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Mycoplasma bovigenitalium infections

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Mycoplasma bovigenitalium infections

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 July 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mycoplasma bovigenitalium infections
  • Pathogens
  • Mycoplasma bovigenitalium
  • Overview
  • Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, first characterized by Freundt (1955), is mostly found in the reproductive tract of cattl...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mycoplasma bovigenitalium infections

International Common Names

  • English: chromic seminal vesiculitis; infertility; Mycoplasma bovigenitalium mastitis; vulvovaginitis

Pathogen/s

Top of page Mycoplasma bovigenitalium

Overview

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Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, first characterized by Freundt (1955), is mostly found in the reproductive tract of cattle and buffaloes, but has also been isolated from pneumonic, arthritic and mastitic cattle and aborted foetuses (Ruhnke, 1994). There have been isolations of this mycoplasma, previously unclassified and known as mycoplasma ovine/caprine serogroup 11, but shown to be M. bovigenitalium (Nicholas et al., 2008), which causes similar reproductive problems in small ruminants (Wessels et al., 2001). Although experimental infections show it is capable of inducing pneumonic lesions in gnotobiotic calves (Gourlay et al., 1979), evidence is still lacking that it is a major pathogen and many of its reported pathogenic properties may be the result of undetected ureaplasmas. Phylogenetically, M. bovigenitalium belongs to the M. fermentans group based on 16S ribosomal gene sequence analysis, showing a very close similarity to M. californicum. Its genome is 862,247 base pairs, coding for 677 genes and it has a G+C content of 28.96% (Manso-Silván et al., 2013).

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bison bonasusWild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated hostCattle & Buffaloes: All Stages
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated hostCattle & Buffaloes: All Stages
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated hostCattle & Buffaloes: Heifer|Cattle & Buffaloes/Cow|Cattle & Buffaloes/Steer|Cattle & Buffaloes/Bull|Cattle & Buffaloes/Ox
Canis familiaris (dogs)Domesticated hostOther: All Stages
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated hostSheep & Goats: Mature female|Sheep & Goats/Breeding male
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated hostSheep & Goats: Mature female|Sheep & Goats/Breeding male

Hosts/Species Affected

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Cattle, buffalo, sheep (Chima et al., 1995), bison (Thiede et al., 2002) goats (Pathak et al., 1993) and dogs (Zöldág et al., 1993) may harbour M. bovigenitalium.

Systems Affected

Top of page mammary gland diseases of large ruminants
mammary gland diseases of small ruminants
reproductive diseases of large ruminants
reproductive diseases of small ruminants
respiratory diseases of large ruminants
respiratory diseases of small ruminants

Distribution

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Mycoplasma bovigenitalium has been found worldwide. It has been reported from the following countries: UK, USA, Egypt, India, Germany, Austria, Croatia, Brazil, Denmark, Nigeria, Italy Japan, Turkey, Holland, Switzerland, South Africa, France, Canada and Morocco.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Pathology

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Mastitic lesions caused by M. bovigenitalium are of a purulent character early on, followed by more prominence of the interstitial tissue. Affected seminal vesicles are enlarged and when sectioned, brownish with decreased secretions (Ross, 1993). Respiratory disease associated with M. bovigenitalium consists of cranioventral consolidation of the lungs although it is not possible to verify whether this is the result of infection with this mycoplasma; more likely tissue damage is caused by bacteria or other mycoplasmas like Mycoplasma bovis. Experimental infection of gnotobiotic calves with M. bovigenitalium produced a subclinical cuffing type pneumonia (Gourlay et al., 1979)

Lesions due to M. bovigenitalium were seen in experimental models of the buffalo oviduct (Varsha et al., 1996), hamster tracheal (Kumar et al., 1992) and rabbit fallopian tube organ cultures (Singh et al., 1991) suggesting a direct pathogenic role for this mycoplasma.

Diagnosis

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Clinical signs are not characteristic for M. bovigenitalium so laboratory diagnosis is necessary for diagnosis. The mycoplasma grows well in a variety of media producing ‘centred’ colonies. In an appropriate medium, such as Eaton’s (Nicholas and Baker, 1998) M. bovigenitalium produces films and spots and gives an orange colour to the broth. Growth inhibition, film inhibition, fluorescent antibody or metabolic inhibitions tests can be used to identify the mycoplasma using hyper-immune rabbit serum (Poveda and Nicholas, 1998). Immunobinding assays were described for M. bovigenitalium which had similar sensitivities and specificities to the culture method but were simpler and more rapid (Poumarat et al., 1992; El-Shabiny and El-Makerem, 1994).

A specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed for M. bovigenitalium based on the 16S ribosomal gene which detects 103 and 2x103 colony forming units of the mycoplasma in pure culture and in spiked clinical material respectively (Kobayashi et al., 1998). A PCR method using the 16S rDNA gene followed by the use of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis has been able to detect and identify the majority of Mycoplasma species including M. bovigenitalium (McAuliffe et al., 2005). Other PCR methods, including multiplex PCR’s (Tramuta et al., 2011), real-time assays (Boonyayatra et al., 2012; Justice-Allen et al., 2011) and some real-time PCR’s combined with high resolution melting curve analysis (Rebelo et al., 2011) have been developed.

Serological tests are not widely available for M. bovigenitalium although agar gel precipitin tests, indirect haemagglutination assays, ELISAs and Western blotting have all been described (Ashwani and Garg, 1996; Garg et al., 1999; Petit et al., 2008).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain mammary gland, udder Cattle & Buffaloes:Heifer,Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, seminal vesicles Cattle & Buffaloes:Bull,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, vulva, vagina Cattle & Buffaloes:Heifer,Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow,Cattle & Buffaloes:Steer Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow Sign
Reproductive Signs / Edema of mammary gland, udder Cattle & Buffaloes:Heifer,Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow Sign
Reproductive Signs / Female infertility, repeat breeder Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female Sign
Reproductive Signs / Firm mammary gland, hard udder Cattle & Buffaloes:Heifer,Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow Sign
Reproductive Signs / Mastitis, abnormal milk Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow Sign
Reproductive Signs / Purulent discharge, vulvar, vaginal Cattle & Buffaloes:Heifer,Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow,Sheep & Goats:Mature female Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin edema Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign

Disease Course

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Mastitis was produced in all cows experimentally infected via the udder with M. bovigenitalium; interestingly one cow also developed arthritis although Bacillus cereus was also isolated (Roberts, 1968). The mycoplasma persisted in the udder for at least 18 weeks. Only a small number of the bulls experimentally infected with M. bovigenitalium via the prepuce showed mild inflammatory lesions of the genital tract although mycoplasmas were recovered at various times from most animals (Kreusel et al., 1989). Experimental infections of the ovine mammary gland with M. bovigenitalium resulted in pathogenic effects including high milk cell counts and mycoplasma excretion leading in some cases to subclinical infections (Ball, 1990). Gourlay et al. (1979) showed that, when given intratracheally to gnotobiotic calves, M. bovigenitalium colonized the lungs and induced pneumonic lesions, producing microscopic cuffing lesions.

Epidemiology

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M. bovigenitalium is commonly found in semen samples or sheath washings from cattle, often along with Acholeplasma laidlawii, ureaplasmas and Mycoplasma bovis (Jasper, 1981; Ball, 1990; Eder-Rohm, 1996). It has been associated with occasional cases of epidymitis, orchitis, urethritis and seminal vesiculitis leading to pain on ejaculation or following palpation and may impair spermatozoa motility (Ross 1993; Ruhnke 1994). Thiede et al. (2002) detected antibodies to M. bovigenitalum in Polish free-living European Bison that had balanoposthitis. Experimental insemination infections with spiked semen have shown that it can be isolated easily from washed embryos where it forms a close association with the surface of zona pellucida, intact embryos and sperm cells (Bielanski et al., 2000). Furthermore officially recommended antibiotics appear to be ineffective in eliminating this mycoplasma from embryos.

Antibodies to M. bovigenitalium have been detected more frequently in cattle with reproductive disorders than in healthy cattle (Ashwani and Garg, 1996; Garg et al., 1999; Petit et al., 2008). Ghanem et al. (2013) detected M. bovigenitalium in 31 of 418 uterine swabs and concluded that M. bovigenitalium infection in the uterus might be associated with recent dystocia and with cytologic endometritis in postpartum dairy cows. M. bovigenitalium was isolated from dairy herds with vulvovaginitis and infertility though less frequently than ureaplasmas (Reid et al., 1989). In an outbreak of granulomatous vulvitis in feedlot heifers, M. bovigenitalium was isolated from affected animals along with bovine herpesvirus type 1, Moraxella bovis and Mycoplasma bovis suggesting a multifactorial aetiology (Gilbert and Oettlé, 1990). More recently Lysnyansky et al. (2009) identified M. bovigenitalium and Mycoplasma canadense from outbreaks of granulopapular vulvovaginitis in dairy cattle in Israel.

M. bovigenitalium, like M. bovis and M. californicum, is commonly isolated from mastitic milk and udder secretions (Jackson and Boughton, 1991; Baumgärtner, 1999). It was first isolated in the UK in 1960 then later reported in a more severe form in the USA (Davidson and Stuart, 1960; Boughton, 1979). In one outbreak M. bovigenitalium was isolated from over 50% of a large dairy herd suffering clinical mastitis (Ahmed, 1987). In a possibly unusual case M. bovigenitalium was linked to the cause of septic arthritis of the tarsus and an infection affecting the mammary gland of a 7-week old calf.  This also demonstrated the potential role of calves in the epidemiological of mycoplasma mastitis (Roy et al., 2008).

M. bovigenitalium was isolated from the respiratory tract of pneumonic calves by Laak et al. (1992) but not from healthy calves. Naglic et al. (1996) reported similar findings but also isolated M. bovigenitalium from eye swabs of the same cattle, some of which were showing conjunctivitis. Chima et al. (1995) isolated M. bovigenitalium from ewes with vaginal discharge and swollen vulvas. Reports of the biochemically and immunologically similar M. ovine/caprine serogroup 11 from identical clinical conditions (Poumarat et al., 1992; Nicholas et al., 1999; Wessels et al., 2001) suggests a very close relationship between this mycoplasma and M. bovigenitalium which has since been shown to be the same species (Nicholas et al., 2008).

M. bovigenitalium has been isolated from the joints of arthritic cattle but it is unlikely to be a primary cause (Mazzolini et al., 1993).

M. bovigenitalium and M. canis were isolated from dogs with and without reproductive disorders suggesting they played little role in disease (Zöldág et al., 1993).

Impact: Economic

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It is not possible to estimate the economic costs of M. bovigenitalium as infections are usually multifactorial or under-reported.

Zoonoses and Food Safety

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There are no zoonotic or food safety implications of M. bovigenitalium infections.

Disease Treatment

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For reproductive disorders, only two antibiotics, nourseothricin and lincospectin, of seven tested were effective in eliminating M. bovigenitalium and other mycoplasmas without adversely affecting the spermatozoa (Pfützner, 1989). An assessment of some photosensitive agents (haematopophyrin, a derivative of this and thiopronine) to disinfect bovine semen spiked with various microbial agents including M. bovigenitalium showed little effectiveness for mycoplasma at concentrations harmless to the sperm (Eaglesome et al., 1994). Kawai et al. (2013) carried out minimum inhibition concentrations on M. bovigenitalium isolates from mastitis cases in Japan and found the isolates to be sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and tylosin, but not to kanamycin.

Prevention and Control

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With the exception of the reproductive disorders, there is a weak association between M. bovigenitalium and disease including respiratory, arthritic and mastitic conditions. The only feasible and practical means of control should be directed at ensuring mycoplasma-free spermatozoa are used for artificial insemination. Batches of frozen sperm should be tested for contamination by mycoplasmas using cultural techniques and, ideally, PCR. Testing the preputial washings of individual bulls may also be effective although it may be difficult to find mycoplasma-free samples (Ball, 1990).

To prevent the introduction of mastitis, purchase of cows should be restricted to herds free of mastitis. Testing of bulk milk tanks should also be undertaken from all herds of origin prior to purchase. Once infection is detected in a herd, infected cows should be segregated from non-infected animals and culling encouraged, as antibiotic treatment is rarely effective for mycoplasma infections.

References

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Ahmed AA, 1987. Mycoplasma species isolated from mastitic dairy herd. Agricultural Research Review, 65(5):945-950; 20 ref.

Ak K; Ak S; özgür Y; Rahimi H; Ileri IK; Ilgaz A, 1993. Effects of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium on bovine spermatozoan characteristics. Pendik Veteriner Mikrobiyoloji Dergisi, 24(2):149-156; 19 ref.

Ashwani Kumar; Garg DN, 1996. Detection of serum antibodies to M. bovis [Mycoplasma bovis] and M. bovigenitalium in mastitic cows and buffaloes by ELISA, IHA [indirect haemagglutination test] and IGIPT [agar-gel-immunoprecipitation test]. Indian Veterinary Journal, 73(6):603-606; 9 ref.

Ball HJ, 1990. Use of bovine sheath washings for screening for mycoplasmas. Veterinary Record, 127(1):16-17; 11 ref.

Baumgärtner B, 1999. Diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis caused by Mycoplasma spp. in the western region of Brandenburg - a retrospective study. Praktische Tierarzt, 80(10):894,896-898; 18 ref.

Bielanski A; Devenish J; Phipps-Todd B, 2000. Effect of Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium in semen on fertilization and association with in vitro produced morula and blastocyst stage embryos. Theriogenology, 53(6):1213-1223; 21 ref.

Blom E; Friis NF; Erno H, 1983. Mycoplasmas: demonstration in semen and preputial washings from bulls. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavia, 24:238-240.

Boonyayatra S; Fox LK; Besser TE; Sawant A; Gay JM; Raviv Z, 2012. A PCR assay and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism combination identifying the 3 primary Mycoplasma species causing mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science, 95(1):196-205. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022030211006904

Boughton E, 1979. Mycoplasma bovis mastitis. Veterinary Bulletin, 49(6):377-387.

Chima JC; Ojo MO; Molokwu JU; Okewole PA, 1995. Characterization of mycoplasmas isolated from genital tract infections of sheep in Nigeria. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des épizooties, 14(3):865-871; 22 ref.

Cole BC; Ward JR; Golightly-Rowland L, 1968. Hemolysis and peroxide activity of mycoplasma species. Journal of Bacteriology, 95:2022-2033.

Davidson I; Stuart P, 1960. Isolation of a mycoplasma-like organism from an outbreak of bovine mastitis. Veterinary record, 72:766.

Eaglesome MD; Bielanski A; Hare WCD; Ruhnke HL, 1994. Studies on inactivation of pathogenic microrganisms in culture media and in bovine semen by photosensitive agents. Veterinary Microbiology, 38(3):277-284; 16 ref.

Eder-Rohm KH, 1996. Presence of mycoplasmas in ejaculates from bulls in Austria. Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift, 83(7):221; [Abstraction of Dissertation, Veterinary Medical University, Vienna, Austria.].

El-Shabiny LM; El-Makarem MA, 1994. Rapid diagnosis of Mycoplasma infection in buffaloes using immunobinding assay. Veterinary Medical Journal Giza, 42(2):47-49; 10 ref.

Freundt EA, 1955. The classification of the pleuropneumonia-like group of organisms (Borrelomycetales). International Bulletin of Bacteriological Nomenclature and Taxonomy, 5:67-78.

Garg DN; Kapoor PK; Singh Y, 1999. Detection of mycoplasmal antibodies in bovines with reproductive disorders. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 20(1):32-35; 12 ref.

Ghanem ME; Higuchi H; Tezuka E; Ito H; Devkota B; Izaike Y; Osawa T, 2013. Mycoplasma infection in the uterus of early postpartum dairy cows and its relation to dystocia and endometritis. Theriogenology, 79(1):180-185. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0093691X

Gilbert RO; Oettlé EE, 1990. An outbreak of granulomatous vulvitis in feedlot heifers. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 61(1):41-43; 14 ref.

Gourlay RN; Howard CJ; Thomas LH; Wyld SG, 1979. Pathogenicity of some mycoplasmas and acholeplasma species in the lungs of gnotobiotic calves. Research in Veterinary Science, 27:233-237.

Herrmann R, 1992. Genome structure and organization. In: Maniloff J ed. Mycoplasmas: molecular biology and pathogenesis. Washington DC, USA: American Society of Microbiology, 157-168.

Jackson G; Boughton E, 1991. A mild outbreak of bovine mastitis associated with Mycoplasma bovigenitalium.. Veterinary Record, 129(20):444-446; 20 ref.

Jasper DE, 1981. Bovine mycoplasma mastitis. Advances in Veterinary Science, 25:121-159.

Jurmonova KK; Wesnik Z; Cerna J; Mazurova J, 1983. Demonstration and role of mycoplasma and ureaplasma in bull semen and the control of mycoplasma infections in bulls. Arch. Exp. Veteraermed., 37:421-428.

Justice-Allen A; Trujillo J; Goodell G; Wilson D, 2011. Detection of multiple Mycoplasma species in bulk tank milk samples using real-time PCR and conventional culture and comparison of test sensitivities. Journal of Dairy Science, 94(7):3411-3419. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022030211003341

Kawai K; Higuchi H; Iwano H; Iwakuma A; Onda K; Sato R; Hayashi T; Nagahata H; Oshida T, 2013. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycoplasma isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan. Animal Science Journal, online 21 November 2013, doi:10.1111/asj.12144

Kobayashi H; Hirose K; Worarach A; Paugtes P; Ito N; Morozumi T; Yamamoto K, 1998. In vitro amplification of the 16S rRNA genes from Mycoplasma bovirhinis, Mycoplasma alkalescens and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium by PCR. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 60(12):1299-1303; 17 ref.

Kreusel S; Bocklisch H; Pfützner H; Brys A; Leirer R; Ziegenhals U, 1989. Experimental infection of bulls with Mycoplasma bovis or M. bovigenitalium. Archiv für Experimentelle Veterinärmedizin, 43(5):705-712; 25 ref.

Kumar A; Garg DN; Mahajan SK, 1992. Experimental pathogenicity of Mollicutes of bovine udder origin in hamster tracheal ring organ culture. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 30(7):607-610; 20 ref.

Laak EAter; Noordergraaf JH; Dieltjes RPJW, 1992. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the respiratory tracts of pneumonic calves. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 39(8):553-562; 30 ref.

Langford EV, 1974. Mycoplasma species recovered from the reproductive tracts of Western Canadian cows. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine, 39:133-138.

Lysnyansky I; Brenner J; Alpert N; Benjamin A; Bernstein M; Elad D; Blum S; Friedgut O; Rotenberg D, 2009. Identification of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium and Mycoplasma canadense from outbreaks of granulopapular vulvovaginitis in dairy cattle in Israel. Veterinary Record, 165(11):319-322. http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/

Manso-Silván L; Tardy F; Baranowski E; Barré A; Blanchard A; Breton M; Couture C; Citti C; Dordet-Frisoni E; Dupuy V; Gaurivaud P; Jacob D; Lemaitre C; Nikolski M; Nouvel L-X; Poumarat F; Thébault P; Theil S; Thiaucourt F; Sirand-Pugnet P, 2013. Draft genome sequences of Mycoplasma alkalescens, Mycoplasma arginini, and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, three species with equivocal pathogenic status for cattle. Genome Announcements, 1(3):e00348-13.

Mazzolini E; Ceccato C; Agnoletti F; Friso S, 1993. Mycoplasmal arthritis in feedlot cattle. Summa, 10(3):61-63; 14 ref.

McAuliffe L; Ellis RJ; Lawes JR; Ayling RD; Nicholas RAJ, 2005. 16S rDNA PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis; a single generic test for detecting and differentiating Mycoplasma species. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 54(8):731-739.

Naglic T; Sankovic F; Madic J; Hajsig D; Seol B; Busch K, 1996. Mycoplasmas associated with bovine conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 44(1):21-24; 16 ref.

Nicholas R; Baker S, 1998. Recovery of mycoplasmas from animals. In: Mycoplasma Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 104 [ed. by Miles, R. \Nicholas, R.]. Totowa, New Jersey, USA: Humana Press, 37-43.

Nicholas RAJ; Lin YiChing; Sachse K; Hotzel H; Parham K; McAuliffe L; Miles RJ; Kelly DP; Wood AP, 2008. Proposal that the strains of the Mycoplasma ovine/caprine serogroup 11 be reclassified as Mycoplasma bovigenitalium. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 58(1):308-312. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org

Nicholas RAJ; Wessels M; Orme PK; Wood E; Sachse K, 1999. Isolation of Mycoplasma ovine/caprine serogroup 11 from infertile sheep in Britain. Veterinary Record, 145(15):434-435; 10 ref.

Panangala VS; Winter AJ; Wijesinha MS; Foote RH, 1981. Decreased motility of bull spermatozoa caused by Mycoplasma bovigenitalium. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 41:2090-2093.

Pardo PE; Mettifogo E; Müller EE; Nascimento ERdo; Buzinhani M; Yamaguti M; Freitas JCde, 1998. Aetiology of intramammary infections in primiparous cows in the postpartum period. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 18(3/4):115-118; 30 ref.

Pathak RC; Singh PP; Kappoor SG, 1993. Prevalence and pathogenicity of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium in goats. Etudes et Synthèses de l'IEMVT, No.42:381.

Petit T; Spergser J; Aurich J; Rosengarten R, 2008. Prevalence of Chlamydiaceae and Mollicutes on the genital mucosa and serological findings in dairy cattle. Veterinary Microbiology, 127(3/4):325-333. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135

Pfützner H, 1989. In vitro activity of antibiotics against mycoplasmas in bull semen processed for AI. Archiv für Experimentelle Veterinärmedizin, 43(5):725-728; 11 ref.

Pfützner H; Gareiss G; Gentsch E; Richter A, 1986. Occurrence and control of Mycoplasma californicum and M. bovigenitalium mastitis in a dairy unit. Monatshefte für Veterinärmedizin, 41(11):382-385; 18 ref.

Poumarat F; Longchambon D; Martel JL, 1992. Application of dot immunobinding on membrane filtration (MF dot) to the study of relationships within "M. mycoides cluster" and within "glucose and arginine-negative cluster" of ruminant mycoplasmas. Veterinary Microbiology, 32(3-4):375-390; 31 ref.

Poveda JB; Nicholas RAJ, 1998. Serological identification by growth and metabolism inhibition tests. In: Miles RJ, Nicholas RAJ, eds. Mycoplasma Protocols. Totowa, USA: Humana Press, 105-112.

Rebelo AR; Parker L; Cai HY, 2011. Use of high-resolution melting curve analysis to identify Mycoplasma species commonly isolated from ruminant, avian, and canine samples. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 23(5):932-936. http://vdi.sagepub.com/content/23/5/932.abstract

Reid SW; Madhill DG; Vreugdenhil AH, 1989. Ureaplasmal vulvovaginitis and infertility in eight southern Ontario dairy herds. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 30(3):255.

Roberts DH, 1968. Immunological response in cows to Mycoplasma bovigenitalium strain 1836. Journal of Hygiene (Cambridge), 66:55-593.

Ross RF, 1993. Mycoplasmas - Animal pathogens. In: Kahane I, Adoni A, eds. Rapid Diagnosis of Mycoplasmas. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 69-110.

Roy JP; Francoz D; Labrecque O, 2008. Mastitis in a 7-week old calf caused by Mycoplasma bovigenitalium. Veterinary Journal, 176(3):403-404. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10900233

Ruhnke HL, 1994. Mycoplasmas associated with bovine genital tract infections. Mycoplasmosis in animals: laboratory diagnosis., 56-62; 33 ref.

Sharma V; Dhanesar NS; Mehra-KN, 1999. Studies on the serological characterization of Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. Indian Veterinary Journal, 76(1):1-4.

Singh Y; Garg DN; Kapoor PK; Mahajan SK, 1991. Experimental pathogenicity of mollicutes from bovines with reproductive disorders in rabbits fallopian tube organ culture. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 29(8):773-777; 15 ref.

Singh Y; Garg DN; Mahajan SK; Kapoor PK, 1997. Experimental mastitogenicity of Mollicutes originated from bovines with reproductive disorders in rat mammary gland model. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 67(5):373-375; 13 ref.

Taoudi A; Kirchhoff H; Johnson DW; Choukrallah A, 1985. Prevalence of Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma species in cattle exhibiting various clinical diseases and pathological lesions in Morocco. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin, B, 32(7):534-540; 19 ref.

Thiede S; Spergser J; Rosengarten R; Jakob W; Streich WJ; Krasinska M; Frölich K, 2002. Antibodies against Mycoplasma bovigenitalium in free-living European bison (Bison bonasus) with balanoposthitis. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 38(4):760-763.

Tramuta C; Lacerenza D; Zoppi S; Goria M; Dondo A; Ferroglio E; Nebbia P; Rosati S, 2011. Development of a set of multiplex standard polymerase chain reaction assays for the identification of infectious agents from aborted bovine clinical samples. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 23(4):657-664. http://vdi.sagepub.com/content/23/4/657.abstract

Unternährer B, 1990. Bacterial contamination of freshly-collected bull semen, particularly with mycoplasmas. Investigations conducted at Swiss AI Centres. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 132(1):36; [Summary of Dissertation, Veterinary Faculty of Bern University.].

Varsha Sharma; Dhanesar NS; Mehra KN, 1996. Pathogenicity of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium from buffaloes with reproductive disorders in buffalo oviduct organ culture. Indian Veterinary Journal, 73(11):1109-1112; 10 ref.

Wessels M; Aldington JD; Nicholas RAJ, 2001. Mycoplasma serogroup 11 associated infertility. Proceedings of the Sheep Veterinary Society, 24:201-205.

Zöldág L; Stipkovits L; Thuróczy J; Balogh L, 1993. Isolation of mycoplasmas from the genitalia of healthy dogs and those with reproductive disorders. Magyar állatorvosok Lapja, 48(6):356-359; 17 ref.

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