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Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) type

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Datasheet

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) type

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) type
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Firmicutes
  •     Class: Mollicutes
  •       Order: Mycoplasmatales
  •         Family: Mycoplasmataceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
M. m. mycoides SC colonies after 7 days of incubation on CBPP Diagnostic Media showing dark pigmentation and red crystalline deposits.
TitleCBPP Diagnostic Media
CaptionM. m. mycoides SC colonies after 7 days of incubation on CBPP Diagnostic Media showing dark pigmentation and red crystalline deposits.
CopyrightJohn B. Bashiruddin
M. m. mycoides SC colonies after 7 days of incubation on CBPP Diagnostic Media showing dark pigmentation and red crystalline deposits.
CBPP Diagnostic MediaM. m. mycoides SC colonies after 7 days of incubation on CBPP Diagnostic Media showing dark pigmentation and red crystalline deposits.John B. Bashiruddin
Single M. m. mycoides SC colony after 7 days of incubation on CBPP Diagnostic Media showing dark pigmentation and red crystalline deposits.
TitleCBPP Diagnostic Media
CaptionSingle M. m. mycoides SC colony after 7 days of incubation on CBPP Diagnostic Media showing dark pigmentation and red crystalline deposits.
CopyrightJohn B. Bashiruddin
Single M. m. mycoides SC colony after 7 days of incubation on CBPP Diagnostic Media showing dark pigmentation and red crystalline deposits.
CBPP Diagnostic MediaSingle M. m. mycoides SC colony after 7 days of incubation on CBPP Diagnostic Media showing dark pigmentation and red crystalline deposits.John B. Bashiruddin
Immunohistochemical staining of sections on CBPP-affected lung with the peroxidase-anti-peroxidase (PAP) method and rabbit hyperimmune serum against M. m. mycoides SC. Distended zone of cellular infiltration in a nectrotic area with concentrated staining, (original x20). Brown colour indicates areas of stain deposition indicative of the presence of mycoplasma antigen.
TitleHistology
CaptionImmunohistochemical staining of sections on CBPP-affected lung with the peroxidase-anti-peroxidase (PAP) method and rabbit hyperimmune serum against M. m. mycoides SC. Distended zone of cellular infiltration in a nectrotic area with concentrated staining, (original x20). Brown colour indicates areas of stain deposition indicative of the presence of mycoplasma antigen.
CopyrightJohn B. Bashiruddin
Immunohistochemical staining of sections on CBPP-affected lung with the peroxidase-anti-peroxidase (PAP) method and rabbit hyperimmune serum against M. m. mycoides SC. Distended zone of cellular infiltration in a nectrotic area with concentrated staining, (original x20). Brown colour indicates areas of stain deposition indicative of the presence of mycoplasma antigen.
HistologyImmunohistochemical staining of sections on CBPP-affected lung with the peroxidase-anti-peroxidase (PAP) method and rabbit hyperimmune serum against M. m. mycoides SC. Distended zone of cellular infiltration in a nectrotic area with concentrated staining, (original x20). Brown colour indicates areas of stain deposition indicative of the presence of mycoplasma antigen.John B. Bashiruddin
Immunohistochemical staining of sections on CBPP-affected lung with the peroxidase-anti-peroxidase (PAP) method and rabbit hyperimmune srum against M. m. mycoides SC. Positive specific reactivity surrounding a small blood vessel with a perrivascular 'cuff' of lymphocyte infiltration and endothilial damage (original x40). Brown colour indicates areas of stain deposition indicative of the presence of mycoplasma antigen.
TitleHistology
CaptionImmunohistochemical staining of sections on CBPP-affected lung with the peroxidase-anti-peroxidase (PAP) method and rabbit hyperimmune srum against M. m. mycoides SC. Positive specific reactivity surrounding a small blood vessel with a perrivascular 'cuff' of lymphocyte infiltration and endothilial damage (original x40). Brown colour indicates areas of stain deposition indicative of the presence of mycoplasma antigen.
CopyrightJohn B. Bashiruddin
Immunohistochemical staining of sections on CBPP-affected lung with the peroxidase-anti-peroxidase (PAP) method and rabbit hyperimmune srum against M. m. mycoides SC. Positive specific reactivity surrounding a small blood vessel with a perrivascular 'cuff' of lymphocyte infiltration and endothilial damage (original x40). Brown colour indicates areas of stain deposition indicative of the presence of mycoplasma antigen.
HistologyImmunohistochemical staining of sections on CBPP-affected lung with the peroxidase-anti-peroxidase (PAP) method and rabbit hyperimmune srum against M. m. mycoides SC. Positive specific reactivity surrounding a small blood vessel with a perrivascular 'cuff' of lymphocyte infiltration and endothilial damage (original x40). Brown colour indicates areas of stain deposition indicative of the presence of mycoplasma antigen.John B. Bashiruddin

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) type Freundt, 1955

Other Scientific Names

  • Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides SC
  • Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC
  • Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides SC

English acronym

  • MmmSC

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Mollicutes
  •             Order: Mycoplasmatales
  •                 Family: Mycoplasmataceae
  •                     Genus: Mycoplasma
  •                         Species: Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (SC) type

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AngolaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BeninPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Burkina FasoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChadPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoirePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GhanaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Guinea-BissauAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MaliPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MozambiqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NigerPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NigeriaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TanzaniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UgandaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ZambiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TajikistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkeyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Like all members of the Class Mollicutes, M. m. mycoides SC is small, simple and self-replicating, and distinguishable from walled bacteria because of a number of unique properties. The mollicutes lack a cell wall and the genetic machinery to synthesise one; they have low guanine/cytosine contents (less than 30%); they have small genomes and consequently small numbers of synthesised proteins. Attempts to measure the genome of M. m. mycoides SC strains have given disparate results depending on the technique used. Early work, using DNA thermal renaturation kinetics, estimated the size of the PG1 prototype strain as 760 kbp (Askaa et al., 1973) and 810 or 923 kbp (Razin et al., 1983). However, Pyle et al. (1990) gave a genome size value of 1280 kbp for this strain using the more reproducible pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) technique.

Attempts to clarify the taxonomic position of the subspecies of M. mycoides have proved difficult. Results from DNA hybridisation studies, using single type strains, revealed a relatedness value (based on percentage homology) of 0.82 between M. m. mycoides SC and LC and 0.7 between M. m. mycoides SC and M. m. capri (Askaa et al., 1978). However, large differences in percentage hybridizations were seen in experiments between M. m. mycoides SC and M. m. capri depending which genomic DNA was tritium labelled. Protein studies gave a slightly different picture. Costas et al. (1987) examined cellular proteins of 26 isolates belonging to the cluster by SDS-PAGE and showed protein patterns to be generally similar with many shared bands. However, numerical analysis of the patterns and using a correlation coefficient revealed four distinct groups or phenons at a similarity level of 70%:

M. m. mycoides SC strains

M. m. mycoides LC and M. m. capri

M. capricolum and F38

BG7

A very close relationship between M. m. mycoides LC and M. m. capri was revealed as there were difficulties in distinguishing isolates from each subspecies even at the 75% level. More extensive studies confirmed the inseparability of M. m. mycoides LC and M. m. capri using protein analysis but showed that in most cases serological tests, in particular immunofluorescence, could distinguish the subspecies designations (Leach et al., 1989). Interestingly, several strains were serologically intermediate between the two subspecies being cross reactive with both.

Early attempts to classify the mollicutes using immunological and molecular biological approaches provided useful taxonomic data but provided no evolutionary information. More recent attempts at establishing phylogenetic relationships have concentrated on the highly conserved mycoplasmal ribosomal (r) RNA which, because of very tight structural constraints, has changed much less than the bulk of the genome. Complete sequences are known for some 450 bacteria. Weisburg et al. (1989) determined the small subunit (16S) rRNA sequences of over 40 species of mollicutes and specific walled bacteria. These workers confirmed the view that the initial event in mollicute phylogeny was the formation of the Acholeplasma branch from clostridial ancestors and later to ancestors of spiroplasmas probably without reductions in genome size. By repeated independent genomic reductions, the Spiroplasma branch led to Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species. Systematic sequence analysis revealed that M. m. mycoides belonged to the spiroplasma group, one of the five groups of mollicutes. M. capricolum subspecies capricolum was also a member of this group which largely consisted of Spiroplasma spp. No other members of the M. mycoides group were analysed. The authors concluded that while phenotypically very different from bacteria, the mollicutes appear normal at the molecular level.

Over one hundred years since the cause of CBPP was discovered it is still not possible to say with certainty how M. m. mycoides SC causes disease. The elucidation of factors playing key roles in the pathogenicity of M. m. mycoides SC is hindered by the high cost of experimental infection studies using cattle and the absence of any small animal model in which disease is reproduced. Nevertheless, experimental infections have shown virulence differences amongst African strains (Provost et al., 1987) and morbidity and mortality are lower in European than in African disease outbreaks (Nicholas et al., 1996). The production of prolonged mycoplasmaemia after inoculation in mice has been used as an indication of differing virulence of some strains of M. m. mycoides SC (March and Brodie, 2000). The difficulty of reproducing disease symptoms in experimental infections using European M. m. mycoides SC strains (Abdo et al., 1998) may also indicate a reduced virulence compared to African strains. However, the pathological lesions caused during natural outbreaks in both Africa and Europe are identical and follow a similar pattern: during new outbreaks, many cattle show acute and sub-acute lesions while chronic lesions, sequestra predominate in later outbreaks. The striking difference is the almost complete lack of mortality and obvious morbidity seen in European outbreaks which must be due in part to improved husbandry and better health (Nicholas and Palmer, 1994).

The possible roles of the carbohydrate cell capsule and hydrogen peroxide production in M. m. mycoides SC infection were reviewed by Egwu et al. (1996). Capsules are generally considered to contribute to pathogenicity by promoting binding to host tissue surfaces and enhancing resistance to phagocytosis. In addition, there is some evidence that the capsule of M. m. mycoides SC might have a direct toxic effect on host cells and its structural similarity to bovine pneumogalactan further suggests that it might induce auto-immune reactions. Analysis of concentrated and partially purified capsular material from European M. m. mycoides SC strains are consistent with earlier work for the Australian strains V5 and Gladysdale (Plackett et al., 1963) which indicated that the major carbohydrate (>90%) is galactose. There was no evidence to indicate that the capsule was comprised of several sugars (N-acetylglucosamine, fructose, fucose, glucosamine, glucose and mannose) in approximately equal proportions, as recently suggested by March et al. (1999a; 1999b).

The production of hydrogen peroxide and other active oxygen species appears to be an important factor in mycoplasma pathogenicity (Tryon and Baseman, 1992). In mycoplasmas, hydrogen peroxide production may accompany the metabolism of sugars or certain organic acids to acetate plus carbon dioxide. However, in M. mycoides, only traces of hydrogen peroxide are formed (Miles et al., 1991).

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos bison (American bison)Domesticated host
Bos grunniens (yaks)Domesticated host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos mutus (yaks, wild)Domesticated host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host

References

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Abdo EM; Nicolet J; Miserez R; GonÇalves R; Regalla J; Griot C; Bensaide A; Krampe M; Frey J, 1998. Humoral and bronchial immune responses in cattle experimentally infected with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type. Veterinary Microbiology, 59(2/3):109-122; 29 ref.

Askaa G; Christiansen C; Erno H, 1973. Bovine mycoplasmas: genome size and base composition of DNA. Journal of General Microbiology, 75:283-286.

Askaa G; Erno H; Ojo MO, 1978. Bovine mycoplasmas: Classification of groups related to Mycoplasma mycoides. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavia, 19:166-178.

Costas M; Leach RH; Mitchelmore DL, 1987. Numerical analysis of PAGE protein patterns and the taxonomic relationships within the 'Mycoplasma mycoides cluster'. Journal of General Microbiology, 133(12):3319-3329; 16 ref.

Egwu GE; Nicholas RAJ; Ameh JA; Bashiruddin JB, 1996. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: an update. Veterinary Bulletin, 66:875-888.

Freundt EA, 1955. The classification of the pleuropneumonia-like group of organisms (Borrelomycetales). International Bulletin of Bacteriological Nomenclature and Taxonomy, 5:67-78.

Leach RH; Costas M; Mitchelmore DL, 1989. Relationship between Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides ('Large-colony' strains) and M. mycoides subsp. capri, as indicated by numerical analysis of one-dimensional SDS-PAGE protein patterns. Journal of General Microbiology, 135(11):2993-3000; 17 ref.

March JB. Jones GE, Williamson HS, Amanfu W, 1999b. Studies on the immunological diversity of type, vaccine and wild strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC. In: Stipkovits L, Rosengarten R, Frey J, eds. Mycoplasmas of ruminants: pathogenicity, diagnostics, epidemiology and molecular genetics. Volume III. Luxembourg, Germany: Office for official publications of the European Communities, 159-162.

March JB; Brodie M, 2000. Comparison of the virulence of European and African isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony type. Veterinary Record, 147:20-21.

March JB; Hitchen P; Morris HR; Dell A, 1999a. Analysis of the capsular polysaccharide of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, the causal agent of CBPP: purification, composition and its role in infection and immunity. In: Stipkovits L, Rosengarten R, Frey J, eds. Mycoplasmas of ruminants: pathogenicity, diagnostics, epidemiology and molecular genetics. Volume III. Luxembourg, Grmany: Office for official publications of the European Communities, 69-72.

Miles RJ; Taylor RR; Varsani H, 1991. Oxygen uptake and H2O2 production by fermentative Mycoplasma spp. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 34:219-223.

Nicholas RAJ; Palmer NMA, 1994. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Europe. State Veterinary Journal, 4:14-16.

Nicholas RAJ; Santini FG; Clark KM; Palmer NMA; Santis Pde; Bashiruddin JB, 1996. A comparison of serological tests and gross lung pathology for detecting contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in two groups of Italian cattle. Veterinary Record, 139(4):89-93; 16 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Plackett P; Buttery SH; Cottew GS, 1963. Carbohydrates of some mycoplasma strains. Proceedings of the 8th International Congress for Microbiology, Montreal, 1962. Recent Progress in Microbiology, 8:535-547.

Provost A; Perreau P; Bréard A; Goff Cle; Martel JL; Cottew GS, 1987. Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. Revue Scientifique et Technique, Office International des épizooties, 6(3):565-679; 99 ref.

Pyle LE; Taylor T; Finch LR, 1990. Genomic maps of some strains within the Mycoplasma mycoides cluster. Journal of Bacteriology, 172(12):7265-7268; 20 ref.

Razin S; Barile MF; Harasawa R; Amikam D; Glaser DG, 1983. Characterisation of the mycoplasma genome. Yale Journal of Biological Medicine, 56:357-366.

Tryon VV; Baseman JB, 1992. Pathogenic mechanisms and determinants. In: Maniloff J, McElhaney RN, Finch LR, Baseman JB, eds. Mycoplasmas: molecular biology and pathogenesis. Washington DC, USA: American Society for Microbiology, 457-471.

Weisburg WG; Tully JG; Rose DL; Petzel JP; Oyaizu H; Yang D; Mandelco L; Sechrest J; Lawrence TG; Etten Jvan; Maniloff J; Woese CR, 1989. A phylogenetic analysis of the mycoplasmas: basis for their classification. Journal of Bacteriology, 171(12):6455-6467; 50 ref.

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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