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avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)

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avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 09 November 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)
  • Overview
  • Mycoplasma synoviae was first isolated in the USA in 1954 (Olson et al., 1956). The importance of M.synoviae...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Histologic section of infected air sac (original x300 H&E stain) from young broiler. Immunologic response to Mycoplasma synoviae in air sac. The large. round, blue bundles of cells are lymphoid follicles. All the lymphocytes are clones of one lymphocyte. They are all  programmed to produce plasma cells that secrete antibody to Mycoplasma synoviae. The large, blue cells scattered through the tissue are plasma cells containing Golgi bodies full of that antibody.
TitleHistopathology
CaptionHistologic section of infected air sac (original x300 H&E stain) from young broiler. Immunologic response to Mycoplasma synoviae in air sac. The large. round, blue bundles of cells are lymphoid follicles. All the lymphocytes are clones of one lymphocyte. They are all programmed to produce plasma cells that secrete antibody to Mycoplasma synoviae. The large, blue cells scattered through the tissue are plasma cells containing Golgi bodies full of that antibody.
CopyrightRichard J. Julian
Histologic section of infected air sac (original x300 H&E stain) from young broiler. Immunologic response to Mycoplasma synoviae in air sac. The large. round, blue bundles of cells are lymphoid follicles. All the lymphocytes are clones of one lymphocyte. They are all  programmed to produce plasma cells that secrete antibody to Mycoplasma synoviae. The large, blue cells scattered through the tissue are plasma cells containing Golgi bodies full of that antibody.
HistopathologyHistologic section of infected air sac (original x300 H&E stain) from young broiler. Immunologic response to Mycoplasma synoviae in air sac. The large. round, blue bundles of cells are lymphoid follicles. All the lymphocytes are clones of one lymphocyte. They are all programmed to produce plasma cells that secrete antibody to Mycoplasma synoviae. The large, blue cells scattered through the tissue are plasma cells containing Golgi bodies full of that antibody.Richard J. Julian

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)

International Common Names

  • English: avian mycoplasmosis; infectious sinusitis; infectious sinusitis of chickens; infectious synovitis; infectious synovitis of chickens; Mycoplasma induced arthritis; Mycoplasma induced upper respiratory tract infection; mycoplasma synoviae in chickens and turkeys; Mycoplasma synoviae infections

Overview

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Mycoplasma synoviae was first isolated in the USA in 1954 (Olson et al., 1956). The importance of M.synoviae is almost certainly under reported as it is difficult to isolate and detect, even until relatively recently by serological techniques. This has been compounded by its close serological relationship with M. gallisepticum, a cause of chronic respiratory disease in poultry. Furthermore, large variations in the virulence and antigenic properties of strains have led to the view that M. synoviae is not economically important. However the experience of many workers indicates that M. synoviae can cause significant losses, particularly egg production losses. In parts of Europe, infection is endemic in laying flocks. Control measures are hampered by the ability of the mycoplasma to infect progeny through egg transmission and its increased resistance to antibiotics.

This disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For further information on this disease from OIE, see the website: www.oie.int.

Hosts/Species Affected

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M. synoviae occurs mainly in chickens and turkeys, though the latter are less susceptible, and has also been isolated from guinea fowls, ducks, geese, pigeons, Japanese quail, house sparrows, red-legged partridge and pheasants (Stipkovits and Kempf, 1996). Its role in disease in game birds is unclear, as it has been isolated only from apparently healthy pheasants (Bradbury et al., 2001). Mycoplasmas similar to (or conspecific with) M. synoviae have also been isolated from ostriches (Cadman et al., 1994).

Distribution

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Mycoplasma synoviae is probably distributed worldwide, but lack of diagnostic facilities in many countries and the difficulties in isolating the mycoplasma mean it is under-reported.

For current information on disease incidence, see OIE's WAHID Interface.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanNo information availableOIE, 2009
ArmeniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
AzerbaijanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BangladeshPresentOIE, 2009
BhutanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
CambodiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ChinaNo information availableNULLShi, 1988; OIE, 2009
-Hong KongNo information availableOIE, 2009
-LiaoningPresentShi, 1988
IndiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
IndonesiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
IranDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
IraqDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
IsraelDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
JapanDisease not reported200806Sato, 1996; OIE, 2009
JordanPresentOIE, 2009
KazakhstanNo information availableOIE, 2009
Korea, Republic ofNo information availableNULLSato, 1996; OIE, 2009
KuwaitDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
KyrgyzstanNo information availableOIE, 2009
LaosDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LebanonAbsent, reported but not confirmedNULLBarbour et al., 1997; OIE, 2009
MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentYamamoto et al., 1992
MongoliaNo information availableOIE, 2009
MyanmarDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
NepalDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
OmanPresentOIE, 2009
PakistanPresentOIE, 2009
PhilippinesDisease never reportedNULLSato, 1996; OIE, 2009
QatarNo information availableOIE, 2009
Saudi ArabiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
SingaporeDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SyriaNo information availableOIE, 2009
TaiwanPresentLo et al., 1994
TajikistanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
ThailandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
TurkeyNo information availableNULLErgün and Erturun, 1993; OIE, 2009
United Arab EmiratesDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
VietnamNo information availableOIE, 2009
YemenNo information availableOIE, 2009

Africa

AlgeriaNo information availableOIE, 2009
AngolaNo information availableOIE, 2009
BeninNo information availableOIE, 2009
BotswanaDisease not reportedNULLMushi et al., 1999; OIE, 2009
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE, 2009
ChadNo information availableNULLMaho et al., 1999; OIE, 2009
CongoNo information availableOIE, 2009
DjiboutiNo information availableOIE, 2009
EgyptNo information availableNULLSoliman, 1990; OIE, 2009
EritreaNo information availableOIE, 2009
EthiopiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
GabonNo information availableOIE, 2009
GambiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
GhanaNo information availableOIE, 2009
GuineaNo information availableOIE, 2009
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE, 2009
KenyaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LesothoDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MadagascarNo information availableOIE, 2009
MalawiNo information availableOIE, 2009
MaliNo information availableOIE, 2009
MauritiusDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MoroccoNo information availableOIE, 2009
MozambiqueDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
NamibiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
NigeriaDisease never reportedNULLMolokwu et al., 1987; OIE, 2009
RwandaNo information availableOIE, 2009
SenegalNo information availableNULLArbelot et al., 1997; OIE, 2009
South AfricaNo information availableOIE, 2009
SudanDisease not reportedNULLEl et al., 1989; OIE, 2009
SwazilandDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE, 2009
TogoNo information availableOIE, 2009
TunisiaPresentNULLBoussetta et al., 1997; OIE, 2009
UgandaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ZambiaNo information availableNULLHasegawa et al., 1999; OIE, 2009
ZimbabweDisease not reportedNULLCadman et al., 1994; OIE, 2009

North America

CanadaPresentOIE, 2009
GreenlandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MexicoPresentNULLEtcharren Márquez, 1992; OIE, 2009
USARestricted distributionNULLOlson et al., 1956; OIE, 2009

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentOIE, 2009
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE, 2009
CubaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Dominican RepublicNo information availableOIE, 2009
El SalvadorNo information availableOIE, 2009
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE, 2009
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
HondurasPresentOIE, 2009
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MartiniqueNo information availableOIE, 2009
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE, 2009
PanamaNo information availableOIE, 2009

South America

ArgentinaPresentOIE, 2009
BoliviaRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
BrazilPresentNULLBalen and Fiorentin, 1990; OIE, 2009
ChileRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
ColombiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
EcuadorDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
French GuianaNo information availableOIE, 2009
PeruDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
UruguayPresentOIE, 2009
VenezuelaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009

Europe

AlbaniaNo information availableOIE, 2009
AustriaNo information availableOIE, 2009
BelarusNo information availableOIE, 2009
BelgiumDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BulgariaNo information availableOIE, 2009
CroatiaDisease not reportedNULLZelenika et al., 1999; OIE, 2009
CyprusDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Czech RepublicDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
DenmarkDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
EstoniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
FinlandDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
FranceNo information availableNULLStipkovits and Kempf, 1996; OIE, 2009
GermanyDisease not reportedNULLSalisch et al., 1998; OIE, 2009
GreeceDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
HungaryDisease not reported20080123Stipkovits, 2000; OIE, 2009
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
IrelandDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
ItalyNo information availableNULLBertuzzi, 1997; OIE, 2009
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LithuaniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LuxembourgDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MacedoniaNo information availableOIE, 2009
MaltaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MontenegroDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
NetherlandsPresentOIE, 2009
NorwayDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
PolandNo information availableNULLWieliczko et al., 2000; OIE, 2009
PortugalDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
RomaniaNo information availableOIE, 2009
Russian FederationAbsent, reported but not confirmedOIE, 2009
SerbiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SlovakiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SloveniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SpainNo information availableNULLPoveda et al., 1990; OIE, 2009
SwedenDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SwitzerlandDisease never reportedNULLKeller and Hoop, 1993; OIE, 2009
UKRestricted distributionNULLBlaxland et al., 1982; OIE, 2009
UkraineDisease never reportedOIE, 2009

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNULLMorrow et al., 1990; OIE, 2009
French PolynesiaPresentOIE, 2009
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
New ZealandPresentOIE, 2009

Pathology

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Disease caused by M. synoviae in chickens is an acute generalised process characterised by air-sacculitis or arthritis. Arthritic lesions are characterized by a turbid to caseous exudate, infiltration with mononuclear cells and plasma cells, hyperplasia of the synovial linings and sometimes erosion of the articular cartilage. Synovitis occurring in the joints, keel bursae and tendons may also seen (Blaxland et al., 1982). Lesions of the respiratory tract are common in chickens but rare in turkeys. In some affected chicken flocks, spleens may be enlarged, livers and kidneys swollen and discoloured with atrophy of the bursa and thymus gland. In the first case of its kind, M. synoviae was isolated from the brains of 22-week-old commercial meat turkeys, showing severe synovitis and infrequent nervous system signs; protein profiles of isolates were markedly different from the type strain (Chin et al., 1991).

Diagnosis

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Clinical signs and lesions are not pathognomonic for M. synoviae, so laboratory diagnosis is necessary for accurate identification. Tracheal, oropharyngeal, eye, nasal or cloacal swabs from living birds are the preferred samples and should always be kept wet as this produces better survival rates for mycoplasmas (Bradbury, 1998). Isolation of M. synoviae from a dead bird is best achieved by aseptically taking fluids from the synovial fluids or tissue lesions from lungs or air sacs. Samples should be cultured onto media immediately, on the farm if possible, or cooled and dispatched rapidly to the laboratory. Serial dilutions of the tissues should be made to at least 10-3 in medium containing thallium acetate and appropriate antibiotics. Aliquots of the homogenate should then be inoculated in broth and solid medium. A number of medium formulations including Sinovitis C medium and Frey’s Medium have been reported to support growth (Olson, 1984); nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and cystein are essential components of media. A commercial medium is also available from Mycoplasma Experience (Reigate, UK).

Identification of M. synoviae is best achieved by immunofluorescence using hyperimmune serum prepared in rabbits (Bradbury, 1998). Alternatively PCR tests are now available commercially (FlockChek, IDEXX Laboratories Inc, Portland, USA) for identification of mycoplasmas growing in vitro or directly in clinical material from affected birds (Bradbury et al., 2001). Salisch et al. (1998) concluded that the IDEXX PCR kit was specific and at least as sensitive as culture. Garcia et al. (1995) described a PCR using a single set of primers which amplifies DNA from M. synoviae, M. gallisepticum and M. iowae; the three mycoplasmas can be differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism with restriction enzymes HpaI, HpaII and MboI.

Successful detection of M. synoviae by culture and PCR from samples collected in the environment of experimentally infected chickens and turkeys, and under field conditions, was described by Marois et al. (2000); results showed that in an experimental infection, 10 of 96 and 46 of 96 samples of food, drinking water, feathers, droppings or dust were positive by culture and Mycoplasma-PCR, respectively. Under field conditions, the number of positive results for environmental samples were 7 of 28 and 17 of 28, respectively. These observations highlighted the high disseminating capacities of this mycoplasma and show the usefulness of the PCR method for epidemiological studies.

Serological detection of the presence of M. synoviae is not considered reliable because it does not induce a strong immune response in affected birds, particularly in turkeys. Indeed in one study, while mycoplasmas could be isolated from nearly 90% of experimentally infected turkeys, only 60% had seroconverted (Ortiz and Kleven, 1992). Traditionally, rapid slide tests (RST) have been used for antibody detection using stained antigens. Although they lack sensitivity and specificity, they are relatively robust and very easy to carry out, taking only 2 minutes to complete. They are most effectively used as flock tests on at least 60 birds per house. The haemagglutination inhibition test has been used in the past as a confirmatory test for the RST, but is not widely used because of the need to maintain actively growing cultures to produce antigen of the desired quality. ELISA tests have been available for many years and are slowly replacing RSTs. The more recently developed competitive ELISAs are more specific, show good sensitivity and have the added advantage that they can be used all avian species. One of major advantages of ELISAs is their ease of use in detecting antibodies in egg yolk; this provides a convenient indication of flock status.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Sign
General Signs / Dehydration Sign
General Signs / Dysmetria, hypermetria, hypometria Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Poultry:Young poultry,Poultry:Mature female Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Poultry:Young poultry,Poultry:Mature female Sign
General Signs / Lameness, stiffness, stilted gait in birds Poultry:Young poultry,Poultry:Mature female Sign
General Signs / Opisthotonus Sign
General Signs / Regression of the comb, wattles in birds Sign
General Signs / Reluctant to move, refusal to move Sign
General Signs / Swelling of the limbs, legs, foot, feet, in birds Sign
General Signs / Swelling skin or subcutaneous, mass, lump, nodule Sign
General Signs / Torticollis, twisted neck Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Abnormal curvature, angulation, deviation of legs, limbs, feet of birds Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, rales, crackles, wheezes, friction rubs Sign
Respiratory Signs / Coughing, coughs Poultry:Young poultry Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery Sign
Respiratory Signs / Purulent nasal discharge Sign
Respiratory Signs / Sneezing, sneeze Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Ruffled, ruffling of the feathers Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin vesicles, bullae, blisters Sign

Disease Course

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Aerosol infection of chicks with M. synoviae causes changes in the trachea, including oedema, deciliation and some desquammation of epithelia; the epithelia begin to regenerate 2 weeks after infection (Ross, 1993). An experimental infection in hens led to a drop in egg production after a week; a reduction of 18% after two weeks before returning to normal levels after a month (Olson, 1984).

The incubation period of disease may be relatively short; chicks can show infectious sinusitis at 6 days of age following egg transmission of M. synoviae. Following contact exposure, the incubation period is usually 11-21 days, with antibodies being detected before clinical signs are apparent. Birds are susceptible to most infection routes.

Epidemiology

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M. synoviae is introduced via infected hens or eggs and then spreads to other birds by direct and indirect contact as well as by egg transmission, in which the highest rates of transmission are seen in the first 4-6 weeks after infection (Stipkovits and Kempf, 1996). It is believed to spread more quickly than M. gallisepticum. Great variations occur among M. synoviae strains in terms of virulence and tissue tropisms, which lead to different forms of disease. Other agents such as those causing Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and influenza, as well as Escherichia coli and M. gallisepticum and M. meleagridis may exacerbate disease caused by M. synoviae.

Impact: Economic

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Disease is believed to be under-reported because of the difficulties of isolating the mycoplasma. While mortality rates rarely exceed 5% in chickens, morbidity rates can vary from 2 to 75% with 5-15% being most usual (Olson, 1984). Stipkovits and Kempf (1996) reported a reduction of 5-10% in egg production and a 5-7% reduction in hatchability, with 5% mortality in the offspring in breeder flocks without obvious clinical signs.

Disease Treatment

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In vitro tests have shown that M. synoviae isolates are sensitive to tilmicosin and tylosin (Jordan and Horrocks, 1996); enrofloxacin, sarfloxacin, and oxytetracyclines (Wang et al., 2001). However, Stipkovits (2000) has reported that M. synoviae strains are becoming more resistant to antibiotics than other avian mycoplasmas, which means it is more difficult to treat infected flocks successfully. The ability of the mycoplasma to spread via the egg makes control difficult. Some successes have been seen in reducing infection by:

  • dipping warm fertile eggs in cold antibiotic solutions, usually chlortetracyclines, for 15-20 minutes which enables the drugs to attack the mycoplasmas within the egg.
  • gradual heating of the eggs to 46-47°C over a period of 11-14 hours prior to incubation.

Losses in egg fertility of up to 10% may be seen as a result of these treatments, particularly with heat treatment. The same antibiotics are also usually included in the feed or in water for a limited period. Control programmes should also include the culling of all clinically affected birds and the maintenance of progeny flocks in small groups so that if infection is found following treatment only the infected group need be removed (Blaxland et al., 1982).

Prevention and Control

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The economic effects of M. synoviae on the layer industry do not appear to justify the development and use of vaccines. However, this view may change, as its true prevalence becomes known with improved diagnostic tests, and with the likely failure of antibiotics to control disease in the future. A number of experimental vaccines have been reported and include the live avirulent MS-H strain which colonises the respiratory tract following eye-drop administration and stimulates serum antibody responses; clinical success and reduction in egg transmission was reported in a large field trial in broiler breeders in the USA (Whithear, 1996).

References

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Arbelot B; Dayon JF; Mamis D; Gueye JC; Tall F; Samb H, 1997. Seroprevalence survey of dominant avian diseases in Senegal: mycoplasmosis, fowl typhoid and pullorum disease, Newcastle, infectious bursal and infectious bronchitis diseases. Revue d'élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 50(3):197-203; 25 ref.

Avakian AP; Kleven SH; Glisson JR, 1988. Evaluation of the specificity and sensitivity of two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, the serum plate agglutination test, and the hemagglutination-inhibition test for antibodies formed in response to Mycoplasma gallisepticum.. Avian Diseases, 32(2):262-272; 20 ref.

Balen L; Fiorentin L, 1990. Comparison of lyophilization and freezing as methods of preserving haemagglutinating antigens of Mycoplasma synoviae and M. gallisepticum. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 42(5):363-369; 9 ref.

Barbour EK; Hamadeh SK; Hilan C; Kallas M; Eid A; Sakr W, 1997. National surveillance of poultry diseases in Lebanon. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des épizooties, 16(3):770-775; 4 ref.

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Blaxland JD; Cullen GA; Gordon RF; Jordan FTW, 1982. Diseases caused by bacteria, mycoplasmas and chlamydia. In: Gordon RF, Jordan FTW, eds. Poultry Diseases. London, UK: Bailliere Tindall, 62-75.

Boussetta M; Chaouachi N; Mlik B, 1997. Serological and bacteriological study of avian mycoplasmosis in the Cap Bon region of Tunisia. Revue d'élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 50(2):93-96; 27 ref.

Bradbury JM; Yavari CA; Dare CM, 2001. Detection of Mycoplasma synoviae in clinically normal pheasants. Veterinary Record, 148:72-74.

Cadman HF; Kelly PJ; Zhou R; Davelaar F; Mason PR, 1994. A serosurvey using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against poultry pathogens in ostriches (Struthio camelus) from Zimbabwe. Avian Diseases, 38(3):621-625; 6 ref.

Chin RP; Meteyer CU; Yamamoto R; Shivaprasad HL; Klein PN, 1991. Isolation of Mycoplasma synoviae from the brains of commercial meat turkeys with meningeal vasculitis. Avian Diseases, 35(3):631-637; 17 ref.

El Hassan SM; Kheir SAM; Elkumbarak AK, 1989. Serological survey of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae infection in chickens in the Sudan. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 37(1):21-24; 11 ref.

Ergün S; Erturun H, 1993. Survey of Mycoplasma infections in fowls in the Izmer area by serological tests and isolation. Hayvan Asilari Kontrol Merkezi Müdürlügü Dergisi, 17(31):1-15; 45 ref.

Etcharren Márquez LA, 1992. Isolation of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum from commercial fowls in Mexico, identification by direct immunofluorescence. Veterinaria México, 23:371; [Abstract of thesis, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 1992].

Garcia M; Jackwood MW; Levisohn S; Kleven SH, 1995. Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae, and M. iowae by multi-species polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Avian Diseases, 39(3):606-616; 30 ref.

Hasegawa M; Pandey GS; Tuchili LM; Baba E; Kobayashi K, 1999. The epidemiological survey of certain poultry diseases in commercial breeding farms in Zambia. International Journal of Animal Sciences, 14(1):17-21; 7 ref.

Herrmann R, 1992. Genome structure and organization. In: Maniloff J ed. Mycoplasmas: molecular biology and pathogenesis. Washington DC, USA: American Society of Microbiology, 157-168.

Jordan FTW; Horrocks BK, 1996. The minimum inhibitory concentration of tilmicosin and tylosin for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae and a comparison of their efficacy in the control of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in broiler chicks. Avian Diseases, 40(2):326-334; 13 ref.

Keller-Berger B; Hoop RK, 1993. Serological survey of pullet and laying flocks in Switzerland: results in 1990 and 1991. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 135(9):279-284; 18 ref.

Lo YungTsung; Lan YuChin; Chern ReyShyong; Lin MawYeong, 1994. Isolation and identification of Mycoplasma spp. in ducks in Taiwan. Taiwan Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, No. 63:60-64; 14 ref.

Maho A; Mopate LY; Kebkiba B; Boulbaye G, 1999. Enquete serologique sur quelques maladies aviaires dans la region du Nord Guera (Tchad). [Serological investigation on five fowl diseases in the North region of Guera (Chad)]. Tropicultura, 16-17; 197-200.

Marois C; Oufour-Gesbert F; Kempf I, 2000. Detection of Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry environment samples by culture and polymerase chain reaction. Veterinary Microbiology, 73(4):311-318; 12 ref.

Molokwu JU; Adegboye DS; Emejuaiwe SO, 1987. Studies on chronic respiratory disease of poultry in Nigeria. III. Documentation of Mycoplasma synoviae infection and other recently reported avian mycoplasma species by culture and serology. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 35(4):340-343; 13 ref.

Morrow CJ; Bell IG; Walker SB; Markham PF; Thorp BH; Whithear KG, 1990. Isolation of Mycoplasma synoviae from infectious synovitis of chickens. Australian Veterinary Journal, 67(4):121-124; 22 ref.

Mushi EZ; Binta MG; Chabo RG; Mathaio M; Ndebele RT, 1999. Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae antibodies in the sera of indigenous chickens by rapid serum agglutination test at Mmopane, Gaborone, Botswana. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 66(4):333-334; 6 ref.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

Olson NO, 1984. Mycoplasma synoviae infection. In: Hofstad MS, Barnes HJ, Calnek BW, Reid WM, Yoder HW, eds. Diseases of Poultry, edition 8. Ames, Iowa, USA: Iowa State University Press, 212-215.

Olson NO; Shelton DC; Bletner JK; Munro DA; Anderson GC, 1956. Studies of infectious sinusitis in chickens. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 17:747-754.

Ortiz A; Kleven SH, 1992. Serological detection of Mycoplasma synoviae infection in turkeys. Avian Diseases, 36(3):749-752; 7 ref.

Poveda JB; Carranza J; Miranda A; Garrido A; Hermoso M; Fernandez A; Domenech J, 1990. An epizootiological study of avian mycoplasmas in southern Spain. Avian Pathology, 19(4):627-633; 16 ref.

Poveda JB; Nicholas RAJ, 1998. Serological identification by growth and metabolism inhibition tests. In: Miles RJ, Nicholas RAJ, eds. Mycoplasma Protocols. Totowa, USA: Humana Press, 105-112.

Ross RF, 1993. Mycoplasmas - Animal pathogens. In: Kahane I, Adoni A, eds. Rapid Diagnosis of Mycoplasmas. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 69-110.

Salisch H; Hinz KH; Graack HD; Ryll M, 1998. A comparison of a commercial PCR-based test to culture methods for detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in concurrently infected chickens. Avian Pathology, 27(2):142-147; 32 ref.

Sato S, 1977. Mycoplasma synoviae infections in chickens. Japanese Agricultural Research Quarterly, 10:94-100.

Sato S, 1996. Avian mycoplasmosis in Asia. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des épizooties, 15(4):1555-1567; 58 ref.

Shi YP, 1988. Report on the diagnosis and treatment of a suspected outbreak of Mycoplasma synoviae infection in chickens. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 14(8):13-14.

Soliman AM, 1990. Status of Mycoplasma synoviae in chickens in upper Egypt. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 23(45):231-241; 22 ref.

Stipkovitis L; Kempf I, 1996. Mycoplasmoses in poultry. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des épizooties, 15(4):1495-1525; 107 ref.

Stipkovits L, 2000. A Mycoplasma synoviae fertozottseg elleni vedekezes idoszeru kerdesei. [Current questions of the control of Mycoplasma synoviae infection] Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja, 122:165-167.

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