Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Toolbox

Datasheet

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Actinobacteria [phylum]
  •     Class: Actinobacteria
  •       Subclass: Actinobacteridae
  •         Order: Actinomycetales

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Acid-fast stain of M. avium ss paratuberculosis in a cross-section of ileum from a clinically infected sheep.
TitleStained section of ileum
CaptionAcid-fast stain of M. avium ss paratuberculosis in a cross-section of ileum from a clinically infected sheep.
CopyrightJudith R. Stabel/USDA-ARS-National Animal Disease Center
Acid-fast stain of M. avium ss paratuberculosis in a cross-section of ileum from a clinically infected sheep.
Stained section of ileumAcid-fast stain of M. avium ss paratuberculosis in a cross-section of ileum from a clinically infected sheep.Judith R. Stabel/USDA-ARS-National Animal Disease Center

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Other Scientific Names

  • Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
  • Mycobacterium chronicae pseudotuberculosae bovis

International Common Names

  • English: Mycobacterium paratuberculosis

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Actinobacteria [phylum]
  •         Class: Actinobacteria
  •             Subclass: Actinobacteridae
  •                 Order: Actinomycetales
  •                     Suborder: Corynebacterineae
  •                         Family: Mycobacteriaceae
  •                             Genus: Mycobacterium
  •                                 Species: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

Diseases Table

Top of page paratuberculosis

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EritreaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BhutanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IsraelPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JapanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
QatarPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Saudi ArabiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South KoreaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TaiwanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
YemenPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining

Europe

AndorraPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelgiumPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
DenmarkPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FinlandPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
FrancePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GreecePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LuxembourgPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
North MacedoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PolandPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
RussiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SlovakiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SpainPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SwitzerlandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
United KingdomPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-Northern IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniquePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MexicoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
United States
-CaliforniaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)

Oceania

New CaledoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ChilePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

Top of page

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in cattle and other ruminants.

M. avium ss paratuberculosis is a small (0.5 µm ´ 1.5 µm), facultative, acid-fast bacterium. The bacteria grow in clumps due to the complex cell wall formed by peptidoglycolipids (Merkal et al., 1973; Brennan and Nikaido, 1995). On agar medium, M. avium ss paratuberculosis grows as small, opaque colonies with a mixture of smooth and rough morphologies. Primary isolation and propagation of M. avium ss paratuberculosisin vitro requires mycobactin, an iron-chelating agent produced by most species of mycobacteria. Although M. avium ss paratuberculosis is capable of scavenging iron in vivo, it is dependent upon the addition of exogenous mycobactin or other iron sources to synthetic medium in order to grow in vitro (Lambrecht and Collins, 1992). Primary culture of M. avium ss paratuberculosis from tissue or faecal samples takes 12-16 weeks on agar medium such as Herrold's egg yolk or Lowenstein-Jensen medium, although recovery rates are shorter for heavily infected tissues. More recently, primary isolation of M. avium ss paratuberculosis using liquid medium formulations has improved the rates of recovery (Cousins et al., 1995; Whittington et al., 1998). Biochemical characteristics of M. avium ss paratuberculosis may vary between strains, although there is evidence to suggest that the neutral red test may be used to determine virulence of M. avium ss paratuberculosis strains, and that catalase activity may be useful to discriminate between M. avium ss paratuberculosis and other species of mycobacteria (Merkal and Thurston, 1966).

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

Top of page
Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bison bonasusDomesticated host, Wild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host, Experimental settings, Wild host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Camelus bactrianus (Bactrian camel)Domesticated host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host, Wild host
CervidaeDomesticated host, Wild host
Cervus elaphus (red deer)Domesticated host, Wild host
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated host, Experimental settings
Lama glama (llamas)Domesticated host
Lama pacos (alpacas)Domesticated host
Mus musculus (house mouse)
Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)Domesticated host, Experimental settings, Wild host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host, Wild host
RuminantiaDomesticated host, Wild host
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host, Experimental settings

References

Top of page

Brennan PJ; Nikaido H, 1995. The envelope of mycobacteria. Ann. Rev. Biochem., 64:29-63.

Cousins DV; Evans RJ; Francis BR, 1995. Use of BACTEC radiometric culture method and polymerase chain reaction for the rapid screening of faeces and tissues for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Australian Veterinary Journal, 72(12):458-462; 13 ref.

Lambrecht RS; Collins MT, 1992. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Factors that influence mycobactin dependence. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 15(3):239-246.

Merkal RS; Rhoades KR; Gallagher JE; Ritchie AE, 1973. Scanning electron microscopy of mycobacteria. Ann. Rev. Resp. Dis., 108:382-387.

Merkal RS; Thurston JR, 1966. Comparison of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and other mycobacteria, using standard cytochemical tests. Am. J. Vet. Res., 27(117):519-521.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Whittington RJ et al., 1998. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in clinical samples from ruminants and in spiked environmental samples by modified BACTEC 12B radiometric culture and direct confirmation by IS900 PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol., 36(3):701-707.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map