Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

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Datasheet

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 17 March 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Actinobacteria [phylum]
  •     Class: Actinobacteria
  •       Subclass: Actinobacteridae
  •         Order: Actinomycetales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Acid-fast stain of M. avium ss paratuberculosis in a cross-section of ileum from a clinically infected sheep.
TitleStained section of ileum
CaptionAcid-fast stain of M. avium ss paratuberculosis in a cross-section of ileum from a clinically infected sheep.
CopyrightJudith R. Stabel/USDA-ARS-National Animal Disease Center
Acid-fast stain of M. avium ss paratuberculosis in a cross-section of ileum from a clinically infected sheep.
Stained section of ileumAcid-fast stain of M. avium ss paratuberculosis in a cross-section of ileum from a clinically infected sheep.Judith R. Stabel/USDA-ARS-National Animal Disease Center

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Other Scientific Names

  • Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
  • Mycobacterium chronicae pseudotuberculosae bovis

International Common Names

  • English: Mycobacterium paratuberculosis

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Actinobacteria [phylum]
  •         Class: Actinobacteria
  •             Subclass: Actinobacteridae
  •                 Order: Actinomycetales
  •                     Suborder: Corynebacterineae
  •                         Family: Mycobacteriaceae
  •                             Genus: Mycobacterium
  •                                 Species: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)
EritreaPresent
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)
KenyaPresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)
SudanPresent
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)

Asia

BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)
BhutanPresent
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
QatarPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
United Arab EmiratesPresent
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
YemenPresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining

Europe

AndorraPresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelgiumPresent
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CyprusPresent
CzechiaPresent
DenmarkPresent
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
FinlandPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
IcelandPresent
IrelandPresent
Isle of ManPresent
JerseyPresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LuxembourgPresent
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NetherlandsPresent
North MacedoniaPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
PortugalPresent
RussiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
SpainPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
United KingdomPresent
-Northern IrelandPresent

North America

BarbadosPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaPresent
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CubaPresent
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United States
-CaliforniaPresent

Oceania

New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)

South America

ArgentinaPresent
ChilePresent
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in cattle and other ruminants.

M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a small (0.5 µm x 1.5 µm), facultative, acid-fast bacterium. The bacteria grow in clumps due to the complex cell wall formed by peptidoglycolipids (Merkal et al., 1973; Brennan and Nikaido, 1995). On agar medium, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis grows as small, opaque colonies with a mixture of smooth and rough morphologies. Primary isolation and propagation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosisin vitro requires mycobactin, an iron-chelating agent produced by most species of mycobacteria. Although M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is capable of scavenging iron in vivo, it is dependent upon the addition of exogenous mycobactin or other iron sources to synthetic medium in order to grow in vitro (Lambrecht and Collins, 1992). Primary culture of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from tissue or faecal samples takes 12-16 weeks (longer for MAP-S strains) on agar medium such as Herrold's egg yolk or Lowenstein-Jensen medium, although recovery rates are shorter for heavily infected tissues. Primary isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using liquid medium formulations has improved the rates of recovery (Shin et al., 2007; Whittington et al., 2013; Whittington, 2020). Biochemical characteristics of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis may vary between strains, although there is evidence to suggest that the neutral red test may be used to determine virulence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, and that catalase activity may be useful to discriminate between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and other species of mycobacteria (Merkal and Thurston, 1966; Thorel et al., 1990).

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. For further information from OIE, see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bison bonasusDomesticated host; Wild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host; Experimental settings; Wild host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated host
Camelus bactrianus (Bactrian camel)Domesticated host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host; Wild host
CervidaeDomesticated host; Wild host
Cervus elaphus (red deer)Domesticated host; Wild host
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated host; Experimental settings
Lama glama (llamas)Domesticated host
Lama pacos (alpacas)Domesticated host
Lepus europaeus (European hare)Wild host
Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)Domesticated host; Experimental settings; Wild host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host; Wild host
Rangifer tarandus (reindeer)Domesticated host
RuminantiaDomesticated host; Wild host
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host; Experimental settings

References

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Brennan PJ, Nikaido H, 1995. The envelope of mycobacteria. Ann. Rev. Biochem., 64:29-63

Lambrecht RS, Collins MT, 1992. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Factors that influence mycobactin dependence. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 15(3):239-246

Merkal RS, Rhoades KR, Gallagher JE, Ritchie AE, 1973. Scanning electron microscopy of mycobacteria. Ann. Rev. Resp. Dis., 108:382-387

Merkal RS, Thurston JR, 1966. Comparison of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and other mycobacteria, using standard cytochemical tests. Am. J. Vet. Res., 27(117):519-521

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

Shin, S. J., Han, J. H., Manning, E. J. B., Collins, M. T., 2007. Rapid and reliable method for quantification of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by use of the BACTEC MGIT 960 system. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 45(6), 1941-1948. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02616-06

Thorel, M. F., Krichevsky, M., Lévy-Frébault, V. V., 1990. Numerical taxonomy of mycobactin-dependent mycobacteria, emended description of Mycobacterium avium, description of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium subsp. nov., Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subsp. nov., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum subsp. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 40(3), 254-260.

Whittington, R. J., Whittington, A. M., Waldron, A., Begg, D. J., Silva, K. de, Purdie, A. C., Plain, K. M., 2013. Development and validation of a liquid medium (M7H9C) for routine culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to replace modified bactec 12B medium. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 51(12), 3993-4000. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01373-13

Whittington, R., 2020. Cultivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In: Paratuberculosis: organism, disease, control, (Ed.2) [ed. by Behr, M. A., Stevenson, K., Kapur, V.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. 266-304. doi: 10.1079/9781789243413.0266

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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