Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Mycoplasma gallisepticum

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Datasheet

Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mycoplasma gallisepticum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Firmicutes
  •     Class: Mollicutes
  •       Order: Mycoplasmatales
  •         Family: Mycoplasmataceae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Mollicutes
  •             Order: Mycoplasmatales
  •                 Family: Mycoplasmataceae
  •                     Genus: Mycoplasma
  •                         Species: Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
MalaysiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Peninsular MalaysiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeLast reported1986OIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkLast reported1967OIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandLast reported1988OIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a small cell wall-less bacterium that belongs to the class Mollicutes. It has a very small genome of 996,422 bp for the Rlow strain with an overall G+C content of 31 mol%. It contains 742 putative coding DNA sequences (CDSs), representing a 91% coding density (Papazisi et al., 2003). This small genome accounts for its complex nutritional requirements and its obligate parasitic mode of life with a high degree of dependence on the host animal. Mg has a flasked shaped appearance with a differentiated tip structure also known as an attachment organelle which binds to sialoglycoproteins (Glasgow and Hill, 1980). The organism has a gliding motility and always glides in the direction of the tip structure. Indikova et al. (2014) determined that cytadherence proteins GapA and CrmA are required for gliding. Loss of GapA and CrmA resulted in the loss of motility and led to a drastic change in the flask-shape of the cells. The organism has mechanisms which can be used for survival or to evade the host immune response or antibiotic treatment, this includes variable surface proteins VlhA (Browning et al., 2010) and the ability to form biofilms (Chen et al., 2013).

With the lack of a cell wall these highly pleomorphic organisms are not usually detected by standard light microscopy of gram stained cultures. Growth on suitable mycoplasma media results in typical “fried egg” like colonial morphology.

Mg has been shown to survive for up to 3 days in chicken droppings at 20°C or in egg yolk for up to six weeks at 20°C. It has been shown to be viable after two days on straw, cotton and rubber.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
GallusDomesticated host
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated host
Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)Domesticated host
Perdix perdix (grey partridge)Domesticated host, Wild host
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant)Domesticated host, Wild host

References

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Browning GF; Marenda MS; Markham PF; Noormohammadi AH; Whitear KG, 2010. Mycoplasma. In: Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals, 4th Edition [ed. by Gyles, C. L. \Prescott, J. F. \Songer, J. G. \Thoen, C. O.]. Ames, Iowa, USA: Blackwell Publishing Professional, 549-573.

Chen HongJun; Yu ShengQing; Hu MeiRong; Han XianGan; Chen DanQing; Qiu XuSheng; Ding Chan, 2013. Identification of biofilm formation by Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Veterinary Microbiology, 161(1/2):96-103. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135

Glasgow LR; Hill RL, 1980. Interaction of Mycoplasma gallisepticum with sialyl glycoproteins. Infection and Immunity, 30(2):353-361.

Indikova I; Vronka M; Szostak MP, 2014. First identification of proteins involved in motility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Veterinary Research, 45(99):(17 October 2014). http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/content/pdf/s13567-014-0099-2.pdf

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Papazisi L; Gorton TS; Kutish G; Markham PF; Browning GF; Di Kim Nguyen; Swartzell S; Madan A; Mahairas G; Geary SJ, 2003. The complete genome sequence of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain Rlow. Microbiology (Reading), 149(9):2307-2316.

Distribution Maps

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