Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Toolbox

Datasheet

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Actinobacteria [phylum]
  •     Class: Actinobacteria
  •       Subclass: Actinobacteridae
  •         Order: Actinomycetales

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Acid-fast stain of M. avium ss paratuberculosis in a cross-section of ileum from a clinically infected sheep.
TitleStained section of ileum
CaptionAcid-fast stain of M. avium ss paratuberculosis in a cross-section of ileum from a clinically infected sheep.
CopyrightJudith R. Stabel/USDA-ARS-National Animal Disease Center
Acid-fast stain of M. avium ss paratuberculosis in a cross-section of ileum from a clinically infected sheep.
Stained section of ileumAcid-fast stain of M. avium ss paratuberculosis in a cross-section of ileum from a clinically infected sheep.Judith R. Stabel/USDA-ARS-National Animal Disease Center

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Other Scientific Names

  • Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
  • Mycobacterium chronicae pseudotuberculosae bovis

International Common Names

  • English: Mycobacterium paratuberculosis

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Actinobacteria [phylum]
  •         Class: Actinobacteria
  •             Subclass: Actinobacteridae
  •                 Order: Actinomycetales
  •                     Suborder: Corynebacterineae
  •                         Family: Mycobacteriaceae
  •                             Genus: Mycobacterium
  •                                 Species: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saudi ArabiaCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaLast reported1988OIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAOIE Handistatus, 2005
-CaliforniaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsLast reported1993OIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

Top of page

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in cattle and other ruminants.

M. avium ss paratuberculosis is a small (0.5 µm ´ 1.5 µm), facultative, acid-fast bacterium. The bacteria grow in clumps due to the complex cell wall formed by peptidoglycolipids (Merkal et al., 1973; Brennan and Nikaido, 1995). On agar medium, M. avium ss paratuberculosis grows as small, opaque colonies with a mixture of smooth and rough morphologies. Primary isolation and propagation of M. avium ss paratuberculosisin vitro requires mycobactin, an iron-chelating agent produced by most species of mycobacteria. Although M. avium ss paratuberculosis is capable of scavenging iron in vivo, it is dependent upon the addition of exogenous mycobactin or other iron sources to synthetic medium in order to grow in vitro (Lambrecht and Collins, 1992). Primary culture of M. avium ss paratuberculosis from tissue or faecal samples takes 12-16 weeks on agar medium such as Herrold's egg yolk or Lowenstein-Jensen medium, although recovery rates are shorter for heavily infected tissues. More recently, primary isolation of M. avium ss paratuberculosis using liquid medium formulations has improved the rates of recovery (Cousins et al., 1995; Whittington et al., 1998). Biochemical characteristics of M. avium ss paratuberculosis may vary between strains, although there is evidence to suggest that the neutral red test may be used to determine virulence of M. avium ss paratuberculosis strains, and that catalase activity may be useful to discriminate between M. avium ss paratuberculosis and other species of mycobacteria (Merkal and Thurston, 1966).

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

References

Top of page

Brennan PJ; Nikaido H, 1995. The envelope of mycobacteria. Ann. Rev. Biochem., 64:29-63.

Cousins DV; Evans RJ; Francis BR, 1995. Use of BACTEC radiometric culture method and polymerase chain reaction for the rapid screening of faeces and tissues for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Australian Veterinary Journal, 72(12):458-462; 13 ref.

Lambrecht RS; Collins MT, 1992. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Factors that influence mycobactin dependence. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 15(3):239-246.

Merkal RS; Rhoades KR; Gallagher JE; Ritchie AE, 1973. Scanning electron microscopy of mycobacteria. Ann. Rev. Resp. Dis., 108:382-387.

Merkal RS; Thurston JR, 1966. Comparison of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and other mycobacteria, using standard cytochemical tests. Am. J. Vet. Res., 27(117):519-521.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Whittington RJ et al., 1998. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in clinical samples from ruminants and in spiked environmental samples by modified BACTEC 12B radiometric culture and direct confirmation by IS900 PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol., 36(3):701-707.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map