Mycoplasma bovirhinis bovine respiratory disease
- Host Animals
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Systems Affected
- Distribution Table
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Disease Course
- Impact: Economic
- Zoonoses and Food Safety
- Disease Treatment
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Mycoplasma bovirhinis bovine respiratory disease
International Common Names
- English: bovine respiratory disease (Mycoplasma bovirhinis); respiratory disease of cattle (Mycoplasma bovirhinis)
Pathogen/sTop of page Mycoplasma bovirhinis
OverviewTop of page
Mycoplasma bovirhinis was first reported in 1967 from the upper respiratory tract of cattle (Leach, 1967). It is found in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of both healthy and diseased cattle all over the world. It is not believed to be a primary pathogen but may exacerbate existing disease conditions caused by other pathogens including Mycoplasma bovis. Its main significance may be that of obscuring or overgrowing other mycoplasma pathogens as it grows rapidly in media. Phylogenetically, M. bovirhinis is been assigned to the hominis group on the basis of its 16S rRNA sequence and within this to the M. synoviae cluster (Pettersson et al., 1996).
Host AnimalsTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
M. bovirhinis is found only in cattle and buffaloes. There is very little evidence to indicate that M. bovirhinis is capable of initiating disease; it is often associated with infections caused by Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica (Pasteurella haemolytica), P. multocida, Histophilus somni or viruses such as respiratory syncitial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis or parainfluenza virus 3.
Systems AffectedTop of page mammary gland diseases of large ruminants
reproductive diseases of large ruminants
respiratory diseases of large ruminants
DistributionTop of page
Mycoplasma bovirhinis has been reported in UK, Denmark, France, Belgium, Poland, Hungary, Italy, Egypt, Brazil, Korea, Japan, Australia, Canada and the USA but is probably present in most countries of the world.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|India||Widespread||Kumar et al., 1992|
|Japan||Widespread||Komoda et al., 1988|
|Korea, Republic of||Present||Kim et al., 1989|
|Egypt||Present||Eissa et al., 1994|
|Canada||Widespread||Allen et al., 1992|
|-Quebec||Present||Bois et al., 1993|
|Brazil||Widespread||Nascimento et al., 1998|
|Belgium||Present||Linden et al., 1998|
|Croatia||Present||Naglic et al., 1996|
|Czech Republic||Widespread||Zendulkova et al., 1998|
|Czechoslovakia (former)||Present||Ross, 1993|
|Denmark||Present||Tegtmeier et al., 1999|
|France||Widespread||Poumarat et al., 1992|
|Germany||Present||Binder et al., 1990|
|Greece||Present||Filiousis et al., 2000|
|Hungary||Widespread||Stipkovits et al., 2000|
|Netherlands||Widespread||Laak et al., 1992|
PathologyTop of page
It is not clear what tissue damage M. bovirhinis causes in natural infections because of the presence in nearly all cases of viruses, bacteria and other mycoplasmas. Experimentally, M. bovirninis did not induce pneumonia in gnotobiotic calves (Gourlay et al 1979). Megid et al. (2001) demonstrated that M. bovirhinis metabolised maltose and oxidized glycerol. Oxidation of glycerol leads to the production of hydrogen peroxide which is a potential virulence factor.
DiagnosisTop of page
Clinical signs are not characteristic for M. bovirhinis so laboratory diagnosis is necessary for diagnosis. Isolation of M. bovirhinis is easily carried out in most mycoplasma media (Nicholas and Baker, 1998) and can be found mostly in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, eyes, joints and reproductive system. It grows rapidly within 2-3 days and can be identified by immunological techniques using hyperimmune rabbit serum (Poveda and Nicholas, 1998). A filter immunobinding assay has been described for detecting and identifying mycoplasmas, including M. bovirhinis, and can detect between 104 and 105 colony forming units (CFU)/ml (Takahata et al., 1997).
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is not thought necessary to aid identification but a PCR based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene has been described which can detect as few as 1000-2000 CFU in pure culture and spiked clinical material, respectively (Kobayashi et al., 1998). A PCR method using the 16S rDNA gene followed by the use of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis has been able to detect and identify the majority of Mycoplasma species including M. bovirhinis (McAuliffe et al., 2005). This method can detect less than 1 CFU/ml. Other methods include an allele specific PCR (Miles et al., 2004) and a real-time PCR coupled with high resolution melting curve analysis could detect and identify a number of Mycoplasma species including M. bovirhinis (Rebelo et al. 2011).
Serological tests are not generally available but could be useful to determine whether M. bovirhinis is behaving invasively or merely as a commensal.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth||Cattle & Buffaloes:Calf||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Coughing, coughs||Cattle & Buffaloes:Calf||Sign|
|Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery||Cattle & Buffaloes:Calf||Sign|
Disease CourseTop of page
Experimental infections with M. bovirhinis were not able to reproduce pneumonia in gnotobiotic calves (Gourlay et al., 1979). However, evidence to suggest that M. bovirhinis may have some role in the disease process was presented by Komoda et al. (1988) who showed significant increases in its isolation in samples from pneumonic calves compared with samples taken before the development of disease. Gourlay et al. (1979) reported that M. bovirhinis was pathogenic in mammary tissue.
EpidemiologyTop of page
In a study of the mycoplasma populations in the respiratory tract of calves, Laak et al. (1993a, 1993b) found M. bovirhinis to be present in 88% of pneumonic calves and 66% of healthy calves; the mycoplasma was found equally in the upper and lower respiratory tract of diseased animals. Thomas et al. (2002) detected M. bovirhinis as the only mycoplasma present in 16% of bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 150 healthy cows. Many other studies have shown it to be widespread in the respiratory tract of pneumonic cattle (Tegtmeier et al., 1999; Nicholas et al., 2001; Ayling et al., 2004).
In addition to the respiratory tract, M. bovirhinis has been isolated from: the preputial washings and sperm samples of bulls in Turkey (Ozdemir and Türkarlsan, 1998), the vaginal mucous of cows in Brazil (Nascimento et al., 1998), milk of cattle and buffaloes with and without mastitis (El-Shabiny, 1994), joints from cattle with arthritis (Reeve-Johnson, 1999) conjunctival swabs from cattle with ocular lesions in Croatia (Naglic et al., 1996), the kidneys of a bull with urinary obstruction and sub-acute nephritis (Panangala et al., 1990), and calves with otitis (Lamm et al., 2004). It is unlikely that M. bovirhinis is the primary cause of disease in any of these disorders as in most cases other known pathogens such as M. bovis are usually present.
Impact: EconomicTop of page
It is not possible to gauge the impact of M. bovirhinis in cattle; it almost certainly contributes to the tissue damage caused by other pathogens but this can not be quantified.
Zoonoses and Food SafetyTop of page
M. bovirhinis has no zoonotic or food safety implications.
Disease TreatmentTop of page
Despite the fact that M. bovrhinis is not considered pathogenic, a number of studies have been performed in vitro and have shown it to be sensitive to most antibiotics, including enrofloxacin, perfloxacin, erythromycin and lincospectin (Eissa et al., 1994, Katoh et al., 1996); however, evidence of strains resistant to thiamphenicol and oxytetracycline was produced by Katoh et al. (1996). More recent studies compared isolates from cattle imported from Australia into Japan with Japanese cattle. Higher minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) were seen in the Japanese cattle, particularly to the macrolides and tetracyclines. Some Japanese cattle also had high MIC values for the fluoroquinolones (Uemura et al., 2010). Hirose et al. (2004) characterized a point mutation in the parC gene of M. bovirhinis which is associated with fluoroquinolone resistance.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
It is not practical or possible to exclude M. bovirhinis from herds as it appears to be present in the respiratory tract of most healthy calves in commercial units. It is unlikely that control measures would be put in place in the event of the isolation of M. bovirhinis alone from calves. In vitro survival studies have shown that M. bovirhinis can survive for as long as 154 days on paper discs at 4°C (Nagatomo et al., 2001). This may be due to mycoplasma species ability to form biofilms (McAuliffe et al., 2006).
ReferencesTop of page
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Binder A; Amtsberg G; Dose S; Fischer W; Scholtz H; Kirchhoff H, 1990. Isolation of mycoplasmas and bacteria from cattle with respiratory diseases. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 37(6):430-435; 22 ref.
Buonavoglia D, 1992. Bovine mycoplasma infections and contagious pleuropneumonia. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari, 13(7-8):31-34; 14 ref.
Filiousis G; Hatzopoulou E, Gkiourtzidis K et al. , 2000. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the respiratory tract of pneumonic calves in Greece. In: Bergonier D, Berthelot X, Frey J, eds. Mycoplasmas of ruminants: pathogenicity, diagnostics, epidemiology and molecular genetics. Vol 4. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, 55-62.
Gourlay RN; Howard CJ; Thomas LH; Wyld SG, 1979. Pathogenicity of some mycoplasmas and acholeplasma species in the lungs of gnotobiotic calves. Research in Veterinary Science, 27:233-237.
Herrmann R, 1992. Genome structure and organization. In: Maniloff J ed. Mycoplasmas: molecular biology and pathogenesis. Washington DC, USA: American Society of Microbiology, 157-168.
Hirose K; Kawasaki Y; Kotani K; Abiko K; Sato H, 2004. Characterization of a point mutation in the parC gene of Mycoplasma bovirhinis associated with fluoroquinolone resistance. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 51(4):169-175.
Katoh T; Koya M; Watanabe E; Sakai JI; Ogata Y; Hikinuma T, 1996. Antibiotic susceptibility of microbial isolates from nasal swabs of bovine pneumonic cases. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association, 49(2):81-84; 21 ref.
Kobayashi H; Hirose K; Worarach A; Paugtes P; Ito N; Morozumi T; Yamamoto K, 1998. In vitro amplification of the 16S rRNA genes from Mycoplasma bovirhinis, Mycoplasma alkalescens and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium by PCR. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 60(12):1299-1303; 17 ref.
Komoda M; Kozai Y; Itoi H; Noro A; Yamada T; Kimura Y; Noguchi M; Koizumi S, 1988. Outbreak of shipping fever associated with several pathogens in grazing calves. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association, 41(6):408-411; 15 ref.
Kumar A; Garg DN; Mahajan SK, 1992. Experimental pathogenicity of Mollicutes of bovine udder origin in hamster tracheal ring organ culture. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 30(7):607-610; 20 ref.
Laak EA ter; Noordergraaf JH; Boomsluiter E, 1992b. The nasal mycoplasmal flora of healthy calves and cows. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B., 39(8):610-616.
Laak EAter; Dijk JEvan; Noordergraaf JH, 1993. Comparison of pathological signs of disease in specific-pathogen-free calves after inoculation of the respiratory tract with Ureaplasma diversum or Mycoplasma canis.. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 108(2):121-132; 20 ref.
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Leach RH, 1967. Comparative studies of mycoplasmas of bovine origin. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 143:305-306.
Linden A; Grand D le; Poumarat F, et al. , 1998. First steps in setting up a diagnostic section of bovine respiratory mycoplasmas. In: Leori G, Santini F, Scanziani E, Frey J, eds. Mycoplasmas of ruminants: pathogenicity, diagnostics, epidemiology and molecular genetics. Vol 2. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, 62-63.
McAuliffe L; Ellis RJ; Lawes JR; Ayling RD; Nicholas RAJ, 2005. 16S rDNA PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis; a single generic test for detecting and differentiating Mycoplasma species. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 54(8):731-739.
McAuliffe L; Ellis RJ; Miles K; Ayling RD; Nicholas RAJ, 2006. Biofilm formation by mycoplasma species and its role in environmental persistence and survival. Microbiology (Reading), 152(4):913-922. http://mic.sgmjournals.org
Megid R; Nicholas RAJ; Miles RJ, 2001. Biochemical characterization of Mycoplasma bovirhinis, Mycoplasma dispar and recent bovine isolates of Mycoplasma canis. Veterinary Research Communications, 25(1):1-12.
Miles K; McAuliffe L; Ayling RD; Nicholas RAJ, 2004. Rapid detection of Mycoplasma dispar and M. bovirhinis using allele specific polymerase chain reaction protocols. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 241(1):103-107. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781097
Nagatomo H; Takegahara Y; Sonoda T; Yamaguchi A; Uemura R; Hagiwara S; Sueyoshi M, 2001. Comparative studies of the persistence of animal mycoplasmas under different environmental conditions. Veterinary Microbiology, 82(3):223-232.
Nascimento MGFdo; Angelis FHFd'; Nascimento ERdo; Resende OA; Lignon GB, 1998. Mycoplasma bovirhinis in the vaginal mucus of heifers. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 20(5):210-214; 22 ref.
Nicholas RAJ; Baker SE, 1998. Recovery of mycoplasmas from animals. In: Miles RJ, Nicholas RAJ, eds. Mycoplasma Protocols. Totowa, USA: Humana Press, 37-44.
Nicholas RAJ; Wood E; Baker SE; Ayling RD, 2001. Mycoplasmas isolated from ruminants in Britain 1995-2000. Poveda JB, Fernandez A, Frey J, Johansson K-E, eds. Mycoplasmas of ruminants: pathogenicity, diagnostics, epidemiology and molecular genetics. Vol 5. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, 116-120.
Panangala VS; Stringfellow JS; Oliver JL; Wolfe DF, 1990. Isolation of Mycoplasma bovirhinis from the kidneys of a bull with urinary obstruction and subacute nephritis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 197(3):381-382; 18 ref.
Pettersson B; Uhlén M; Johansson KE, 1996. Phylogeny of some mycoplasmas from ruminants based on 16S rRNA sequences and definition of a new cluster within the hominis Group. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 46(4):1093-1098; 24 ref.
Poumarat F; Longchambon D; Martel JL, 1992. Application of dot immunobinding on membrane filtration (MF dot) to the study of relationships within "M. mycoides cluster" and within "glucose and arginine-negative cluster" of ruminant mycoplasmas. Veterinary Microbiology, 32(3-4):375-390; 31 ref.
Poveda JB; Nicholas RAJ, 1998. Serological identification by growth and metabolism inhibition tests. In: Miles RJ, Nicholas RAJ, eds. Mycoplasma Protocols. Totowa, USA: Humana Press, 105-112.
Rebelo AR; Parker L; Cai HY, 2011. Use of high-resolution melting curve analysis to identify Mycoplasma species commonly isolated from ruminant, avian, and canine samples. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 23(5):932-936. http://vdi.sagepub.com/content/23/5/932.abstract
Reeve-Johnson L, 1999. The impact of mycoplasma infections in respiratory disease in cattle in Europe. In: Stipkovits L, Rosengarten R, Frey J, eds. Mycoplasmas of ruminants:pathogenicity, diagnostics, epidemiology and molecular genetics Vol 3. Brussels: European Commission, 18-31.
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Stipkovits L; Dan A, Kasyyanyitsky E et al. , 2000. Examination of Hungarian cattle herds for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC infection. In: Bergonier D, Berthelot X, Frey J, eds. Mycoplasmas of ruminants: pathogenicity, diagnostics, epidemiology and molecular genetics. Vol 4. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, 129-132.
Takahata T; Kato M; Nagatomo H; Shimizu T, 1997. A filter immunobinding technique for the rapid detection and simultaneous identification of avian and bovine mycoplasmas. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 59(11):965-969; 17 ref.
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Zendulkova D; Pospisil Z; Lany P; Jurmanova K, 1998. Preliminary findings of an epidemiological study of Mycoplasma bovis in the Czech Republic. In: Leori G, Santini F, Scanziani E, Frey J, eds. Mycoplasmas of ruminants: pathogenicity, diagnostics, epidemiology and molecular genetics. Vol 2. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, 88-90.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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