Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Mycoplasma gallisepticum

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Datasheet

Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mycoplasma gallisepticum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Firmicutes
  •     Class: Mollicutes
  •       Order: Mycoplasmatales
  •         Family: Mycoplasmataceae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Mollicutes
  •             Order: Mycoplasmatales
  •                 Family: Mycoplasmataceae
  •                     Genus: Mycoplasma
  •                         Species: Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoirePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GhanaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
LibyaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoroccoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NigeriaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TunisiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ZambiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

BahrainPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
BhutanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IranPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IsraelPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JapanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MalaysiaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-SarawakPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MyanmarPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TaiwanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VietnamPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FrancePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MaltaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
North MacedoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PolandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
RussiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United KingdomPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-Northern IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniquePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MexicoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
French PolynesiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ChilePresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ColombiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EcuadorPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a small cell wall-less bacterium that belongs to the class Mollicutes. It has a very small genome of 996,422 bp for the Rlow strain with an overall G+C content of 31 mol%. It contains 742 putative coding DNA sequences (CDSs), representing a 91% coding density (Papazisi et al., 2003). This small genome accounts for its complex nutritional requirements and its obligate parasitic mode of life with a high degree of dependence on the host animal. Mg has a flasked shaped appearance with a differentiated tip structure also known as an attachment organelle which binds to sialoglycoproteins (Glasgow and Hill, 1980). The organism has a gliding motility and always glides in the direction of the tip structure. Indikova et al. (2014) determined that cytadherence proteins GapA and CrmA are required for gliding. Loss of GapA and CrmA resulted in the loss of motility and led to a drastic change in the flask-shape of the cells. The organism has mechanisms which can be used for survival or to evade the host immune response or antibiotic treatment, this includes variable surface proteins VlhA (Browning et al., 2010) and the ability to form biofilms (Chen et al., 2013).

With the lack of a cell wall these highly pleomorphic organisms are not usually detected by standard light microscopy of gram stained cultures. Growth on suitable mycoplasma media results in typical “fried egg” like colonial morphology.

Mg has been shown to survive for up to 3 days in chicken droppings at 20°C or in egg yolk for up to six weeks at 20°C. It has been shown to be viable after two days on straw, cotton and rubber.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
GallusDomesticated host
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated host
Meleagris gallopavo (turkey)Domesticated host
Perdix perdix (grey partridge)Domesticated host, Wild host
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant)Domesticated host, Wild host

References

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Browning GF; Marenda MS; Markham PF; Noormohammadi AH; Whitear KG, 2010. Mycoplasma. In: Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals, 4th Edition [ed. by Gyles, C. L. \Prescott, J. F. \Songer, J. G. \Thoen, C. O.]. Ames, Iowa, USA: Blackwell Publishing Professional, 549-573.

Chen HongJun; Yu ShengQing; Hu MeiRong; Han XianGan; Chen DanQing; Qiu XuSheng; Ding Chan, 2013. Identification of biofilm formation by Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Veterinary Microbiology, 161(1/2):96-103. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135

Glasgow LR; Hill RL, 1980. Interaction of Mycoplasma gallisepticum with sialyl glycoproteins. Infection and Immunity, 30(2):353-361.

Indikova I; Vronka M; Szostak MP, 2014. First identification of proteins involved in motility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Veterinary Research, 45(99):(17 October 2014). http://www.veterinaryresearch.org/content/pdf/s13567-014-0099-2.pdf

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Papazisi L; Gorton TS; Kutish G; Markham PF; Browning GF; Di Kim Nguyen; Swartzell S; Madan A; Mahairas G; Geary SJ, 2003. The complete genome sequence of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain Rlow. Microbiology (Reading), 149(9):2307-2316.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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