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avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)

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avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)
  • Overview
  • Mycoplasma synoviae was first isolated in the USA in 1954 (Olson et al., 1956). The importance of M.synoviae is almost certainly under...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Histologic section of infected air sac (original x300 H&E stain) from young broiler. Immunologic response to Mycoplasma synoviae in air sac. The large. round, blue bundles of cells are lymphoid follicles. All the lymphocytes are clones of one lymphocyte. They are all  programmed to produce plasma cells that secrete antibody to Mycoplasma synoviae. The large, blue cells scattered through the tissue are plasma cells containing Golgi bodies full of that antibody.
TitleHistopathology
CaptionHistologic section of infected air sac (original x300 H&E stain) from young broiler. Immunologic response to Mycoplasma synoviae in air sac. The large. round, blue bundles of cells are lymphoid follicles. All the lymphocytes are clones of one lymphocyte. They are all programmed to produce plasma cells that secrete antibody to Mycoplasma synoviae. The large, blue cells scattered through the tissue are plasma cells containing Golgi bodies full of that antibody.
CopyrightRichard J. Julian
Histologic section of infected air sac (original x300 H&E stain) from young broiler. Immunologic response to Mycoplasma synoviae in air sac. The large. round, blue bundles of cells are lymphoid follicles. All the lymphocytes are clones of one lymphocyte. They are all  programmed to produce plasma cells that secrete antibody to Mycoplasma synoviae. The large, blue cells scattered through the tissue are plasma cells containing Golgi bodies full of that antibody.
HistopathologyHistologic section of infected air sac (original x300 H&E stain) from young broiler. Immunologic response to Mycoplasma synoviae in air sac. The large. round, blue bundles of cells are lymphoid follicles. All the lymphocytes are clones of one lymphocyte. They are all programmed to produce plasma cells that secrete antibody to Mycoplasma synoviae. The large, blue cells scattered through the tissue are plasma cells containing Golgi bodies full of that antibody.Richard J. Julian

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma synoviae)

International Common Names

  • English: avian mycoplasmosis; infectious sinusitis; infectious sinusitis of chickens; infectious synovitis; infectious synovitis of chickens; Mycoplasma induced arthritis; Mycoplasma induced upper respiratory tract infection; mycoplasma synoviae in chickens and turkeys; Mycoplasma synoviae infections

Overview

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Mycoplasma synoviae was first isolated in the USA in 1954 (Olson et al., 1956). The importance of M.synoviae is almost certainly under reported as it is difficult to isolate and detect, even until relatively recently by serological techniques. This has been compounded by its close serological relationship with M. gallisepticum, a cause of chronic respiratory disease in poultry. Furthermore, large variations in the virulence and antigenic properties of strains have led to the view that M. synoviae is not economically important. However the experience of many workers indicates that M. synoviae can cause significant losses, particularly egg production losses. In parts of Europe, infection is endemic in laying flocks. Control measures are hampered by the ability of the mycoplasma to infect progeny through egg transmission and its increased resistance to antibiotics.

This disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For further information on this disease from OIE, see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Anas (ducks)Domesticated host
Anser (geese)Domesticated host
Cairina (Muscovy ducks)Domesticated host
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated hostPoultry|Mature female; Poultry|Young poultry
Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)Domesticated hostPoultry|Mature female; Poultry|Young poultry
NumidaDomesticated host
Numida meleagris (guineafowl)Domesticated host

Hosts/Species Affected

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M. synoviae occurs mainly in chickens and turkeys, though the latter are less susceptible, and has also been isolated from guinea fowls, ducks, geese, pigeons, Japanese quail, house sparrows, red-legged partridge and pheasants (Stipkovits and Kempf, 1996). Its role in disease in game birds is unclear, as it has been isolated only from apparently healthy pheasants (Bradbury et al., 2001). Mycoplasmas similar to (or conspecific with) M. synoviae have also been isolated from ostriches (Cadman et al., 1994).

Systems Affected

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reproductive diseases of poultry
respiratory diseases of poultry

Distribution

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Mycoplasma synoviae is probably distributed worldwide, but lack of diagnostic facilities in many countries and the difficulties in isolating the mycoplasma mean it is under-reported.

For current information on disease incidence, see OIE's WAHID Interface.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 04 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AngolaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
BotswanaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
BurundiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ChadPresent
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KenyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsentJan-Jun-2020
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MauritaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MayotteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MozambiquePresentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RéunionAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RwandaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SenegalPresent
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TanzaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabweAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CambodiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChinaPresent
-LiaoningPresent
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IndonesiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
IranAbsentJan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IsraelPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
JapanPresentJan-Jun-2020
JordanAbsentJul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MalaysiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NepalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
OmanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PakistanPresentJan-Jun-2020
PalestineAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
QatarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
South KoreaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
TurkeyPresent
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Europe

AndorraAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelgiumPresentJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CyprusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsentJan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandPresentJul-Dec-2020
FrancePresentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsentJan-Jun-2018
HungaryPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandPresentJul-Dec-2019
ItalyAbsentJul-Dec-2020
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaltaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsPresentJul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PolandPresentJan-Jun-2019
PortugalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
RussiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SlovakiaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
SpainPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
SwedenPresentJul-Dec-2018
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
United KingdomPresentJul-Dec-2019

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosPresentJul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CanadaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaPresentJul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorPresentJul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HondurasAbsentJul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MexicoPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsentJan-Jun-2018
United StatesPresentJul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsPresentJan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsentJan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaPresentJan-Jun-2019
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandPresentJul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Timor-LesteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaPresentJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaPresentJan-Jun-2019
BrazilPresentJul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ColombiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ParaguayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PeruPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
UruguayPresentJul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

Pathology

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Disease caused by M. synoviae in chickens is an acute generalised process characterised by air-sacculitis or arthritis. Arthritic lesions are characterized by a turbid to caseous exudate, infiltration with mononuclear cells and plasma cells, hyperplasia of the synovial linings and sometimes erosion of the articular cartilage. Synovitis occurring in the joints, keel bursae and tendons may also seen (Blaxland et al., 1982). Lesions of the respiratory tract are common in chickens but rare in turkeys. In some affected chicken flocks, spleens may be enlarged, livers and kidneys swollen and discoloured with atrophy of the bursa and thymus gland. In the first case of its kind, M. synoviae was isolated from the brains of 22-week-old commercial meat turkeys, showing severe synovitis and infrequent nervous system signs; protein profiles of isolates were markedly different from the type strain (Chin et al., 1991).

Diagnosis

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Clinical signs and lesions are not pathognomonic for M. synoviae, so laboratory diagnosis is necessary for accurate identification. Tracheal, oropharyngeal, eye, nasal or cloacal swabs from living birds are the preferred samples and should always be kept wet as this produces better survival rates for mycoplasmas (Bradbury, 1998). Isolation of M. synoviae from a dead bird is best achieved by aseptically taking fluids from the synovial fluids or tissue lesions from lungs or air sacs. Samples should be cultured onto media immediately, on the farm if possible, or cooled and dispatched rapidly to the laboratory. Serial dilutions of the tissues should be made to at least 10-3 in medium containing thallium acetate and appropriate antibiotics. Aliquots of the homogenate should then be inoculated in broth and solid medium. A number of medium formulations including Sinovitis C medium and Frey’s Medium have been reported to support growth (Olson, 1984); nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and cystein are essential components of media. A commercial medium is also available from Mycoplasma Experience (Reigate, UK).

Identification of M. synoviae is best achieved by immunofluorescence using hyperimmune serum prepared in rabbits (Bradbury, 1998). Alternatively PCR tests are now available commercially (FlockChek, IDEXX Laboratories Inc, Portland, USA) for identification of mycoplasmas growing in vitro or directly in clinical material from affected birds (Bradbury et al., 2001). Salisch et al. (1998) concluded that the IDEXX PCR kit was specific and at least as sensitive as culture. Garcia et al. (1995) described a PCR using a single set of primers which amplifies DNA from M. synoviae, M. gallisepticum and M. iowae; the three mycoplasmas can be differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism with restriction enzymes HpaI, HpaII and MboI.

Successful detection of M. synoviae by culture and PCR from samples collected in the environment of experimentally infected chickens and turkeys, and under field conditions, was described by Marois et al. (2000); results showed that in an experimental infection, 10 of 96 and 46 of 96 samples of food, drinking water, feathers, droppings or dust were positive by culture and Mycoplasma-PCR, respectively. Under field conditions, the number of positive results for environmental samples were 7 of 28 and 17 of 28, respectively. These observations highlighted the high disseminating capacities of this mycoplasma and show the usefulness of the PCR method for epidemiological studies.

Serological detection of the presence of M. synoviae is not considered reliable because it does not induce a strong immune response in affected birds, particularly in turkeys. Indeed in one study, while mycoplasmas could be isolated from nearly 90% of experimentally infected turkeys, only 60% had seroconverted (Ortiz and Kleven, 1992). Traditionally, rapid slide tests (RST) have been used for antibody detection using stained antigens. Although they lack sensitivity and specificity, they are relatively robust and very easy to carry out, taking only 2 minutes to complete. They are most effectively used as flock tests on at least 60 birds per house. The haemagglutination inhibition test has been used in the past as a confirmatory test for the RST, but is not widely used because of the need to maintain actively growing cultures to produce antigen of the desired quality. ELISA tests have been available for many years and are slowly replacing RSTs. The more recently developed competitive ELISAs are more specific, show good sensitivity and have the added advantage that they can be used all avian species. One of major advantages of ELISAs is their ease of use in detecting antibodies in egg yolk; this provides a convenient indication of flock status.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Sign
General Signs / Dehydration Sign
General Signs / Dysmetria, hypermetria, hypometria Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Poultry|Mature female; Poultry|Young poultry Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Poultry|Mature female; Poultry|Young poultry Sign
General Signs / Lameness, stiffness, stilted gait in birds Poultry|Mature female; Poultry|Young poultry Sign
General Signs / Opisthotonus Sign
General Signs / Regression of the comb, wattles in birds Sign
General Signs / Reluctant to move, refusal to move Sign
General Signs / Swelling of the limbs, legs, foot, feet, in birds Sign
General Signs / Swelling skin or subcutaneous, mass, lump, nodule Sign
General Signs / Torticollis, twisted neck Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Abnormal curvature, angulation, deviation of legs, limbs, feet of birds Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, rales, crackles, wheezes, friction rubs Sign
Respiratory Signs / Coughing, coughs Poultry|Young poultry Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery Sign
Respiratory Signs / Purulent nasal discharge Sign
Respiratory Signs / Sneezing, sneeze Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Ruffled, ruffling of the feathers Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin vesicles, bullae, blisters Sign

Disease Course

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Aerosol infection of chicks with M. synoviae causes changes in the trachea, including oedema, deciliation and some desquammation of epithelia; the epithelia begin to regenerate 2 weeks after infection (Ross, 1993). An experimental infection in hens led to a drop in egg production after a week; a reduction of 18% after two weeks before returning to normal levels after a month (Olson, 1984).

The incubation period of disease may be relatively short; chicks can show infectious sinusitis at 6 days of age following egg transmission of M. synoviae. Following contact exposure, the incubation period is usually 11-21 days, with antibodies being detected before clinical signs are apparent. Birds are susceptible to most infection routes.

Epidemiology

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M. synoviae is introduced via infected hens or eggs and then spreads to other birds by direct and indirect contact as well as by egg transmission, in which the highest rates of transmission are seen in the first 4-6 weeks after infection (Stipkovits and Kempf, 1996). It is believed to spread more quickly than M. gallisepticum. Great variations occur among M. synoviae strains in terms of virulence and tissue tropisms, which lead to different forms of disease. Other agents such as those causing Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and influenza, as well as Escherichia coli and M. gallisepticum and M. meleagridis may exacerbate disease caused by M. synoviae.

Impact: Economic

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Disease is believed to be under-reported because of the difficulties of isolating the mycoplasma. While mortality rates rarely exceed 5% in chickens, morbidity rates can vary from 2 to 75% with 5-15% being most usual (Olson, 1984). Stipkovits and Kempf (1996) reported a reduction of 5-10% in egg production and a 5-7% reduction in hatchability, with 5% mortality in the offspring in breeder flocks without obvious clinical signs.

Disease Treatment

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In vitro tests have shown that M. synoviae isolates are sensitive to tilmicosin and tylosin (Jordan and Horrocks, 1996); enrofloxacin, sarfloxacin, and oxytetracyclines (Wang et al., 2001). However, Stipkovits (2000) has reported that M. synoviae strains are becoming more resistant to antibiotics than other avian mycoplasmas, which means it is more difficult to treat infected flocks successfully. The ability of the mycoplasma to spread via the egg makes control difficult. Some successes have been seen in reducing infection by:

  • dipping warm fertile eggs in cold antibiotic solutions, usually chlortetracyclines, for 15-20 minutes which enables the drugs to attack the mycoplasmas within the egg.
  • gradual heating of the eggs to 46-47°C over a period of 11-14 hours prior to incubation.

Losses in egg fertility of up to 10% may be seen as a result of these treatments, particularly with heat treatment. The same antibiotics are also usually included in the feed or in water for a limited period. Control programmes should also include the culling of all clinically affected birds and the maintenance of progeny flocks in small groups so that if infection is found following treatment only the infected group need be removed (Blaxland et al., 1982).

Prevention and Control

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The economic effects of M. synoviae on the layer industry do not appear to justify the development and use of vaccines. However, this view may change, as its true prevalence becomes known with improved diagnostic tests, and with the likely failure of antibiotics to control disease in the future. A number of experimental vaccines have been reported and include the live avirulent MS-H strain which colonises the respiratory tract following eye-drop administration and stimulates serum antibody responses; clinical success and reduction in egg transmission was reported in a large field trial in broiler breeders in the USA (Whithear, 1996).

References

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Balen L; Fiorentin L, 1990. Comparison of lyophilization and freezing as methods of preserving haemagglutinating antigens of Mycoplasma synoviae and M. gallisepticum. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 42(5):363-369; 9 ref.

Barbour EK; Hamadeh SK; Hilan C; Kallas M; Eid A; Sakr W, 1997. National surveillance of poultry diseases in Lebanon. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des épizooties, 16(3):770-775; 4 ref.

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Blaxland JD; Cullen GA; Gordon RF; Jordan FTW, 1982. Diseases caused by bacteria, mycoplasmas and chlamydia. In: Gordon RF, Jordan FTW, eds. Poultry Diseases. London, UK: Bailliere Tindall, 62-75.

Boussetta M; Chaouachi N; Mlik B, 1997. Serological and bacteriological study of avian mycoplasmosis in the Cap Bon region of Tunisia. Revue d'élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 50(2):93-96; 27 ref.

Bradbury JM; Yavari CA; Dare CM, 2001. Detection of Mycoplasma synoviae in clinically normal pheasants. Veterinary Record, 148:72-74.

Cadman HF; Kelly PJ; Zhou R; Davelaar F; Mason PR, 1994. A serosurvey using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against poultry pathogens in ostriches (Struthio camelus) from Zimbabwe. Avian Diseases, 38(3):621-625; 6 ref.

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El Hassan SM; Kheir SAM; Elkumbarak AK, 1989. Serological survey of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae infection in chickens in the Sudan. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 37(1):21-24; 11 ref.

Ergün S; Erturun H, 1993. Survey of Mycoplasma infections in fowls in the Izmer area by serological tests and isolation. Hayvan Asilari Kontrol Merkezi Müdürlügü Dergisi, 17(31):1-15; 45 ref.

Etcharren Márquez LA, 1992. Isolation of Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma gallisepticum from commercial fowls in Mexico, identification by direct immunofluorescence. Veterinaria México, 23:371; [Abstract of thesis, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 1992].

Garcia M; Jackwood MW; Levisohn S; Kleven SH, 1995. Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae, and M. iowae by multi-species polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Avian Diseases, 39(3):606-616; 30 ref.

Hasegawa M; Pandey GS; Tuchili LM; Baba E; Kobayashi K, 1999. The epidemiological survey of certain poultry diseases in commercial breeding farms in Zambia. International Journal of Animal Sciences, 14(1):17-21; 7 ref.

Herrmann R, 1992. Genome structure and organization. In: Maniloff J ed. Mycoplasmas: molecular biology and pathogenesis. Washington DC, USA: American Society of Microbiology, 157-168.

Jordan FTW; Horrocks BK, 1996. The minimum inhibitory concentration of tilmicosin and tylosin for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae and a comparison of their efficacy in the control of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in broiler chicks. Avian Diseases, 40(2):326-334; 13 ref.

Keller-Berger B; Hoop RK, 1993. Serological survey of pullet and laying flocks in Switzerland: results in 1990 and 1991. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 135(9):279-284; 18 ref.

Lo YungTsung; Lan YuChin; Chern ReyShyong; Lin MawYeong, 1994. Isolation and identification of Mycoplasma spp. in ducks in Taiwan. Taiwan Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry, No. 63:60-64; 14 ref.

Maho A; Mopate LY; Kebkiba B; Boulbaye G, 1999. Enquete serologique sur quelques maladies aviaires dans la region du Nord Guera (Tchad). [Serological investigation on five fowl diseases in the North region of Guera (Chad)]. Tropicultura, 16-17; 197-200.

Marois C; Oufour-Gesbert F; Kempf I, 2000. Detection of Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry environment samples by culture and polymerase chain reaction. Veterinary Microbiology, 73(4):311-318; 12 ref.

Molokwu JU; Adegboye DS; Emejuaiwe SO, 1987. Studies on chronic respiratory disease of poultry in Nigeria. III. Documentation of Mycoplasma synoviae infection and other recently reported avian mycoplasma species by culture and serology. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 35(4):340-343; 13 ref.

Morrow CJ; Bell IG; Walker SB; Markham PF; Thorp BH; Whithear KG, 1990. Isolation of Mycoplasma synoviae from infectious synovitis of chickens. Australian Veterinary Journal, 67(4):121-124; 22 ref.

Mushi EZ; Binta MG; Chabo RG; Mathaio M; Ndebele RT, 1999. Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae antibodies in the sera of indigenous chickens by rapid serum agglutination test at Mmopane, Gaborone, Botswana. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 66(4):333-334; 6 ref.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

Olson NO, 1984. Mycoplasma synoviae infection. In: Hofstad MS, Barnes HJ, Calnek BW, Reid WM, Yoder HW, eds. Diseases of Poultry, edition 8. Ames, Iowa, USA: Iowa State University Press, 212-215.

Olson NO; Shelton DC; Bletner JK; Munro DA; Anderson GC, 1956. Studies of infectious sinusitis in chickens. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 17:747-754.

Ortiz A; Kleven SH, 1992. Serological detection of Mycoplasma synoviae infection in turkeys. Avian Diseases, 36(3):749-752; 7 ref.

Poveda JB; Carranza J; Miranda A; Garrido A; Hermoso M; Fernandez A; Domenech J, 1990. An epizootiological study of avian mycoplasmas in southern Spain. Avian Pathology, 19(4):627-633; 16 ref.

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Salisch H; Hinz KH; Graack HD; Ryll M, 1998. A comparison of a commercial PCR-based test to culture methods for detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in concurrently infected chickens. Avian Pathology, 27(2):142-147; 32 ref.

Sato S, 1977. Mycoplasma synoviae infections in chickens. Japanese Agricultural Research Quarterly, 10:94-100.

Sato S, 1996. Avian mycoplasmosis in Asia. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des épizooties, 15(4):1555-1567; 58 ref.

Shi YP, 1988. Report on the diagnosis and treatment of a suspected outbreak of Mycoplasma synoviae infection in chickens. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 14(8):13-14.

Soliman AM, 1990. Status of Mycoplasma synoviae in chickens in upper Egypt. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 23(45):231-241; 22 ref.

Stipkovitis L; Kempf I, 1996. Mycoplasmoses in poultry. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des épizooties, 15(4):1495-1525; 107 ref.

Stipkovits L, 2000. A Mycoplasma synoviae fertozottseg elleni vedekezes idoszeru kerdesei. [Current questions of the control of Mycoplasma synoviae infection] Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja, 122:165-167.

Wang C; Ewing M; A'arabi SY, 2001. In vitro susceptibility of avian mycoplasmas to enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, tylosin and oxytetracycline. Avian Disease, 45:456-460.

Whithear KG, 1996. Control of avian mycoplasmoses by vaccination. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des épizooties, 15(4):1527-1553; 122 ref.

Wieliczko A; Mazurkiewicz M; Wisniewska J, 2000. Zakazenia kur Mycoplasma gallisepticum/synoviae w swietle badan serologicznych. [Infections with Mycoplasma gallisepticum/synoviae in serological examination]. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 56:240-244.

Yamamoto K; Zaini MZ; Tan LJ; Kuniyasu C, 1992. Bacteriological and serological survey of avian mycoplasmosis in Peninsula Malaysia. JARQ, Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 25(4):278-282; 8 ref.

Zelenika TA; Savic V; Balenovic M, 1999. Mycoplasmosis in heavy hybrid hens in Croatia from 1993 to 1998. Stocarstvo, 53(6):411-418; 13 ref.

Distribution References

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Balen L, Fiorentin L, 1990. Comparison of lyophilization and freezing as methods of preserving haemagglutinating antigens of Mycoplasma synoviae and M. gallisepticum. (Comparação entre liofilização e congelação como métodos de conservação de antígenos hemaglutinantes.). Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. 42 (5), 363-369.

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Salisch H, Hinz K H, Graack H D, Ryll M, 1998. A comparison of a commercial PCR-based test to culture methods for detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in concurrently infected chickens. Avian Pathology. 27 (2), 142-147. DOI:10.1080/03079459808419315

Sato S, 1996. Avian mycoplasmosis in Asia. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Épizooties. 15 (4), 1555-1567.

Shi Y P, 1988. Report on the diagnosis and treatment of a suspected outbreak of Mycoplasma synoviae infection in chickens. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 14 (8), 13-14.

Soliman A M, 1990. Status of Mycoplasma synoviae in chickens in upper Egypt. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 23 (45), 231-241.

Stipkovits L, 2000. Current questions of the control of Mycoplasma synoviae infection. (A Mycoplasma synoviae fertőzöttség elleni védekezés időszerű kérdései.). Magyar Állatorvosok Lapja. 122 (3), 165-167.

Wieliczko A, Mazurkiewicz M, Wiśniewska J, 2000. Infections with Mycoplasma gallisepticum/synoviae in serological examination. (Zakażenia kur Mycoplasma gallisepticum/synoviae w świetle badań serologicznych.). Medycyna Weterynaryjna. 56 (4), 240-244.

Yamamoto K, Zaini M Z, Tan L J, Kuniyasu C, 1992. Bacteriological and serological survey of avian mycoplasmosis in Peninsula Malaysia. JARQ, Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly. 25 (4), 278-282.

Zelenika T A, Savić V, Balenović M, 1999. Mycoplasmosis in heavy hybrid hens in Croatia from 1993 to 1998. (Mikoplazmoza kokoši teških hibrida u Republici Hrvatskoj od 1993. do 1998.). Stočarstvo. 53 (6), 411-418.

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