Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

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Datasheet

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 17 March 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Actinobacteria [phylum]
  •     Class: Actinobacteria
  •       Subclass: Actinobacteridae
  •         Order: Actinomycetales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Acid-fast stain of M. avium ss paratuberculosis in a cross-section of ileum from a clinically infected sheep.
TitleStained section of ileum
CaptionAcid-fast stain of M. avium ss paratuberculosis in a cross-section of ileum from a clinically infected sheep.
CopyrightJudith R. Stabel/USDA-ARS-National Animal Disease Center
Acid-fast stain of M. avium ss paratuberculosis in a cross-section of ileum from a clinically infected sheep.
Stained section of ileumAcid-fast stain of M. avium ss paratuberculosis in a cross-section of ileum from a clinically infected sheep.Judith R. Stabel/USDA-ARS-National Animal Disease Center

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Other Scientific Names

  • Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
  • Mycobacterium chronicae pseudotuberculosae bovis

International Common Names

  • English: Mycobacterium paratuberculosis

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Actinobacteria [phylum]
  •         Class: Actinobacteria
  •             Subclass: Actinobacteridae
  •                 Order: Actinomycetales
  •                     Suborder: Corynebacterineae
  •                         Family: Mycobacteriaceae
  •                             Genus: Mycobacterium
  •                                 Species: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 21 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BotswanaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
BurundiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ChadAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)
DjiboutiAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)
EthiopiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
GhanaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)
KenyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsentJan-Jun-2020
LiberiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MauritiusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MayotteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)
MozambiqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigerPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
NigeriaPresentJul-Dec-2019
RéunionPresentJul-Dec-2019
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TanzaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)
TunisiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
UgandaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ZambiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
ZimbabweAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChinaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Hong KongAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IndiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2018
IndonesiaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
IranPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IsraelPresentJul-Dec-2020
JapanPresentJan-Jun-2020
JordanAbsentJul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MalaysiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agent
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NepalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanPresentJul-Dec-2019
PakistanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
PalestinePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
QatarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
South KoreaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsentJan-Jun-2020
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesPresentJul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VietnamAbsentJul-Dec-2019
YemenPresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining

Europe

AlbaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AndorraAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AustriaPresentJul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelgiumPresentJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentJul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CroatiaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
CyprusPresentJul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
DenmarkPresentJan-Jun-2019
EstoniaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsPresentJul-Dec-2018
FinlandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
FrancePresentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyPresentJul-Dec-2019
GreecePresentJan-Jun-2018
HungaryPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
IcelandPresentJul-Dec-2019
IrelandPresentJul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManPresent
ItalyPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
JerseyPresentCAB Abstracts Data Mining
LatviaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LuxembourgPresent
MaltaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
MontenegroPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsPresentJul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NorwayPresentJul-Dec-2020
PolandAbsentJan-Jun-2019
PortugalPresentJul-Dec-2019
RomaniaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
RussiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
SlovakiaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
SpainPresentJul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandPresentJul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsentJul-Dec-2020
United KingdomPresentJul-Dec-2019
-Northern IrelandPresent

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaPresentJul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)
JamaicaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsentJan-Jun-2018
United StatesPresentJul-Dec-2019
-CaliforniaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsentJan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaPresentJul-Dec-2019
New ZealandPresentJul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Timor-LesteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaPresentJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
BrazilPresentJul-Dec-2019
ChilePresentJan-Jun-2019
ColombiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
EcuadorPresentJul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ParaguayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PeruAbsentJan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
UruguayPresentJul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaPresentJan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in cattle and other ruminants.

M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a small (0.5 µm x 1.5 µm), facultative, acid-fast bacterium. The bacteria grow in clumps due to the complex cell wall formed by peptidoglycolipids (Merkal et al., 1973; Brennan and Nikaido, 1995). On agar medium, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis grows as small, opaque colonies with a mixture of smooth and rough morphologies. Primary isolation and propagation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosisin vitro requires mycobactin, an iron-chelating agent produced by most species of mycobacteria. Although M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is capable of scavenging iron in vivo, it is dependent upon the addition of exogenous mycobactin or other iron sources to synthetic medium in order to grow in vitro (Lambrecht and Collins, 1992). Primary culture of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from tissue or faecal samples takes 12-16 weeks (longer for MAP-S strains) on agar medium such as Herrold's egg yolk or Lowenstein-Jensen medium, although recovery rates are shorter for heavily infected tissues. Primary isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using liquid medium formulations has improved the rates of recovery (Shin et al., 2007; Whittington et al., 2013; Whittington, 2020). Biochemical characteristics of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis may vary between strains, although there is evidence to suggest that the neutral red test may be used to determine virulence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains, and that catalase activity may be useful to discriminate between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and other species of mycobacteria (Merkal and Thurston, 1966; Thorel et al., 1990).

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. For further information from OIE, see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bison bonasusDomesticated host; Wild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host; Experimental settings; Wild host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated host
Camelus bactrianus (Bactrian camel)Domesticated host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host; Wild host
CervidaeDomesticated host; Wild host
Cervus elaphus (red deer)Domesticated host; Wild host
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated host; Experimental settings
Lama glama (llamas)Domesticated host
Lama pacos (alpacas)Domesticated host
Lepus europaeus (European hare)Wild host
Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)Domesticated host; Experimental settings; Wild host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host; Wild host
Rangifer tarandus (reindeer)Domesticated host
RuminantiaDomesticated host; Wild host
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host; Experimental settings

References

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Brennan PJ, Nikaido H, 1995. The envelope of mycobacteria. Ann. Rev. Biochem., 64:29-63

Lambrecht RS, Collins MT, 1992. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Factors that influence mycobactin dependence. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 15(3):239-246

Merkal RS, Rhoades KR, Gallagher JE, Ritchie AE, 1973. Scanning electron microscopy of mycobacteria. Ann. Rev. Resp. Dis., 108:382-387

Merkal RS, Thurston JR, 1966. Comparison of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and other mycobacteria, using standard cytochemical tests. Am. J. Vet. Res., 27(117):519-521

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

Shin, S. J., Han, J. H., Manning, E. J. B., Collins, M. T., 2007. Rapid and reliable method for quantification of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by use of the BACTEC MGIT 960 system. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 45(6), 1941-1948. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02616-06

Thorel, M. F., Krichevsky, M., Lévy-Frébault, V. V., 1990. Numerical taxonomy of mycobactin-dependent mycobacteria, emended description of Mycobacterium avium, description of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium subsp. nov., Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis subsp. nov., and Mycobacterium avium subsp. silvaticum subsp. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 40(3), 254-260.

Whittington, R. J., Whittington, A. M., Waldron, A., Begg, D. J., Silva, K. de, Purdie, A. C., Plain, K. M., 2013. Development and validation of a liquid medium (M7H9C) for routine culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to replace modified bactec 12B medium. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 51(12), 3993-4000. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01373-13

Whittington, R., 2020. Cultivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. In: Paratuberculosis: organism, disease, control, (Ed.2) [ed. by Behr, M. A., Stevenson, K., Kapur, V.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. 266-304. doi: 10.1079/9781789243413.0266

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Distribution Maps

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