Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Mycoplasma gallisepticum

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Datasheet

Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mycoplasma gallisepticum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Firmicutes
  •     Class: Mollicutes
  •       Order: Mycoplasmatales
  •         Family: Mycoplasmataceae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Mollicutes
  •             Order: Mycoplasmatales
  •                 Family: Mycoplasmataceae
  •                     Genus: Mycoplasma
  •                         Species: Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 21 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AngolaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
BotswanaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
BurundiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Côte d'IvoireAbsentJul-Dec-2019
DjiboutiAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
GhanaPresentJan-Jun-2019
KenyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsentJan-Jun-2020
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)
MalawiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MauritiusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MayotteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MoroccoPresent
MozambiquePresentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigeriaPresentJul-Dec-2019
RéunionAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RwandaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SenegalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaPresentJul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ZambiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
ZimbabweAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BangladeshPresentJan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CambodiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ChinaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)
IndonesiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
IranAbsentJan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IsraelPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
JapanPresentJan-Jun-2020
JordanAbsentJul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MalaysiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
-SarawakPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NepalPresentJul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PakistanPresentJan-Jun-2020
PalestinePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
QatarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
South KoreaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsentJan-Jun-2020
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VietnamAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Europe

AndorraAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelgiumAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CroatiaPresent
CyprusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsentJan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandPresentJul-Dec-2020
FrancePresentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsentJan-Jun-2018
HungaryPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IrelandPresentJul-Dec-2019
ItalyAbsentJul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaltaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
MontenegroAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsPresentJul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaPresentJul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PolandAbsentJan-Jun-2019
PortugalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RomaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
RussiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
SlovakiaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
SpainPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
SwedenPresentJul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsentJul-Dec-2020
United KingdomPresentJul-Dec-2019
-Northern IrelandPresent

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosPresentJul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaPresentJul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsentJan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicPresentJan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorPresentJul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuatemalaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)
HondurasAbsentJul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MartiniquePresentJul-Dec-2019
MexicoPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint LuciaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsentJan-Jun-2018
United StatesPresentJul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsentJan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaPresentJan-Jun-2019
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaPresentJul-Dec-2019
New ZealandPresentJul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Timor-LesteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsentJan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaPresentJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaPresentJan-Jun-2019
BrazilPresentJul-Dec-2019
ChilePresentJan-Jun-2019
ColombiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
EcuadorPresentJul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuyanaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
ParaguayAbsentJul-Dec-2018
PeruPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsentJan-Jun-2019
UruguayPresentJul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaAbsentJan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a small cell wall-less bacterium that belongs to the class Mollicutes. It has a very small genome of 996,422 bp for the Rlow strain with an overall G+C content of 31 mol%. It contains 742 putative coding DNA sequences (CDSs), representing a 91% coding density (Papazisi et al., 2003). This small genome accounts for its complex nutritional requirements and its obligate parasitic mode of life with a high degree of dependence on the host animal. Mg has a flasked shaped appearance with a differentiated tip structure also known as an attachment organelle which binds to sialoglycoproteins (Glasgow and Hill, 1980). The organism has a gliding motility and always glides in the direction of the tip structure. Indikova et al. (2014) determined that cytadherence proteins GapA and CrmA are required for gliding. Loss of GapA and CrmA resulted in the loss of motility and led to a drastic change in the flask-shape of the cells. The organism has mechanisms which can be used for survival or to evade the host immune response or antibiotic treatment, this includes variable surface proteins VlhA (Browning et al., 2010) and the ability to form biofilms (Chen et al., 2013).

With the lack of a cell wall these highly pleomorphic organisms are not usually detected by standard light microscopy of gram stained cultures. Growth on suitable mycoplasma media results in typical “fried egg” like colonial morphology.

Mg has been shown to survive for up to 3 days in chicken droppings at 20°C or in egg yolk for up to six weeks at 20°C. It has been shown to be viable after two days on straw, cotton and rubber.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
GallusDomesticated host
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated host
Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)Domesticated host
Perdix perdix (grey partridge)Domesticated host; Wild host
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant)Domesticated host; Wild host

References

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Browning GF; Marenda MS; Markham PF; Noormohammadi AH; Whitear KG, 2010. Mycoplasma. In: Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals, 4th Edition [ed. by Gyles, C. L. \Prescott, J. F. \Songer, J. G. \Thoen, C. O.]. Ames, Iowa, USA: Blackwell Publishing Professional, 549-573.

Chen HongJun; Yu ShengQing; Hu MeiRong; Han XianGan; Chen DanQing; Qiu XuSheng; Ding Chan, 2013. Identification of biofilm formation by Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Veterinary Microbiology, 161(1/2):96-103. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135

Glasgow LR; Hill RL, 1980. Interaction of Mycoplasma gallisepticum with sialyl glycoproteins. Infection and Immunity, 30(2):353-361.

Indikova I; Vronka M; Szostak MP, 2014. First identification of proteins involved in motility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Veterinary Research, 45(99):(17 October 2014). http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/content/pdf/s13567-014-0099-2.pdf

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Papazisi L; Gorton TS; Kutish G; Markham PF; Browning GF; Di Kim Nguyen; Swartzell S; Madan A; Mahairas G; Geary SJ, 2003. The complete genome sequence of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain Rlow. Microbiology (Reading), 149(9):2307-2316.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Distribution Maps

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