IDRC; FAO; NACA; ICLARM, 2001. Utilizing Different Resources for Livelihoods in Asia: a resource book. http://www.iirr.org/aquatic_resources/. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, International Development Research Centre, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia-Pacific and International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management. Philippines.
Johnston D; Ngyuen Van Trong; Doan Van Tien; Tran Thanh Xuan, 2000. Shrimp yields and harvest characteristics of mixed shrimp-mangrove forestry farms in southern Vietnam: factors affecting production. Aquaculture, 188(3/4):263-284.
Kapetsky J, 1984. Coastal lagoon fisheries around the world: some perspectives on fisheries yields and other comparative fishery characteristics. GFCM Studies and Reviews, 61:97-140.
Kapetsky J, 1985. Mangroves, Fisheries and Áquaculture. Rome, Italy: FAO Fish. Report 338 (Supplement).
Kjerfve B, 1990. Manual for Investigation of Hydrological Processes in Mangrove Ecosystems. New Delhi, India: UNESCO/UNDP.
Krishnamoorthy A; de Jesus O, 2003. Sustainable Shrimp Culture and Mangrove Management. A Survey Commissioned by the United Nations Volunteers Programme (UNV). www.undp.org.vn/download/enviro-vlc/sustshrimp092003.doc.
Lacerda LD; Conde JE; Kjerfve B; Alvarez-Leon R; Alarcon C; Polania J, 2002. American Mangroves. In: Lacerda LD, ed. Mangrove ecosystems: function and management. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1-62.
Lertpaitoonpan W; Annachhatre P; Nielsen PH, 2000. Environmental Impacts of Shrimp Farming. Quarterly Newsletter, Aquaculture and Aquatic Resources Management, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand, 5(4):7.
Lewis RR III; Phillips MJ; Clough B; Macintosh DJ, 2003. Thematic Review on Coastal Wetland Habitats and Shrimp Aquaculture. Component of the WB/NACA/WWF/FAO Programme on Shrimp Farming and the Environment. www.enaca.org/modules.
Macintosh D J; Phillips MJ, 1992. Environmental issues in Shrimp farming. In: de Saram H, Singh T, eds. Proceedings of the 3rd Global Conference on the Shrimp Industry, 14-16 September, Hong Kong. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: INFOFISH, 118-145.
Macintosh D J; Zisman S, 1997. The Status of Mangrove Ecosystems. In: Trends in the Utilisation and Management of Mangrove Resources. International Union of Forest Research Organisations (IUFRO). http://iufro.boku.ac.at/iufro/iufronet/d1/wu10700/unpub/macint95.htm.
Macintosh DJ, 1988. The ecology and physiology of decapods of mangrove swamps. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, 59:315-341.
Macintosh DJ, 1993. Aquaculture in Coastal Lagoons. In: Kjerfve B, ed. Coastal Lagoon Processes. Elsevier Oceanography Series 60. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, 377-419.
Macintosh DJ, 1996. Mangroves and coastal aquaculture: doing something positive for the environment. Aquaculture Asia, 96(3):3-7.
Macintosh DJ; Ashton EC, 2002. A Review of Mangrove Biodiversity Conservation and Management. http://mit.biology.au.dk/cenTER/.
Macintosh DJ; Ashton EC, 2005. Principles for a Code of Conduct for the Management and Sustainable Use of Mangrove Ecosystems. http://mit.biology.au.dk/cenTER/.
Macintosh DJ; Ashton EC; Havanon S, 2002. Mangrove rehabilitation and intertidal biodiversity: study of the Ranong mangrove ecosystem, Thailand. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science, 55:331-345.
Minh TH; Yakupitiyage A; Macintosh DJ, 2001. Management of Integrated Mangrove-Aquaculture Farming Systems in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. ITCZM Monograph No. 1. Bangkok, Thailand: Asian Institute of Technology.
Overton JL; Pushpakumara RKUD, 2001. Mud Crab Systems for Small-Scale Aquaculture. In: IIRR, IDRC, FAO, NACA, ICLARM, 2001. Utilizing Different Resources for Livelihoods in Asia: a resource book. http://www.iirr.org/aquatic_resources/. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, International Development Research Centre, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia-Pacific and International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management. Philippines, 380-385.
Platon RR, 1999. Shrimp aquaculture: the Philippine experience. Towards sustainable shrimp culture in Thailand and the region. Proceedings of a workshop held at Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand, 28 October-1 November 1996., 63-68; [ACIAR Proceedings No. 90].
Primavera JH, 1993. A critical review of shrimp pond culture in the Philippines. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 1: 151-201.
Primavera JH; Garcia LMaB; Castanos MT; Surtida MB; eds, 1999. Proceedings of the Workshop on Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture, 11-15 January 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines. Iloilo, Philippines: Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 21-34.
Quarto A, 1999. Local community involvement in mangrove rehabilitation: Thailand’s Yadfon. In: Wong YS, Tam FY, eds. Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mangrove Ecosystems. Hydrobiologia, 295:139-142.
Rahman A, 2001. The saga of the largest mangrove forest of the world. In: Chowdhury QI, ed., 2001. State of Sundarbans. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Forum of Environmental Journalists of Bangladesh (FEJB), 17-29.
Robertson AI; Duke NC, 1990. Mangrove fish-communities in tropical Queensland, Australia: Spatial and temporal patterns in densities, biomass and community structure. Marine Biology, 104(3):369-379.
Robertson; AI; Phillips MJ, 1995. Mangroves as filters of shrimp pond effluent: predictions and biogeochemical research needs. In: Wong YS, Tam FY, eds. Asia-Pacific Symposium on Mangrove Ecosystems. Hydrobiologia, 295:311-322.
Sammut J, 1999. Amelioration and management of shrimp ponds in acid sulfate soils: key researchable issues. Towards sustainable shrimp culture in Thailand and the region. Proceedings of a workshop held at Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand, 28 October-1 November 1996., 102-106; [ACIAR Proceedings No. 90].
Sammut J; White I; Melville MD, 1996. Acidification of an estuarine tributary in eastern Australia due to drainage of acid sulfate soils. Marine and freshwater Research, 47:669-684.
Sasekumar A; Chong VC; Leh MU; Da Cruz D, 1992. Mangroves as habitat for fish and prawns. Hydrobiologia, 247:195-207.
Schuster WH, 1952. Fish-Culture in the Brackish-Water Ponds of Java. Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council Special Publications No. 1.
Smith PT ed, 1999. Towards Sustainable Shrimp Culture in Thailand and the Region. ACIAR Proceedings No. 90. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.
Spalding MD; Blasco F; Field C; eds, 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. Okinawa, Japan: The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems.
Stevenson; NJ; Lewis; RR; Burbridge; PR, 1999. Disused Shrimp Ponds and Mangrove Rehabilitation. In: Streever W, ed. An International Perspective on Wetland Rehabilitation. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer: Academic Publishers, 277-297.
Takashima F, 2000. Silvofishery: an aquaculture system harmonized with the environment. In: Primavera JH, Garcia LMaB, Castanos MT, Surtida MB, eds. Proceedings of the Workshop on Mangrove-Friendly Aquaculture, 11-15 January 1999, Iloilo City, Philippines. Iloilo City, Philippines: Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center, 13-19.
Wolanski E; Spagnol S; Ayukai T, 1998. Field and model studies of the fate of organic carbon in mangrove-fringed Hinchinbrook Channel, Australia. Mangroves and Salt Marshes, 2:205-221.
ContributorsTop of page
Centre for Tropical Ecosystems Research (cenTER Aarhus), Department of Ecology & Genetics, University of Aarhus, Building 540, DK-8000 Aarhus C., Denmark