Mycoplasma bovigenitalium infections
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Mycoplasma bovigenitalium infections
International Common Names
- English: chromic seminal vesiculitis; infertility; Mycoplasma bovigenitalium mastitis; vulvovaginitis
Pathogen/sTop of page Mycoplasma bovigenitalium
OverviewTop of page
Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, first characterized by Freundt (1955), is mostly found in the reproductive tract of cattle and buffaloes, but has also been isolated from pneumonic, arthritic and mastitic cattle and aborted foetuses (Ruhnke, 1994). There have been isolations of this mycoplasma, previously unclassified and known as mycoplasma ovine/caprine serogroup 11, but shown to be M. bovigenitalium (Nicholas et al., 2008), which causes similar reproductive problems in small ruminants (Wessels et al., 2001). Although experimental infections show it is capable of inducing pneumonic lesions in gnotobiotic calves (Gourlay et al., 1979), evidence is still lacking that it is a major pathogen and many of its reported pathogenic properties may be the result of undetected ureaplasmas. Phylogenetically, M. bovigenitalium belongs to the M. fermentans group based on 16S ribosomal gene sequence analysis, showing a very close similarity to M. californicum. Its genome is 862,247 base pairs, coding for 677 genes and it has a G+C content of 28.96% (Manso-Silván et al., 2013).
Host AnimalsTop of page
|Animal name||Context||Life stage||System|
|Bison bonasus||Wild host|
|Bos indicus (zebu)||Domesticated host||Cattle & Buffaloes: All Stages|
|Bos taurus (cattle)||Domesticated host||Cattle & Buffaloes: All Stages|
|Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)||Domesticated host||Cattle & Buffaloes: Heifer|Cattle & Buffaloes/Cow|Cattle & Buffaloes/Steer|Cattle & Buffaloes/Bull|Cattle & Buffaloes/Ox|
|Canis familiaris (dogs)||Domesticated host||Other: All Stages|
|Capra hircus (goats)||Domesticated host||Sheep & Goats: Mature female|Sheep & Goats/Breeding male|
|Ovis aries (sheep)||Domesticated host||Sheep & Goats: Mature female|Sheep & Goats/Breeding male|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Systems AffectedTop of page mammary gland diseases of large ruminants
mammary gland diseases of small ruminants
reproductive diseases of large ruminants
reproductive diseases of small ruminants
respiratory diseases of large ruminants
respiratory diseases of small ruminants
DistributionTop of page
Mycoplasma bovigenitalium has been found worldwide. It has been reported from the following countries: UK, USA, Egypt, India, Germany, Austria, Croatia, Brazil, Denmark, Nigeria, Italy Japan, Turkey, Holland, Switzerland, South Africa, France, Canada and Morocco.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Morocco||Present||Taoudi et al. (1985)|
|Nigeria||Present||Chima et al. (1995)|
|South Africa||Present||Gilbert and Oettlé (1990)|
|India||Present||Kumar et al. (1992)|
|Japan||Present||Kobayashi et al. (1998)|
|Turkey||Present||Ak et al. (1993)|
|Croatia||Present||Naglić et al. (1996)|
|Czechoslovakia||Present||Jurmonova et al. (1983)|
|Denmark||Present||Blom et al. (1983)|
|France||Present||Poumarat et al. (1992)|
|Germany||Present||Pfützner et al. (1986)|
|Hungary||Present||Zöldág et al. (1993)|
|Italy||Present||Mazzolini et al. (1993)|
|Netherlands||Present||Laak et al. (1992)|
|Poland||Present||Thiede et al. (2002)|
|United Kingdom||Present||Davidson and Stuart (1960)|
|United States||Present||Panangala et al. (1981)|
|Brazil||Present||Pardo et al. (1998)|
PathologyTop of page
Mastitic lesions caused by M. bovigenitalium are of a purulent character early on, followed by more prominence of the interstitial tissue. Affected seminal vesicles are enlarged and when sectioned, brownish with decreased secretions (Ross, 1993). Respiratory disease associated with M. bovigenitalium consists of cranioventral consolidation of the lungs although it is not possible to verify whether this is the result of infection with this mycoplasma; more likely tissue damage is caused by bacteria or other mycoplasmas like Mycoplasma bovis. Experimental infection of gnotobiotic calves with M. bovigenitalium produced a subclinical cuffing type pneumonia (Gourlay et al., 1979)
Lesions due to M. bovigenitalium were seen in experimental models of the buffalo oviduct (Varsha et al., 1996), hamster tracheal (Kumar et al., 1992) and rabbit fallopian tube organ cultures (Singh et al., 1991) suggesting a direct pathogenic role for this mycoplasma.
DiagnosisTop of page
Clinical signs are not characteristic for M. bovigenitalium so laboratory diagnosis is necessary for diagnosis. The mycoplasma grows well in a variety of media producing ‘centred’ colonies. In an appropriate medium, such as Eaton’s (Nicholas and Baker, 1998) M. bovigenitalium produces films and spots and gives an orange colour to the broth. Growth inhibition, film inhibition, fluorescent antibody or metabolic inhibitions tests can be used to identify the mycoplasma using hyper-immune rabbit serum (Poveda and Nicholas, 1998). Immunobinding assays were described for M. bovigenitalium which had similar sensitivities and specificities to the culture method but were simpler and more rapid (Poumarat et al., 1992; El-Shabiny and El-Makerem, 1994).
A specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed for M. bovigenitalium based on the 16S ribosomal gene which detects 103 and 2x103 colony forming units of the mycoplasma in pure culture and in spiked clinical material respectively (Kobayashi et al., 1998). A PCR method using the 16S rDNA gene followed by the use of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis has been able to detect and identify the majority of Mycoplasma species including M. bovigenitalium (McAuliffe et al., 2005). Other PCR methods, including multiplex PCR’s (Tramuta et al., 2011), real-time assays (Boonyayatra et al., 2012; Justice-Allen et al., 2011) and some real-time PCR’s combined with high resolution melting curve analysis (Rebelo et al., 2011) have been developed.
Serological tests are not widely available for M. bovigenitalium although agar gel precipitin tests, indirect haemagglutination assays, ELISAs and Western blotting have all been described (Ashwani and Garg, 1996; Garg et al., 1999; Petit et al., 2008).
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain mammary gland, udder||Cattle & Buffaloes:Heifer,Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow||Sign|
|Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, seminal vesicles||Cattle & Buffaloes:Bull,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male||Sign|
|Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, vulva, vagina||Cattle & Buffaloes:Heifer,Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow,Cattle & Buffaloes:Steer||Sign|
|Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production||Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow||Sign|
|Reproductive Signs / Edema of mammary gland, udder||Cattle & Buffaloes:Heifer,Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow||Sign|
|Reproductive Signs / Female infertility, repeat breeder||Sheep & Goats:Gimmer,Sheep & Goats:Mature female||Sign|
|Reproductive Signs / Firm mammary gland, hard udder||Cattle & Buffaloes:Heifer,Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow||Sign|
|Reproductive Signs / Mastitis, abnormal milk||Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow||Sign|
|Reproductive Signs / Purulent discharge, vulvar, vaginal||Cattle & Buffaloes:Heifer,Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow,Sheep & Goats:Mature female||Sign|
|Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin edema||Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages||Sign|
Disease CourseTop of page
Mastitis was produced in all cows experimentally infected via the udder with M. bovigenitalium; interestingly one cow also developed arthritis although Bacillus cereus was also isolated (Roberts, 1968). The mycoplasma persisted in the udder for at least 18 weeks. Only a small number of the bulls experimentally infected with M. bovigenitalium via the prepuce showed mild inflammatory lesions of the genital tract although mycoplasmas were recovered at various times from most animals (Kreusel et al., 1989). Experimental infections of the ovine mammary gland with M. bovigenitalium resulted in pathogenic effects including high milk cell counts and mycoplasma excretion leading in some cases to subclinical infections (Ball, 1990). Gourlay et al. (1979) showed that, when given intratracheally to gnotobiotic calves, M. bovigenitalium colonized the lungs and induced pneumonic lesions, producing microscopic cuffing lesions.
EpidemiologyTop of page
M. bovigenitalium is commonly found in semen samples or sheath washings from cattle, often along with Acholeplasma laidlawii, ureaplasmas and Mycoplasma bovis (Jasper, 1981; Ball, 1990; Eder-Rohm, 1996). It has been associated with occasional cases of epidymitis, orchitis, urethritis and seminal vesiculitis leading to pain on ejaculation or following palpation and may impair spermatozoa motility (Ross 1993; Ruhnke 1994). Thiede et al. (2002) detected antibodies to M. bovigenitalum in Polish free-living European Bison that had balanoposthitis. Experimental insemination infections with spiked semen have shown that it can be isolated easily from washed embryos where it forms a close association with the surface of zona pellucida, intact embryos and sperm cells (Bielanski et al., 2000). Furthermore officially recommended antibiotics appear to be ineffective in eliminating this mycoplasma from embryos.
Antibodies to M. bovigenitalium have been detected more frequently in cattle with reproductive disorders than in healthy cattle (Ashwani and Garg, 1996; Garg et al., 1999; Petit et al., 2008). Ghanem et al. (2013) detected M. bovigenitalium in 31 of 418 uterine swabs and concluded that M. bovigenitalium infection in the uterus might be associated with recent dystocia and with cytologic endometritis in postpartum dairy cows. M. bovigenitalium was isolated from dairy herds with vulvovaginitis and infertility though less frequently than ureaplasmas (Reid et al., 1989). In an outbreak of granulomatous vulvitis in feedlot heifers, M. bovigenitalium was isolated from affected animals along with bovine herpesvirus type 1, Moraxella bovis and Mycoplasma bovis suggesting a multifactorial aetiology (Gilbert and Oettlé, 1990). More recently Lysnyansky et al. (2009) identified M. bovigenitalium and Mycoplasma canadense from outbreaks of granulopapular vulvovaginitis in dairy cattle in Israel.
M. bovigenitalium, like M. bovis and M. californicum, is commonly isolated from mastitic milk and udder secretions (Jackson and Boughton, 1991; Baumgärtner, 1999). It was first isolated in the UK in 1960 then later reported in a more severe form in the USA (Davidson and Stuart, 1960; Boughton, 1979). In one outbreak M. bovigenitalium was isolated from over 50% of a large dairy herd suffering clinical mastitis (Ahmed, 1987). In a possibly unusual case M. bovigenitalium was linked to the cause of septic arthritis of the tarsus and an infection affecting the mammary gland of a 7-week old calf. This also demonstrated the potential role of calves in the epidemiological of mycoplasma mastitis (Roy et al., 2008).
M. bovigenitalium was isolated from the respiratory tract of pneumonic calves by Laak et al. (1992) but not from healthy calves. Naglic et al. (1996) reported similar findings but also isolated M. bovigenitalium from eye swabs of the same cattle, some of which were showing conjunctivitis. Chima et al. (1995) isolated M. bovigenitalium from ewes with vaginal discharge and swollen vulvas. Reports of the biochemically and immunologically similar M. ovine/caprine serogroup 11 from identical clinical conditions (Poumarat et al., 1992; Nicholas et al., 1999; Wessels et al., 2001) suggests a very close relationship between this mycoplasma and M. bovigenitalium which has since been shown to be the same species (Nicholas et al., 2008).
M. bovigenitalium has been isolated from the joints of arthritic cattle but it is unlikely to be a primary cause (Mazzolini et al., 1993).
M. bovigenitalium and M. canis were isolated from dogs with and without reproductive disorders suggesting they played little role in disease (Zöldág et al., 1993).
Impact: EconomicTop of page
It is not possible to estimate the economic costs of M. bovigenitalium as infections are usually multifactorial or under-reported.
Zoonoses and Food SafetyTop of page
There are no zoonotic or food safety implications of M. bovigenitalium infections.
Disease TreatmentTop of page
For reproductive disorders, only two antibiotics, nourseothricin and lincospectin, of seven tested were effective in eliminating M. bovigenitalium and other mycoplasmas without adversely affecting the spermatozoa (Pfützner, 1989). An assessment of some photosensitive agents (haematopophyrin, a derivative of this and thiopronine) to disinfect bovine semen spiked with various microbial agents including M. bovigenitalium showed little effectiveness for mycoplasma at concentrations harmless to the sperm (Eaglesome et al., 1994). Kawai et al. (2013) carried out minimum inhibition concentrations on M. bovigenitalium isolates from mastitis cases in Japan and found the isolates to be sensitive to pirlimycin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and tylosin, but not to kanamycin.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
With the exception of the reproductive disorders, there is a weak association between M. bovigenitalium and disease including respiratory, arthritic and mastitic conditions. The only feasible and practical means of control should be directed at ensuring mycoplasma-free spermatozoa are used for artificial insemination. Batches of frozen sperm should be tested for contamination by mycoplasmas using cultural techniques and, ideally, PCR. Testing the preputial washings of individual bulls may also be effective although it may be difficult to find mycoplasma-free samples (Ball, 1990).
To prevent the introduction of mastitis, purchase of cows should be restricted to herds free of mastitis. Testing of bulk milk tanks should also be undertaken from all herds of origin prior to purchase. Once infection is detected in a herd, infected cows should be segregated from non-infected animals and culling encouraged, as antibiotic treatment is rarely effective for mycoplasma infections.
ReferencesTop of page
Ahmed AA, 1987. Mycoplasma species isolated from mastitic dairy herd. Agricultural Research Review, 65(5):945-950; 20 ref.
Ak K; Ak S; özgür Y; Rahimi H; Ileri IK; Ilgaz A, 1993. Effects of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium on bovine spermatozoan characteristics. Pendik Veteriner Mikrobiyoloji Dergisi, 24(2):149-156; 19 ref.
Ashwani Kumar; Garg DN, 1996. Detection of serum antibodies to M. bovis [Mycoplasma bovis] and M. bovigenitalium in mastitic cows and buffaloes by ELISA, IHA [indirect haemagglutination test] and IGIPT [agar-gel-immunoprecipitation test]. Indian Veterinary Journal, 73(6):603-606; 9 ref.
Bielanski A; Devenish J; Phipps-Todd B, 2000. Effect of Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium in semen on fertilization and association with in vitro produced morula and blastocyst stage embryos. Theriogenology, 53(6):1213-1223; 21 ref.
Blom E; Friis NF; Erno H, 1983. Mycoplasmas: demonstration in semen and preputial washings from bulls. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavia, 24:238-240.
Boonyayatra S; Fox LK; Besser TE; Sawant A; Gay JM; Raviv Z, 2012. A PCR assay and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism combination identifying the 3 primary Mycoplasma species causing mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science, 95(1):196-205. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022030211006904
Boughton E, 1979. Mycoplasma bovis mastitis. Veterinary Bulletin, 49(6):377-387.
Chima JC; Ojo MO; Molokwu JU; Okewole PA, 1995. Characterization of mycoplasmas isolated from genital tract infections of sheep in Nigeria. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des épizooties, 14(3):865-871; 22 ref.
Cole BC; Ward JR; Golightly-Rowland L, 1968. Hemolysis and peroxide activity of mycoplasma species. Journal of Bacteriology, 95:2022-2033.
Davidson I; Stuart P, 1960. Isolation of a mycoplasma-like organism from an outbreak of bovine mastitis. Veterinary record, 72:766.
Eaglesome MD; Bielanski A; Hare WCD; Ruhnke HL, 1994. Studies on inactivation of pathogenic microrganisms in culture media and in bovine semen by photosensitive agents. Veterinary Microbiology, 38(3):277-284; 16 ref.
Eder-Rohm KH, 1996. Presence of mycoplasmas in ejaculates from bulls in Austria. Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift, 83(7):221; [Abstraction of Dissertation, Veterinary Medical University, Vienna, Austria.].
Freundt EA, 1955. The classification of the pleuropneumonia-like group of organisms (Borrelomycetales). International Bulletin of Bacteriological Nomenclature and Taxonomy, 5:67-78.
Garg DN; Kapoor PK; Singh Y, 1999. Detection of mycoplasmal antibodies in bovines with reproductive disorders. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 20(1):32-35; 12 ref.
Ghanem ME; Higuchi H; Tezuka E; Ito H; Devkota B; Izaike Y; Osawa T, 2013. Mycoplasma infection in the uterus of early postpartum dairy cows and its relation to dystocia and endometritis. Theriogenology, 79(1):180-185. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0093691X
Gourlay RN; Howard CJ; Thomas LH; Wyld SG, 1979. Pathogenicity of some mycoplasmas and acholeplasma species in the lungs of gnotobiotic calves. Research in Veterinary Science, 27:233-237.
Herrmann R, 1992. Genome structure and organization. In: Maniloff J ed. Mycoplasmas: molecular biology and pathogenesis. Washington DC, USA: American Society of Microbiology, 157-168.
Jasper DE, 1981. Bovine mycoplasma mastitis. Advances in Veterinary Science, 25:121-159.
Jurmonova KK; Wesnik Z; Cerna J; Mazurova J, 1983. Demonstration and role of mycoplasma and ureaplasma in bull semen and the control of mycoplasma infections in bulls. Arch. Exp. Veteraermed., 37:421-428.
Justice-Allen A; Trujillo J; Goodell G; Wilson D, 2011. Detection of multiple Mycoplasma species in bulk tank milk samples using real-time PCR and conventional culture and comparison of test sensitivities. Journal of Dairy Science, 94(7):3411-3419. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022030211003341
Kawai K; Higuchi H; Iwano H; Iwakuma A; Onda K; Sato R; Hayashi T; Nagahata H; Oshida T, 2013. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Mycoplasma isolated from bovine mastitis in Japan. Animal Science Journal, online 21 November 2013, doi:10.1111/asj.12144
Kobayashi H; Hirose K; Worarach A; Paugtes P; Ito N; Morozumi T; Yamamoto K, 1998. In vitro amplification of the 16S rRNA genes from Mycoplasma bovirhinis, Mycoplasma alkalescens and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium by PCR. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 60(12):1299-1303; 17 ref.
Kreusel S; Bocklisch H; Pfützner H; Brys A; Leirer R; Ziegenhals U, 1989. Experimental infection of bulls with Mycoplasma bovis or M. bovigenitalium. Archiv für Experimentelle Veterinärmedizin, 43(5):705-712; 25 ref.
Kumar A; Garg DN; Mahajan SK, 1992. Experimental pathogenicity of Mollicutes of bovine udder origin in hamster tracheal ring organ culture. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 30(7):607-610; 20 ref.
Langford EV, 1974. Mycoplasma species recovered from the reproductive tracts of Western Canadian cows. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine, 39:133-138.
Lysnyansky I; Brenner J; Alpert N; Benjamin A; Bernstein M; Elad D; Blum S; Friedgut O; Rotenberg D, 2009. Identification of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium and Mycoplasma canadense from outbreaks of granulopapular vulvovaginitis in dairy cattle in Israel. Veterinary Record, 165(11):319-322. http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/
Manso-Silván L; Tardy F; Baranowski E; Barré A; Blanchard A; Breton M; Couture C; Citti C; Dordet-Frisoni E; Dupuy V; Gaurivaud P; Jacob D; Lemaitre C; Nikolski M; Nouvel L-X; Poumarat F; Thébault P; Theil S; Thiaucourt F; Sirand-Pugnet P, 2013. Draft genome sequences of Mycoplasma alkalescens, Mycoplasma arginini, and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, three species with equivocal pathogenic status for cattle. Genome Announcements, 1(3):e00348-13.
Mazzolini E; Ceccato C; Agnoletti F; Friso S, 1993. Mycoplasmal arthritis in feedlot cattle. Summa, 10(3):61-63; 14 ref.
McAuliffe L; Ellis RJ; Lawes JR; Ayling RD; Nicholas RAJ, 2005. 16S rDNA PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis; a single generic test for detecting and differentiating Mycoplasma species. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 54(8):731-739.
Nicholas R; Baker S, 1998. Recovery of mycoplasmas from animals. In: Mycoplasma Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 104 [ed. by Miles, R. \Nicholas, R.]. Totowa, New Jersey, USA: Humana Press, 37-43.
Nicholas RAJ; Lin YiChing; Sachse K; Hotzel H; Parham K; McAuliffe L; Miles RJ; Kelly DP; Wood AP, 2008. Proposal that the strains of the Mycoplasma ovine/caprine serogroup 11 be reclassified as Mycoplasma bovigenitalium. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 58(1):308-312. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org
Panangala VS; Winter AJ; Wijesinha MS; Foote RH, 1981. Decreased motility of bull spermatozoa caused by Mycoplasma bovigenitalium. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 41:2090-2093.
Pardo PE; Mettifogo E; Müller EE; Nascimento ERdo; Buzinhani M; Yamaguti M; Freitas JCde, 1998. Aetiology of intramammary infections in primiparous cows in the postpartum period. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 18(3/4):115-118; 30 ref.
Pathak RC; Singh PP; Kappoor SG, 1993. Prevalence and pathogenicity of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium in goats. Etudes et Synthèses de l'IEMVT, No.42:381.
Petit T; Spergser J; Aurich J; Rosengarten R, 2008. Prevalence of Chlamydiaceae and Mollicutes on the genital mucosa and serological findings in dairy cattle. Veterinary Microbiology, 127(3/4):325-333. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135
Pfützner H; Gareiss G; Gentsch E; Richter A, 1986. Occurrence and control of Mycoplasma californicum and M. bovigenitalium mastitis in a dairy unit. Monatshefte für Veterinärmedizin, 41(11):382-385; 18 ref.
Poumarat F; Longchambon D; Martel JL, 1992. Application of dot immunobinding on membrane filtration (MF dot) to the study of relationships within "M. mycoides cluster" and within "glucose and arginine-negative cluster" of ruminant mycoplasmas. Veterinary Microbiology, 32(3-4):375-390; 31 ref.
Poveda JB; Nicholas RAJ, 1998. Serological identification by growth and metabolism inhibition tests. In: Miles RJ, Nicholas RAJ, eds. Mycoplasma Protocols. Totowa, USA: Humana Press, 105-112.
Rebelo AR; Parker L; Cai HY, 2011. Use of high-resolution melting curve analysis to identify Mycoplasma species commonly isolated from ruminant, avian, and canine samples. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 23(5):932-936. http://vdi.sagepub.com/content/23/5/932.abstract
Roberts DH, 1968. Immunological response in cows to Mycoplasma bovigenitalium strain 1836. Journal of Hygiene (Cambridge), 66:55-593.
Ross RF, 1993. Mycoplasmas - Animal pathogens. In: Kahane I, Adoni A, eds. Rapid Diagnosis of Mycoplasmas. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 69-110.
Ruhnke HL, 1994. Mycoplasmas associated with bovine genital tract infections. Mycoplasmosis in animals: laboratory diagnosis., 56-62; 33 ref.
Sharma V; Dhanesar NS; Mehra-KN, 1999. Studies on the serological characterization of Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. Indian Veterinary Journal, 76(1):1-4.
Singh Y; Garg DN; Kapoor PK; Mahajan SK, 1991. Experimental pathogenicity of mollicutes from bovines with reproductive disorders in rabbits fallopian tube organ culture. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 29(8):773-777; 15 ref.
Singh Y; Garg DN; Mahajan SK; Kapoor PK, 1997. Experimental mastitogenicity of Mollicutes originated from bovines with reproductive disorders in rat mammary gland model. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 67(5):373-375; 13 ref.
Taoudi A; Kirchhoff H; Johnson DW; Choukrallah A, 1985. Prevalence of Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma species in cattle exhibiting various clinical diseases and pathological lesions in Morocco. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin, B, 32(7):534-540; 19 ref.
Thiede S; Spergser J; Rosengarten R; Jakob W; Streich WJ; Krasinska M; Frölich K, 2002. Antibodies against Mycoplasma bovigenitalium in free-living European bison (Bison bonasus) with balanoposthitis. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 38(4):760-763.
Tramuta C; Lacerenza D; Zoppi S; Goria M; Dondo A; Ferroglio E; Nebbia P; Rosati S, 2011. Development of a set of multiplex standard polymerase chain reaction assays for the identification of infectious agents from aborted bovine clinical samples. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 23(4):657-664. http://vdi.sagepub.com/content/23/4/657.abstract
Unternährer B, 1990. Bacterial contamination of freshly-collected bull semen, particularly with mycoplasmas. Investigations conducted at Swiss AI Centres. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 132(1):36; [Summary of Dissertation, Veterinary Faculty of Bern University.].
Varsha Sharma; Dhanesar NS; Mehra KN, 1996. Pathogenicity of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium from buffaloes with reproductive disorders in buffalo oviduct organ culture. Indian Veterinary Journal, 73(11):1109-1112; 10 ref.
Wessels M; Aldington JD; Nicholas RAJ, 2001. Mycoplasma serogroup 11 associated infertility. Proceedings of the Sheep Veterinary Society, 24:201-205.
Zöldág L; Stipkovits L; Thuróczy J; Balogh L, 1993. Isolation of mycoplasmas from the genitalia of healthy dogs and those with reproductive disorders. Magyar állatorvosok Lapja, 48(6):356-359; 17 ref.
Ak K, Ak S, Özgür Y, Rahimi H, Ileri I K, Ilgaz A, 1993. Effects of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium on bovine spermatozoan characteristics. (Boghacek˜alarda Mycoplasma bovigenitalium'um spermatolojik özelliklere etkisi.). Pendik Veteriner Mikrobiyoloji Dergisi. 24 (2), 149-156.
Chima J C, Ojo M O, Molokwu J U, Okewole P A, 1995. Characterization of mycoplasmas isolated from genital tract infections of sheep in Nigeria. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Épizooties. 14 (3), 865-871.
Davidson I, Stuart P, 1960. Isolation of a mycoplasma-like organism from an outbreak of bovine mastitis. In: Veterinary record, 72 766.
Jurmonova KK, Wesnik Z, Cerna J, Mazurova J, 1983. Demonstration and role of mycoplasma and ureaplasma in bull semen and the control of mycoplasma infections in bulls. In: Arch. Exp. Veteraermed, 37 421-428.
Kobayashi H, Hirose K, Worarach A, Paugtes P, Ito N, Morozumi T, Yamamoto K, 1998. In vitro amplification of the 16S rRNA genes from Mycoplasma bovirhinis, Mycoplasma alkalescens and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium by PCR. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 60 (12), 1299-1303.
Laak E A ter, Noordergraaf J H, Dieltjes R P J W, 1992. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the respiratory tracts of pneumonic calves. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B. 39 (8), 553-562. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0450.1992.tb01205.x
Langford EV, 1974. Mycoplasma species recovered from the reproductive tracts of Western Canadian cows. In: Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine, 39 133-138.
Pardo P E, Mettifogo E, Müller E E, Nascimento E R do, Buzinhani M, Yamaguti M, Freitas J C de, 1998. Aetiology of intramammary infections in primiparous cows in the postpartum period. (Etiologia das infecções intramamárias em vacas primíparas no período pós-parto.). Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 18 (3/4), 115-118.
Pfützner H, Gareiss G, Gentsch E, Richter A, 1986. Occurrence and control of Mycoplasma californicum and M. bovigenitalium mastitis in a dairy unit. (Vorkommen und Bekämpfung von Mycoplasma-californicum- und Mycoplasma-bovigenitalium-Mastitiden in einer Milchproduktionsanlage.). Monatshefte für Veterinärmedizin. 41 (11), 382-385.
Poumarat F, Longchambon D, Martel J L, 1992. Application of dot immunobinding on membrane filtration (MF dot) to the study of relationships within "M. mycoides cluster" and within "glucose and arginine-negative cluster" of ruminant mycoplasmas. Veterinary Microbiology. 32 (3-4), 375-390. DOI:10.1016/0378-1135(92)90159-Q
Taoudi A, Kirchhoff H, Johnson D W, Choukrallah A, 1985. Prevalence of Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma species in cattle exhibiting various clinical diseases and pathological lesions in Morocco. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin, B. 32 (7), 534-540.
Thiede S, Spergser J, Rosengarten R, Jakob W, Streich W J, Krasińska M, Frölich K, 2002. Antibodies against Mycoplasma bovigenitalium in free-living European bison (Bison bonasus) with balanoposthitis. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 38 (4), 760-763.
Unternährer B, 1990. Bacterial contamination of freshly-collected bull semen, particularly with mycoplasmas. Investigations conducted at Swiss AI Centres. (Bakterielle Kontamination des nativen Stierenspermas unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Mycoplasmatales. Untersuchungen an schweizerischen Besamungsstationen.). 36.
Zöldág L, Stipkovits L, Thuróczy J, Balogh L, 1993. Isolation of mycoplasmas from the genitalia of healthy dogs and those with reproductive disorders. (Mycoplasma-izolálás szaporodásbiológiai zavarokat mutató és egészséges kutyák nemi szerveiből.). Magyar Állatorvosok Lapja. 48 (6), 356-359.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/