Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Aspergillus niger
(black mould of onion)

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Datasheet

Aspergillus niger (black mould of onion)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aspergillus niger
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black mould of onion
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Eurotiomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A. niger symptoms on nuts.
TitleSymptoms on nuts
CaptionA. niger symptoms on nuts.
CopyrightICRISAT
A. niger symptoms on nuts.
Symptoms on nutsA. niger symptoms on nuts.ICRISAT
Black mould of onion bulb; clusters of spores (conidia) are typically aligned along the veins.
TitleSymptoms on onion
CaptionBlack mould of onion bulb; clusters of spores (conidia) are typically aligned along the veins.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Black mould of onion bulb; clusters of spores (conidia) are typically aligned along the veins.
Symptoms on onionBlack mould of onion bulb; clusters of spores (conidia) are typically aligned along the veins.©Anna L. Snowdon
Black mould of onion bulbs; under warm humid conditions, sporulation may be so profuse as to resemble soot.
TitleSymptoms on onions
CaptionBlack mould of onion bulbs; under warm humid conditions, sporulation may be so profuse as to resemble soot.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Black mould of onion bulbs; under warm humid conditions, sporulation may be so profuse as to resemble soot.
Symptoms on onionsBlack mould of onion bulbs; under warm humid conditions, sporulation may be so profuse as to resemble soot.©Anna L. Snowdon
Growth of A. niger on Sudanese onion cv. nassi.
TitleSymptoms on Sudanese onion
CaptionGrowth of A. niger on Sudanese onion cv. nassi.
CopyrightN.J. Hayden
Growth of A. niger on Sudanese onion cv. nassi.
Symptoms on Sudanese onionGrowth of A. niger on Sudanese onion cv. nassi.N.J. Hayden
Transverse section through onion bulb showing ingress of A. niger through bulb neck.
TitleSection through infected onion bulb
CaptionTransverse section through onion bulb showing ingress of A. niger through bulb neck.
CopyrightN.J. Hayden
Transverse section through onion bulb showing ingress of A. niger through bulb neck.
Section through infected onion bulbTransverse section through onion bulb showing ingress of A. niger through bulb neck.N.J. Hayden
Seed to seedling transmission of A. niger in onion.
TitleSeed to seedling transmission
CaptionSeed to seedling transmission of A. niger in onion.
CopyrightN.J. Hayden
Seed to seedling transmission of A. niger in onion.
Seed to seedling transmissionSeed to seedling transmission of A. niger in onion.N.J. Hayden
Saprophytic growth of A. niger on onion leaves incubated in a humid chamber.
TitleSaprophytic growth (detail)
CaptionSaprophytic growth of A. niger on onion leaves incubated in a humid chamber.
CopyrightN.J. Hayden
Saprophytic growth of A. niger on onion leaves incubated in a humid chamber.
Saprophytic growth (detail)Saprophytic growth of A. niger on onion leaves incubated in a humid chamber.N.J. Hayden
A. niger in axenic culture.
TitleA. niger in culture
CaptionA. niger in axenic culture.
CopyrightN.J. Hayden
A. niger in axenic culture.
A. niger in cultureA. niger in axenic culture.N.J. Hayden

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aspergillus niger Tiegh.

Preferred Common Name

  • black mould of onion

Other Scientific Names

  • Aspergillus ficuum (Reichardt) Thom & Church
  • Aspergillus phoenicis (Corda) Thom
  • Sterigmatocystis niger Tiegh.

International Common Names

  • English: Aspergillus ear rot; black mould of corms; black mould of vegetables; crown rot; kernel rot; seed rot
  • Spanish: moho negro de la cebolla; moho negro del ajo
  • French: moisissure noire du bulbe de l'oignon

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Faeule: Gemuese; Faeule: Zwiebel

EPPO code

  • ASPENI (Aspergillus niger)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Eurotiomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Eurotiomycetidae
  •                         Order: Eurotiales
  •                             Family: Trichocomaceae
  •                                 Genus: Aspergillus
  •                                     Species: Aspergillus niger

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentRabbani et al., 1986
ChinaPresentHuang and Scott, 1985
-FujianPresentChen QiuPing, 2000
-JiangsuPresentGe and Xu, 2001
-LiaoningPresent
-ShaanxiPresentFu and Zhang, 1988
-ShandongPresentXu et al., 2015
-ShanxiPresent
-ZhejiangPresentJiang DongHua, 2000
IndiaPresentGupta et al., 1991
-Andhra PradeshPresentRaju & Raj, 1980
-Arunachal PradeshPresentShukla and Pramila, 2007
-AssamPresentHiranmoyee et al., 2002
-BiharPresentSinha et al., 1991
-ChhattisgarhPresentChandrol, 2007
-DelhiPresentGupta and Srivastava, 1992
-GujaratPresentDange and Patel, 1984
-HaryanaPresentGupta and Srivastava, 1992
-Himachal PradeshPresentKaul and Sharma, 1993
-Indian PunjabPresentChahal et al., 1974
-Jammu and KashmirPresentKusum and Badyal, 1990
-KarnatakaPresentRao and Rajasab, 1992
-KeralaPresentGovindan and Sathiarajan, 1990
-Madhya PradeshPresentVerma, 1971
-MaharashtraPresentRao, 1986
-OdishaPresentRath et al., 1990a; Rath et al., 1990b
-RajasthanPresentGirjesh Upadhyaya, 1991
-Tamil NaduPresentLalithakumari et al., 1972
-Uttar PradeshPresentGupta and Srivastava, 1992
-UttarakhandPresentSahu and Agarwal, 2002
-West BengalPresentMishra and Raj, 1992
IndonesiaPresentIsmayadi and Zaenudin, 2001
IranPresentRaynal, 1973
IraqPresentSharif et al., 1987
IsraelPresentGrinstein et al., 1992
JapanPresentTanaka, 1991
Korea, Republic ofPresent
MalaysiaPresentAbu Bakar & Abdul Karim, 1990
MyanmarPresentSharma et al., 1991
NepalPresentIPPC, 2005
OmanPresentElshafie et al., 2002
PakistanPresentMahdihassan, 1987
PhilippinesPresentMorantte et al., 1986
Saudi ArabiaPresentAbdez-Hafez, 1984
SyriaPresentGreathead pers. comm
TaiwanPresentWu, 1993
TajikistanPresentSultanova et al., 2002
ThailandPresentJohnson et al., 1989
TurkeyPresentOzay et al., 1995
VietnamPresentLeong et al., 2007
YemenPresentMaude et al., 1991

Africa

AlgeriaPresentRiba et al., 2008
BeninPresentKlueken et al., 2009
BotswanaPresentMphande et al., 2004
Burkina FasoPresentSubrahmanyam et al., 1987
CameroonPresentTagne and Mathur, 2003
Côte d'IvoirePresentSavary, 1987
EgyptPresentMoharram et al., 1989
EthiopiaPresentGorfu and Sangchote, 2005
GhanaPresentAboagye-Nuamah et al., 2005
GuineaPresentWaliyar and Tounkara, 1990
KenyaPresentKhare, 1985
LibyaPresentYoussef et al., 2008
MalawiPresentMercer and Kisyombe, 1978
MoroccoPresentSamane et al., 1991
NamibiaPresentCooper-Driver et al., 2000
NigerPresentTsubouchi et al., 1992
NigeriaPresentUmechuruba et al., 1992; Oruade-Dimaro, 1987
RéunionPresentBauduret, 1989
SenegalPresentDiedhiou et al., 2007
SomaliaPresentGray et al., 1990
South AfricaPresentvan Eeden et al., 1994
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentBethencourt et al., 2001
SudanPresentMusa et al., 1973; Hayden and Maude, 1994
UgandaPresentTaligoola et al., 2004
ZimbabwePresentRothwell, 1972

North America

MexicoPresentCortez-Rocha et al., 2003
USAPresent
-ArizonaPresentSimpson et al., 1973a; Simpson et al., 1973b
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresentKucharek, 1973
-GeorgiaPresentSmittle, 1989
-MassachusettsPresent
-North CarolinaPresentWicklow, 1988
-TexasPresentYoo et al., 1989

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentFolgueras et al., 2001
Puerto RicoPresentFornaris et al., 1990

South America

ArgentinaPresentDal Bello, 1987
BrazilPresentRobbs et al., 1972
-AmazonasPresentMedeiros et al., 2003
-BahiaPresentCoutinho et al., 2006
-Espirito SantoPresentMoreira et al., 2013
-GoiasPresentUtsch et al., 2010
-MaranhaoPresentSilva and Souza, 2000
-Minas GeraisPresentPasin et al., 2009
-ParaibaPresentBenicio et al., 2003; Coutinho et al., 2006
-ParaibaPresentBenicio et al., 2003; Coutinho et al., 2006
-Rio Grande do SulPresentMedeiros et al., 2007
ChilePresentLatorre et al., 2002
VenezuelaPresentMazzani, 1988

Europe

Czech RepublicPresentRezácová and Kubátová, 2005
FrancePresentSage et al., 2004
GermanyPresentUnterseher et al., 2007
GreecePresentVardavakis, 1988; Thomidis and Exadaktylou, 2012
ItalyPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-SicilyPresentVitale et al., 2008
LithuaniaPresentLugauskas et al., 2005
MoldovaPresentMarzhina et al., 1978
PolandPresentKowalik, 2008
PortugalPresentMartins et al., 2005
RomaniaPresentSesan and Stefan, 2001
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russian Far EastPresent
SlovakiaPresentKacániová and Fikselová, 2007
SpainPresentJimenez et al., 1991
UKPresent
Yugoslavia (former)PresentJevtic et al., 1990
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentJevtic et al., 1990

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNair, 1985; Leong et al., 2007
AustraliaPresentNair, 1985; Leong et al., 2007
-New South WalesPresent
-VictoriaPresentLeong et al., 2004
New ZealandPresentTyson and Fullerton, 2004

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Inflorescence / rot
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / rot of wood
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / distortion
Seeds / mould
Seeds / rot
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Vegetative organs / dry rot
Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration
Vegetative organs / mould growth
Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration
Whole plant / damping off

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acremonium rutilum Pathogen
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Penicillium purpurogenum Antagonist
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Wood

References

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÷zer N; Chilosi G; Magro P, 1999. Differential accumulation of antifungal compounds during onion seed germination and upon infection by Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem. Journal of Plant Pathology, 81(3):201-204; 13 ref.

Abdalla MH, 1974. Influence of fungal infection upon groundnut seed germination with reference to root dwarfing. Sudan Agricultural Journal, 9:24-37.

Abdalla MH, 1974. Mycoflora of groundnut kernels from the Sudan. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 63(2):353-359.

Abdalla MH; El-Tayeb NM, 1981. Preliminary survey of cotton flower mycoflora from Sudan. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 76(3):367-370

Abdel Hafez SII; El Kady IA; Mazen MB; El Maghraby OMO, 1987. Mycoflora and trichothecene toxins of paddy grains from Egypt. Mycopathologia, 100(2):103-112.

Abdel-Hafez AII; Saber SM, 1993. Mycoflora and mycotoxin of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) and walnut (Juglans regia L.) seeds in Egypt. Zentralblatt für Mikrobiologie, 148(2):137-147; 49 ref.

Abdel-Hafez SII, 1984. Composition of the fungal flora of four cereal grains in Saudi Arabia. Mycopathologia, 85(1/2):53-57; [1 tab.]; 20 ref.

Abdel-Hafez SII, 1985. Leaf surface fungi of Argemone mexicana growing in Saudi Arabia. Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 6(1):69-78; [2 tab.]; 32 ref.

Abdullah SK; Kadhum SA, 1987. Seed mycoflora of Sorghum bicolor in Iraq. Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, B (Agricultural and Biological Sciences), 5(3):401-410; 23 ref.

Aboagye-Nuamah F; Offei SK; Cornelius EW; Bancroft RD, 2005. Severity of spoilage storage rots of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.). Annals of Applied Biology, 147(2):183-190. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=aab

Abu-Bakar F; Abdul-Karim MNB, 1990. Microflora of ciku (Achras sapota L.) of variety Jantung. Pertanika, 13(2):211-215; 19 ref.

Adebanjo A; Shopeju E, 1993. Sources and mycoflora associated with some sundried vegetables in storage. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 31(4):255-263; 12 ref.

Adisa VA, 1985. Fruit rot diseases of guava (Psidium guajava) in Nigeria. Indian Phytopathology, 38(3):427-430; 13 ref.

Agarwal VK; Gupta MN; Maheshwari VK, 1983. Storage fungi of ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi): their effect and control. Seed Research, 10(2):150-152.

Ahmad M et al., 1972. Induction of ripening delay in mangoes (var. Dusehri) by gamma irradiation and refrigeration. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 15(4/5):314-319.

Ahmad SK, 1993. Mycoflora changes and aflatoxin production in stored blackgram seeds. Journal of Stored Products Research, 29(1):33-36; 12 ref.

Ahmed MA, 1986. Behaviour of phyllosphere fungi on maize leaves in Egypt. News Letter Microbiological Resource Centre, Cairo, Egypt, 11:9-16; [12 fig.]; 11 ref.

Aja-Nwachukwu J; Emejuaiwe SO, 1994. Aflatoxin-producing fungi associated with Nigerian maize. Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality, 9(1):17-23; 34 ref.

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Ali AA; Yamani TEL, 1977. Studies on the effect of some cultural practices on the storage diseases of onions. Agricultural Research Review, 55:123-128.

Ali TES; Nasir MA; Shakir AS, 1992. In vitro evaluation of certain neem products as mould inhibitors against post-harvest fruit rotting fungi of tomato. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 4(1-2):58-61; 10 ref.

Al-Kahtani HA, 1992. Intercultivar differences in quality and postharvest life of pomegranates influenced by partial drying. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 117(1):100-104; 19 ref.

Al-Musallam A, 1980. Revision of the black Aspergillus species. Revision of the black Aspergillus species. Univ. Utrecht. Utrecht Netherlands, 92 pp.

Amal; El-Eraky M; Saeed FA; Mohamed MS; Amein AM, 1993. Fungi associated with wheat grains in Upper Egypt and their chemical control. Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 24(3):245-262; 19 ref.

Angell HR; Walker JC; Link KP, 1930. The relation of protocatechuic acid to disease resistance in onion. Phytopathology, 20:431-438.

Annapoorna MP; Lokesha S, 1989. Studies on the seed mycoflora of coffee with special reference to stinkers (foxy beans). Indian Coffee, 53(10):3-9; 7 ref.

Arinze AE, 1986. Post-harvest diseases of tomato fruits in Southern Nigeria. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 11(3):637-645; 13 ref.

Arinze AE, 1987. Microorganisms associated with harvested pepper fruits in Southern Nigeria. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 12(1):91-93; 10 ref.

Arun Arya; Mathew DS, 1991. Seed mycoflora of pigeon pea. Acta Botanica Indica, 19(1):102-103; 3 ref.

Arun Arya; Mathew DS, 1991. Variation in seed germination of pigeonpea following treatment with fungal metabolites. Indian Phytopathology, 44(3):392-394; 5 ref.

Ashwani Kumar; Agarwal R; Singh S, 1989. Aflatoxigenic isolates of A. flavus associated with mustard (Brassica campestris L.) seeds. Geobios (Jodhpur), 16(2-3):131-133; 7 ref.

Ashworth LJ Jr; Langley MA; Mian MAW; Wrenn CJ, 1964. Epidemiology of seedling disease of Spanish peanut caused by Aspergillus niger. Phytopathology, 54:1161-1166.

Assawah MW; Tarabeih AM, 1975. Fruit rot diseases of pomegranate new to Egypt. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 14(2/3):142-143

Atanda OO; Akano DA; Afolabi JF, 1990. Mycoflora of dry 'tatase' pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) stored for sale in Ibadan markets. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 10(1):35-37; 10 ref.

Ath-Har MA; Prakash HS; Shetty HS, 1988. Mycoflora of Indian spices with special reference to aflatoxin producing isolates of Aspergillus flavus.. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 28(1-2):125-127; 15 ref.

Aulakh KS; Chohan JS, 1974. Effect of seed treatment with fungicides during storage of groundnut in relation to collar rot incidence. Indian Phytopathology, 27(3):371-374

Avissar I; Pesis E, 1991. The control of postharvest decay in table grapes using acetaldehyde vapours. Annals of Applied Biology, 118(1):229-237; 19 ref.

Aycock R; Jenkins MJ Jr, 1960. Methods of controlling certain diseases of shallots. Plant Disease Reporter, 44(12):934-939.

Ayerst G, 1969. The effects of moisture and temperature on growth and spore germination in some funi. Journal of Stored Product Research, 5:127-141.

Badyal K; Sumbali G, 1990. New fruit rot of plum from India. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 20(1):78.

Bakhetia DRC, 1983. Control of white-grub (Holotrichia consanguinea Blanchard) and collar-rot (Aspergillus niger van Tiegh) of groundnut sown on different dates in Punjab. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 53(9):846-850; 5 ref.

Balakrishnan P; Usman NM; Sarma YR, 1997. Management of rhizome-rot of ginger by fungal antagonists. Biotechnology of spices, medicinal & aromatic plants. In: Edison S, Ramana KV, Sasikumar B, Babu KN, Eapen SJ, eds. Proceedings of the national seminar on biotechnology of spices and aromatic plants, Calicut, India, 24-25 April, 1996, 146-149.

Baraka MA; El-Tobshy ZM; Marzouk SE, 1985. Control of postharvest diseases of dates in Egypt. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 23(2):723-730; 7 ref.

Barkai Golan R; Fuchs Y, 1980. Research on postharvest diseases of tomato. A. Survey of the organisms causing rot of stored tomato fruit. Preliminary Report Volcani Center Bet Dagan. 1980, No. 782. Bet Dagan, Israel: Volcani Center.

Barkai-Golan R; Zvi RB; Copal Z, 1989. A survey of the fungal spores infesting barhee dates in the plantation as a means of predicting decay development in storage. Hassadeh, 69(8):1446-1447; 6 ref.

Barros ST; Fernandez MJS; Menezes M, 1990. Quality of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) in relation to sanitary conditions and germination. Boletín Micológico, 5(1-2):17-23; 47 ref.

Basak AB; Karim MR; Hoque MN; Biswas AP, 1987. Studies on the fungi associated with different varieties of wheat seeds grown in Bangladesh. Seed Research, 15(1):71-75; 15 ref.

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Begum M; Hossain M, 1989. A note on soil fungi of rice, jute, sugarcane and blackgram fields. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(1-2):103-104; 5 ref.

Benicio V; Araújo E; Souto FMde; Benicio MJ; Felismino DC, 2003. Identification and cultural characteristics of Aspergillus species isolated in common bean seeds from Paraíba State, Brazil. (Identificação e características culturais de espécies do gênero Aspergillus isoladas de sementes de feijão no estado da Paraíba.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 28(2):180-183. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v28n2/a11v28n2.pdf

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Bhargava SN; Bhargava V; Singh AP, 1976. Stalk end rot of grapes. Current Science, 45(7):268-269.

Bhatia JN; Gangopadhyay S, 1996. Sources of resistance to collar rot and leaf spots of groundnut in Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 26:108-109.

Bineeta Sen, 2000. Biological control: a success story. Indian Phytopathology, 53(3):243-249; 35 ref.

Bonner JT, 1948. A study of temperature and relative humidity requirements of A. niger. Mycologia XL, 728-738.

Bottcher H, 1988. Efficacy of fungicides for seed treatment against rotting in stored onion (Allium cepa L.). Archiv fur Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 24(2):125-131

Bruton BD, 1984. Effects of IPM on post-harvest quality of Texas onion. Phytophathology, 74:793.

Butler FC, 1947. Ear, cob and grain rots of maize. Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, 58:144-151.

Ceponis MJ; Cappellini RA; Lightner GW, 1986. Disorders in onion shipments to the New York market 1972-1984. Plant Disease, 70(10):988-991

Chahal AS; Dutt S; Chohan JS, 1974. Varietal resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to collar rot (Aspergillus niger) in the Punjab State. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 11(2):200-203

Chandi Ram; Maheshwari SK, 1992. Seed borne fungi of sponge gourd and their control. Agricultural Science Digest (Karnal), 12(2):62-64; 6 ref.

Chandi Ram; Maheshwari SK, 1992. Seed mycoflora of bottle gourd and their control. Agricultural Science Digest (Karnal), 12(2):79-81; 5 ref.

Chandrol GK, 2007. Diversities of fungal flora on stored leaf of tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb.). Advances in Plant Sciences, 20(2):383-385.

Chattopadhyay C; Sen B, 1996. Integrated management of Fusarium wilt of muskmelon caused by Fusarium oxysporum. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 26:162-170.

Chen QiuPing, 2000. The survey and preliminary analysis on Lilium spp. diseases in Fujian. Journal of Fujian College of Forestry, 20(2):162-164.

Chinoko YD; Naqvi SHZ, 1989. Studies on fungi associated with post-harvest rot of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in south west Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Botany, 2:9-17; 25 ref.

Chohan JS, 1969. Survival of Aspergillus niger Van Tieghan and soil factors influencing the collar-rot disease of groundnut. Journal of Research Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana, VI(3):634-640.

Chopra S; Mehta A; Mehta P, 1993. Fruit rots of Emblica officinalis, Prunus domestica and Citrus medica caused by Aspergillus niger. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 23(2):129-134; 4 ref.

Christensen CM; Dorworth CE, 1966. Influence of moisture content, temperature and time of invasion of soybeans by storage fungi. Phytopathology, 56:412-418.

Christensen CM; Meronuck RA, 1986. Quality maintenance in stored grains and seeds. Minneapolis, USA: University of Minnesota Press.

Cooper-Driver GA; Wagner C; Kolberg H, 2000. Patterns of Aspergillus niger var. phoenicis (Corda) Al-Musallam infection in Namibian populations of Welwitschia mirabilis Hook.f. Journal of Arid Environments, 46(2):181-198; 34 ref.

Cortez-Rocha MO; Ramírez-Astudillo WR; Sánchez-Mariñez RI; Rosas-Burgos EC; Wong-Corral FJ; Borboa-Flores J; Castillón-Campaña LG; Tequida-Meneses M, 2003. Fumonisins and fungal species in corn from Sonora, Mexico. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 70(4):668-673.

Cother EJ; Dowling V, 1986. Bacteria associated with internal breakdown of onion bulbs and their possible role in disease expression. Plant Pathology, 35(3):329-336; 30 ref.

Coutinho WM; Suassuna ND; Luz CM; Suinaga FA; Silva ORRF, 2006. Bole rot of sisal caused by Aspergillus niger in Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 31(6):605. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-41582006000600014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Curtis RW, 1961. Studies on the response of bean seedlings and corn roots to malformin. Plant Physiology, 36:37-43.

Daivasikamani S; Kannan N; Nirmala-Kannan, 1986. Studies on post-harvest mycoflora of coffee cherry of robusta. Journal of Coffee Research, 16(3-4):102-106.

Dal Bello GM, 1987. Phytopathogenic fungi in soils of the horticultural region of La Plata: qualitative and pathogenicity investigations. Ciencia del Suelo, 5(2):189-192; 9 ref.

Dalbir Singh; Singh KG, 1990. Occurrence of fungi in rubber seeds of Malaysia. Indian Journal of Natural Rubber Research, 3(1):64-65; 4 ref.

Dang JK; Singh JP, 1982. Fungal rot of stored onion bulbs in Haryana. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research, 12(3):509-513

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