Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Mycoplasma gallisepticum

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Datasheet

Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mycoplasma gallisepticum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Firmicutes
  •     Class: Mollicutes
  •       Order: Mycoplasmatales
  •         Family: Mycoplasmataceae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Mollicutes
  •             Order: Mycoplasmatales
  •                 Family: Mycoplasmataceae
  •                     Genus: Mycoplasma
  •                         Species: Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
Cabo VerdePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining
LibyaPresent
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoroccoPresent
NigeriaPresent
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TunisiaPresent
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ZambiaPresent

Asia

BahrainPresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining
BhutanPresent
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)
IndonesiaPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
JordanPresent
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)
MalaysiaPresent
-SarawakPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MyanmarPresent
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
TaiwanPresent
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)
United Arab EmiratesPresent
UzbekistanPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)
LithuaniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaltaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NetherlandsPresent
North MacedoniaPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
RussiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
SloveniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)
United KingdomPresent
-Northern IrelandPresent

North America

BarbadosPresent
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaPresent
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CubaPresent
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicPresent
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
United StatesPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)

South America

ArgentinaPresent
ChilePresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuyanaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Pathogen Characteristics

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Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a small cell wall-less bacterium that belongs to the class Mollicutes. It has a very small genome of 996,422 bp for the Rlow strain with an overall G+C content of 31 mol%. It contains 742 putative coding DNA sequences (CDSs), representing a 91% coding density (Papazisi et al., 2003). This small genome accounts for its complex nutritional requirements and its obligate parasitic mode of life with a high degree of dependence on the host animal. Mg has a flasked shaped appearance with a differentiated tip structure also known as an attachment organelle which binds to sialoglycoproteins (Glasgow and Hill, 1980). The organism has a gliding motility and always glides in the direction of the tip structure. Indikova et al. (2014) determined that cytadherence proteins GapA and CrmA are required for gliding. Loss of GapA and CrmA resulted in the loss of motility and led to a drastic change in the flask-shape of the cells. The organism has mechanisms which can be used for survival or to evade the host immune response or antibiotic treatment, this includes variable surface proteins VlhA (Browning et al., 2010) and the ability to form biofilms (Chen et al., 2013).

With the lack of a cell wall these highly pleomorphic organisms are not usually detected by standard light microscopy of gram stained cultures. Growth on suitable mycoplasma media results in typical “fried egg” like colonial morphology.

Mg has been shown to survive for up to 3 days in chicken droppings at 20°C or in egg yolk for up to six weeks at 20°C. It has been shown to be viable after two days on straw, cotton and rubber.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
GallusDomesticated host
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated host
Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)Domesticated host
Perdix perdix (grey partridge)Domesticated host; Wild host
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant)Domesticated host; Wild host

References

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Browning GF; Marenda MS; Markham PF; Noormohammadi AH; Whitear KG, 2010. Mycoplasma. In: Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals, 4th Edition [ed. by Gyles, C. L. \Prescott, J. F. \Songer, J. G. \Thoen, C. O.]. Ames, Iowa, USA: Blackwell Publishing Professional, 549-573.

Chen HongJun; Yu ShengQing; Hu MeiRong; Han XianGan; Chen DanQing; Qiu XuSheng; Ding Chan, 2013. Identification of biofilm formation by Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Veterinary Microbiology, 161(1/2):96-103. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135

Glasgow LR; Hill RL, 1980. Interaction of Mycoplasma gallisepticum with sialyl glycoproteins. Infection and Immunity, 30(2):353-361.

Indikova I; Vronka M; Szostak MP, 2014. First identification of proteins involved in motility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Veterinary Research, 45(99):(17 October 2014). http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/content/pdf/s13567-014-0099-2.pdf

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Papazisi L; Gorton TS; Kutish G; Markham PF; Browning GF; Di Kim Nguyen; Swartzell S; Madan A; Mahairas G; Geary SJ, 2003. The complete genome sequence of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain Rlow. Microbiology (Reading), 149(9):2307-2316.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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