Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Aspergillus flavus
(Aspergillus ear rot)

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Datasheet

Aspergillus flavus (Aspergillus ear rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aspergillus flavus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Aspergillus ear rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Eurotiomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A. flavus ear rot (Iowa, USA). Mould is evident; seeds are discoloured and rotten.
TitleSymptoms on maize ear
CaptionA. flavus ear rot (Iowa, USA). Mould is evident; seeds are discoloured and rotten.
CopyrightDenis C. McGee/Iowa State University
A. flavus ear rot (Iowa, USA). Mould is evident; seeds are discoloured and rotten.
Symptoms on maize earA. flavus ear rot (Iowa, USA). Mould is evident; seeds are discoloured and rotten. Denis C. McGee/Iowa State University
Maize ear infected with A. flavus.
Contaminated seeds exhibit blue-green-yellow fluorescence under UV light
TitleUV fluorescence of infected seeds
CaptionMaize ear infected with A. flavus. Contaminated seeds exhibit blue-green-yellow fluorescence under UV light
CopyrightDenis C. McGee/Iowa State University
Maize ear infected with A. flavus.
Contaminated seeds exhibit blue-green-yellow fluorescence under UV light
UV fluorescence of infected seedsMaize ear infected with A. flavus. Contaminated seeds exhibit blue-green-yellow fluorescence under UV lightDenis C. McGee/Iowa State University
Seeds damaged by A. flavus.
TitleSymptoms on seeds
CaptionSeeds damaged by A. flavus.
CopyrightICRISAT
Seeds damaged by A. flavus.
Symptoms on seedsSeeds damaged by A. flavus.ICRISAT
Seeds damaged by A. flavus (right) are disoloured and rotten. Healthy seeds (left).
TitleSymptoms on seeds
CaptionSeeds damaged by A. flavus (right) are disoloured and rotten. Healthy seeds (left).
CopyrightICRISAT
Seeds damaged by A. flavus (right) are disoloured and rotten. Healthy seeds (left).
Symptoms on seedsSeeds damaged by A. flavus (right) are disoloured and rotten. Healthy seeds (left).ICRISAT
Comparison of healthy seeds (left) with seeds damaged by A. flavus (right).
TitleSymptoms on seeds
CaptionComparison of healthy seeds (left) with seeds damaged by A. flavus (right).
CopyrightICRISAT
Comparison of healthy seeds (left) with seeds damaged by A. flavus (right).
Symptoms on seedsComparison of healthy seeds (left) with seeds damaged by A. flavus (right).ICRISAT
Groundnut seed infected by A. flavus.
TitleSymptoms on seeds
CaptionGroundnut seed infected by A. flavus.
CopyrightICRISAT
Groundnut seed infected by A. flavus.
Symptoms on seedsGroundnut seed infected by A. flavus.ICRISAT
A. flavus conidiophores emerging from infected maize kernels.
TitleA. flavus conidiophores
CaptionA. flavus conidiophores emerging from infected maize kernels.
CopyrightDenis C. McGee/Iowa State University
A. flavus conidiophores emerging from infected maize kernels.
A. flavus conidiophoresA. flavus conidiophores emerging from infected maize kernels.Denis C. McGee/Iowa State University
Aflaroot - root damaged by A. flavus.
TitleSymptoms on root
CaptionAflaroot - root damaged by A. flavus.
CopyrightICRISAT
Aflaroot - root damaged by A. flavus.
Symptoms on rootAflaroot - root damaged by A. flavus.ICRISAT
A. flavus symptoms on seedling leaf.
TitleSymptoms on seedling leaf
CaptionA. flavus symptoms on seedling leaf.
CopyrightICRISAT
A. flavus symptoms on seedling leaf.
Symptoms on seedling leafA. flavus symptoms on seedling leaf.ICRISAT

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aspergillus flavus Link

Preferred Common Name

  • Aspergillus ear rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Aspergillus fasciculatum Batista & H. Maia
  • Aspergillus flavus f. magnasporus (Sakag. & G. Yamada) Nehira
  • Aspergillus flavus var. wehmeri (Costantin & Lucet) Blochwitz
  • Aspergillus humus E. V. Abbott
  • Aspergillus luteus (Tiegh.) C. W. Dodge
  • Aspergillus parasiticus Speare
  • Aspergillus wehmeri Costantin & Lucet

International Common Names

  • English: aflatoxin producing mould; Aspergillus boll rot of cotton; storage rot of groundnut, maize and rice; yellow mould of peanut

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Lagerfäule: Erdnuss; Lagerfäule: Mais; Lagerfäule: Reis; Mykotoxinbildner (u. a. Aflatoxin)

EPPO code

  • ASPEFL (Aspergillus flavus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Eurotiomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Eurotiomycetidae
  •                         Order: Eurotiales
  •                             Family: Trichocomaceae
  •                                 Genus: Aspergillus
  •                                     Species: Aspergillus flavus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresent
BahrainPresentMandeel, 2005
BangladeshPresent
ChinaPresent
-AnhuiPresentWang et al., 2004
-JiangsuPresentWang et al., 2004; Jiang et al., 2009
-JiangsuPresentWang et al., 2004; Jiang et al., 2009
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-ChhattisgarhPresentChandrol, 2007
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresentKirti et al., 2004; Durga et al., 2016
-Indian PunjabPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresentMurali et al., 2002
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-OdishaPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresentPramod et al., 2007
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresentKirti et al., 2004; Sahu and Agarwal, 2004; Sarika Kaler, 2008
-UttarakhandPresentKirti et al., 2004; Sahu and Agarwal, 2004; Sarika Kaler, 2008
-UttarakhandPresentKirti et al., 2004; Sahu and Agarwal, 2004; Sarika Kaler, 2008
-West BengalPresentOjha et al., 2008
IndonesiaPresentDharmaputra et al., 2004
-JavaPresentDharmaputra et al., 2004
IranPresentGhiasian et al., 2004
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
LebanonPresentEl-Khoury et al., 2006
NepalPresentIPPC, 2005
OmanPresentElshafie et al., 2002
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresentAl-Sheikh, 2009
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent
VietnamPresentNguyen et al., 2000
YemenPresent

Africa

BeninPresentHoussou et al., 2009
BotswanaPresentMphande et al., 2004
Burkina FasoPresent
CameroonPresentNjobeh et al., 2009
ChadPresentSougnabe and Foko, 2003
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresentGorfu and Sangchote, 2005
GhanaPresentAboagye-Nuamah et al., 2005
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresentYoussef et al., 2008
MoroccoPresentRoussos et al., 2006
NigerPresent
NigeriaPresent
SenegalPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresentOdebode et al., 2006
UgandaPresentTaligoola et al., 2004
ZambiaPresentKankolongo et al., 2009

North America

MexicoPresent
USAPresent
-AlabamaPresentKokalis-Burelle et al., 2002
-AlabamaPresentKokalis-Burelle et al., 2002
-ArizonaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresentGelderblom et al., 2004
-TexasPresent

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresent
HondurasPresent
PanamaPresentHughes et al., 2004

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresentSouza et al., 2004; Freire and Kozakiewicz, 2005
BrazilPresentSouza et al., 2004; Freire and Kozakiewicz, 2005
-GoiasPresentUtsch et al., 2010
-Minas GeraisPresentDuarte et al., 2009
-ParaibaPresentSouza et al., 2004
-ParanaPresentFarias et al., 2000
-Rio de JaneiroPresentKeller et al., 2007
-Rio Grande do SulPresentPrade et al., 2007
-Sao PauloPresentGonçalez et al., 2008
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresentPacin et al., 2002
PeruPresentAlvarez-Loayza et al., 2008
VenezuelaPresent

Europe

Czech RepublicPresentHubert et al., 2004
Former USSRPresent
GreecePresentMichailides and Thomidis, 2007
ItalyPresent
-SicilyPresentAlfonzo et al., 2008
PolandPresentCzerwiecki et al., 2002
PortugalPresentRodrigues et al., 2009
RomaniaPresentTabuc et al., 2009
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russian Far EastPresent
SlovakiaPresentJavoreková, 2004
SpainPresent
SwedenPresentFredlund et al., 2009
UKPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-QueenslandPresentRachaputi et al., 2002

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / rot
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Trichoderma hamatum Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Trichoderma koningii Antagonist
Trichoderma longibrachiatum Antagonist
Trichoderma pseudokoningii Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
Wood

References

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Aboagye-Nuamah F; Offei SK; Cornelius EW; Bancroft RD, 2005. Severity of spoilage storage rots of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.). Annals of Applied Biology, 147(2):183-190. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=aab

Abou-Zeid AM, 1995. Effect of Ustilago maydis (DC) Corda and its toxin on some maize cultivars. Journal of Phytopathology, 143(10):577-580; 19 ref.

Ahmad SK, 1993. Mycoflora changes and aflatoxin production in stored blackgram seeds. Journal of Stored Products Research, 29(1):33-36; 12 ref.

Alfonzo A; Conigliaro G; Piccolo Slo; Mondello V; Torta L; Burruano S, 2008. Investigastion on the dynamic of presence of Aspergilla and Penicillia populations in Western Sicilian vineyards. (Indagine sulla dinamica di presenza delle popolazioni di aspergilli e penicilli in vigneti della Sicilia occidentale.) Micologia Italiana, 37(1):40-49. http://www.patroneditore.com

Almeida RMAde; Gambale W; Corrêa B; Paula CR; Asevedo IGde, 1991. Mycoflora and aflatoxigenic species of Aspergillus spp. isolated from rice. Revista de Microbiologia, 22(2):161-163; 13 ref.

Al-Nahdi S, 2000. Mycotoxins from groundnuts marketed in Yemen. International Arachis Newsletter, No. 20:59-62; 4 ref.

Al-Sheikh H, 2009. Date-palm fruit spoilage and seed-borne fungi of Saudi Arabia. Research Journal of Microbiology, 4(5):208-213. http://www.academicjournals.net

Alvarez-Loayza P; White JF Jr; Giraldo CC, 2008. First report of Aspergillus flavus colonizing naturally dispersed seeds of Oxandra acuminata, Pseudomalmea diclina, and Unonopsis matthewsii in Peru. Plant Disease, 92(6):974. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Anandh K; Ramanujam K; Prakasam V, 1999. Estimation of yield loss of Pleurotus eous caused by contaminants. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 29(3):333-335; 7 ref.

Anderson RA, 1983. Detoxification of aflatoxin-contaminated corn. Aflatoxin and Aspergillus flavus in corn, 87-90.

Asevedo IG; Gambale W; Corrêa B; Paula CR; Almeida RMA; Framil VMS, 1993. Influence of temperature and relative humidity on production of aflatoxins in samples of stored maize artificially contaminated with Aspergillus flavus (Link). Revista de Microbiologia, 24(1):32-37; 19 ref.

Babu SC; Subrahmanyam P; Chiyembekeza AJ; Ng' ongola D, 1994. Impact of aflatoxin contamination on groundnut exports in Malawi. African Crop Science Journal, 2(2):215-220.

Bansal RK; Sobti AK, 1988. Control of Aspergillus flavus associated with groundnut seeds. Indian Phytopathology, 41(4):643-644; 4 ref.

Barry D; Zuber MS; Lillehoj EB; McMillian WW; Adams NJ; Kwolek WF; Widstrom NW, 1985. Evaluation of two arthropod vectors as inoculators of developing maize ears with Aspergillus flavus.. Environmental Entomology, 14(5):634-636; 21 ref.

Beti JA; Phillips TW; Smalley EB, 1995. Effects of maize weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on production of aflatoxin B by Aspergillus flavus in stored corn. Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(6):1776-1782; 21 ref.

Bindu R; Kumar KGA, 2003. Impact of Aspergillus on metabolic status of ground nut (Arachis hypogea) seed. Journal of Phytological Research, 16(2): 227-229.

Bock CH; Cotty PJ, 1999. Wheat seed colonized with atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus: characterization and production of a biopesticide for aflatoxin control. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 9(4):529-543; 26 ref.

Bockelee Morvan A; Gillier P, 1974. Trial of the elimination of aflatoxin in groundnuts by physical methods. Oleagineux, 29(11):513-516.

Bothast RJ; Beuchat LR; Emswiler BS; Johnson MG; Pierson MD, 1978. Incidence of airborne Aspergillus flavus spores in cornfields of five states. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 35(3):627-628

Bowen KL; Mack TP, 1993. Relationship of damage from the lesser cornstalk borer to Aspergillus flavus contamination in peanuts. Journal of Entomological Science, 28(1):29-42; 32 ref.

Brown RL; Cleveland TE; Payne GA; Woloshuk CP; Campbell KW; White DG, 1995. Determination of resistance to aflatoxin production in maize kernels and detection of fungal colonization using an Aspergillus flavus transformant expressing Escherichia coli -glucuronidase. Phytopathology, 85(9):983-989; 33 ref.

Calvo AM; Hinze LL; Gardner HW; Keller NP, 1999. Sporogenic effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on development of Aspergillus spp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65(8):3668-3673; 23 ref.

Campbell KW; White DG, 1995. Inheritance of resistance to Aspergillus ear rot and aflatoxin in corn genotypes. Phytopathology, 85(8):886-896; 35 ref.

Candlish AAG; Stimson WH; Smith JE, 1987. The detection of aflatoxin B1 in peanut kernels, peanut butter and maize using a monoclonal antibody based enzyme immunoassay. Food Microbiology, 4(2):147-153.

Chandrol GK, 2007. Diversities of fungal flora on stored leaf of tendu (Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb.). Advances in Plant Sciences, 20(2):383-385.

Christensen CM; Meronuck RA, 1986. Quality maintenance in stored grains and seeds. Minneapolis, USA: University of Minnesota Press.

Cole RJ; Blankenship PD; Hill RA; Sanders TH, 1984. Effect of geocarposphere temperature on preharvest colonization of drought stressed peanuts by Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Toxigenic fungi - their toxins and health hazard, 44-51; [3 tab.]; 9 ref.

Cole RJ; Hill RA; Blankenship PD; Sanders TH, 1986. Color mutants of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in a study of preharvest invasion of peanuts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 52(5):1128-1131; 21 ref.

Cole RJ; Sanders TH; Hill RA; Blankenship PD, 1985. Mean geocarposphere temperatures that induce preharvest aflatoxin contamination of peanuts under drought stress. Mycopathologia, 91(1):41-46; [4 tab.]; 14 ref.

Cotty PJ, 1997. Aflatoxin-producing potential of communities of Aspergillus section Flavi from cotton producing areas in the United States. Mycological Research, 101(6):698-704; 36 ref.

Cotty PJ; Bayman P, 1993. Competitive exclusion of a toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus by an atoxigenic strain. Phytopathology, 83(12):1283-1287; 33 ref.

Cotty PJ; Bock C; Howelland DR; Tellez A, 1997. Aflatoxin contamination of commercially grown transgenic Bt cottonseed. 1997 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, New Orleans, LA, USA, January 6-10, 1997: Volume 1., 108-110; 15 ref.

Czerwiecki L; Czajkowska D; Witkowska-Gwiazdowska A, 2002. On ochratoxin A and fungal flora in Polish cereals from conventional and ecological farms. Part 1: Occurrence of ochratoxin A and fungi in cereals in 1997. Food Additives and Contaminants, 19(5):470-477.

Dawar S; Ghaffar A, 1998. Effect of fungicides on aflatoxin production in sunflower seed. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 30(2):291-294; 14 ref.

Dharmalingam C; Sundararaj DD, 1973. Pre-germination treatment to improve health of cotton seeds. Madras Agricultural Journal, 60(9/12):1592-1595.

Dharmaputra OS; Rahmianna AA; Rachaputi NR; Wright GC; Mills G, 2004. Aflatoxin in Indonesian peanuts: how can the contamination within the food chain be managed? In: Agri-product supply-chain management in developing countries. Proceedings of a workshop, Bali, Indonesia, 19-22 August 2003 [ed. by Johnson, G. I.\Hofman, P. J.]. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), 88-97. [ACIAR Proceedings No. 119.]

Diener UL; Cole RJ; Sanders TH; Payne GA; Lee LS; Klich MA, 1987. Epidemiology of aflatoxin formation by Aspergillus flavus.. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 25:249-270; 95 ref.

Du WangLei; Huang ZhengYu; Flaherty JE; Wells K; Payne GA, 1999. Green fluorescent protein as a reporter to monitor gene expression and food colonization by Aspergillus flavus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65(2):834-836; 24 ref.

Duarte RP; Juliatti FC; Lucas BV; Freitas PTde, 2009. Performance of different maize genotypes with leaf application of fungicides for the incidence of fungi causing sour kernel. (Comportamento de diferentes genótipos de milho com aplicação foliar de fungicida quanto à incidência de fungos causadores de grãos ardidos.) Bioscience Journal, 25(4):112-122. http://www.biosciencejournal.ufu.br/include/getdoc.php?id=3779&article=686&mode=pdf

Durga Prashad; Sharma IM; Chandel RS; Pankaj Gupta, 2016. First report of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) blight and anthracnose caused by Alternaria species and Piggotia coryli in India. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 46(1):89-92. http://www.ismpp.org.in/journal.php

Dutton MF; Westlake K, 1985. Occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals and animal feedstuffs in Natal, South Africa. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 68(5):839-842.

Dwivedi SK, 1996. Quantitative analysis of protein and starch contents of clusterbean seeds infested with different fungi during storage. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 14(2):209-215.

El-Gohary AH, 1995. Study on aflatoxins in some foodstuffs with special reference to public health hazard in Egypt. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 8(6):571-575; 30 ref.

El-Khadem M, 1975. Pre- and post-emergence losses of peanut caused by Aspergillus flavus Link. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, 2, 130(3):245-250

El-Khoury A; Rizk T; Lteif R; Azouri H; Delia ML; Lebrihi A, 2006. Occurrence of ochratoxin A- and aflatoxin B1-producing fungi in Lebanese grapes and ochratoxin A content in musts and finished wines during 2004. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(23):8977-8982. http://pubs.acs.org/journals/jafcau/index.html

Elshafie AE; Al-Rashdi TA; Al-Bahry SN; Bakheit CS, 2002. Fungi and aflatoxins associated with spices in the Sultanate of Oman. Mycopathologia, 155(3):155-160.

Fardiaz S, 1991. Destruction of aflatoxin during processing of aflatoxin-contaminated peanuts into different peanut products. Indonesian Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 3(1):27-31; 10 ref.

Farias AXde; Robbs CF; Bittencourt AM; Andersen PM; Corrêa TBS, 2000. Endogenous Aspergillus spp. contamination of postharvest corn in Paraná State, Brazil. (Contaminação endógena por Aspergillus spp. em milho pós-colheita no Estado do Paraná.) Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 35(3):617-621.

Flaherty JE; Weaver MA; Payne GA; Woloshuk CP, 1995. A beta-glucuronidase reporter gene construct for monitoring aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61(7):2482-2486.

Fredlund E; Thim AM; Gidlund A; Brostedt S; Nyberg M; Olsen M, 2009. Moulds and mycotoxins in rice from the Swedish retail market. Food Additives and Contaminants A, 26(4):527-533. http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/link.asp?id=102446

Freire Fdas CO; Kozakiewicz Z, 2005. Filamentous fungi, bacteria and yeasts associated with cashew kernels in Brazil. Revista Ciência Agronômica, 36(2):249-254.

Garber RK; Cotty PJ, 1997. Formation of sclerotia and aflatoxins in developing cotton bolls infected by the S strain of Aspergillus flavus and potential for biocontrol with an atoxigenic strain. Phytopathology, 87(9):940-945; 30 ref.

Geiser DM; Dorner JW; Horn BW; Taylor JW, 2000. The phylogenetics of mycotoxin and sclerotium production in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 31(3):169-179; 34 ref.

Geiser DM; Pitt JI; Taylor JW, 1998. Cryptic speciation and recombination in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus flavus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(1):388-393; 38 ref.

Gelderblom WCA; Rheeder JP; Leggott N; Stockenstrom S; Humphreys J; Shephard GS; Marasas WFO, 2004. Fumonisin contamination of a corn sample associated with the induction of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats - role of dietary deficiencies. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 42(3):471-479.

Ghiasian SA; Kord-Bacheh P; Rezayat SM; Maghsood AH; Heshmatallah Taherkhani, 2004. Mycoflora of Iranian maize harvested in the main production areas in 2000. Mycopathologia, 158(1):113-121.

Gilbert RG; McMeans JL; McDonald RL, 1975. Influence of diurnal temperature cycles on infection of cotton bolls by Aspergillus flavus. Phytopathology, 65(9):1043-1044

Gonçalez E; Nogueira JHC; Fonseca H; Felicio JD; Pino FA; Corrêa B, 2008. Mycobiota and mycotoxins in Brazilian peanut kernels from sowing to harvest. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 123(3):184-190. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T7K-4RRFN53-1&_user=6686535&_coverDate=04%2F30%2F2008&_rdoc=2&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%235061%232008%23998769996%23687625%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5061&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=21&_acct=C000066028&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6686535&md5=1e7b5c6f4109462c979469f72cd96fa7

Gorfu D; Sangchote S, 2005. Fungi associated with field pea seeds from Ethiopia and seed transmission of Ascochyta pinodes. Seed Science and Technology, 33(2):387-396.

Greathead DJ; Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Griffin GJ; Garren KH, 1976. Colonization of aerial peanut pegs by Aspergillus flavus and A. niger-group fungi under field conditions. Phytopathology, 66(10):1161-1162

Griffin GJ; Garren KH, 1976. Colonization of rye green manure and peanut fruit debris by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger group in field soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 32(1):28-32

Gupta RP; Srivastava PK; Srivastava VK; Pandey UB, 1984. Note on fungi associated with onion seeds, their pathogenicity and control. Seed Research, 12(1):98-100; [3 tab.]; 5 ref.

Hammond WC, Shotwell OL (ed. ), Hurburgh CR (ed.), 1991. Techniques used to ammoniate aflatoxin-contaminated corn in the field. Aflatoxin in corn. New perspectives. North Central Regional Research Publication 329, 377-381.

Handoo ML; Aulakh KS, 1979. Seed-borne fungi of maize in India. Seed Research, 7(1):41-47

Hell K; Cardwell KF; Setamou M; Schulthess F, 2000. Influence of insect infestation on aflatoxin contamination of stored maize in four agroecological regions in Benin. African Entomology, 8(2):169-177; 44 ref.

Holmberg T; Kaspersson A, 1987. Acid treatment of grain - a risk for growth of Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus and aflatoxin formation. Monograph, British Crop Protection Council, No. 37:263; [In Stored products pest control, Proceedings of a symposium held at the University of Reading, 25-27 March, 1987].

Holtmeyer MG; Wallin JR, 1981. Incidence and distribution of airborne spores of Aspergillus flavus in Missouri. Plant Disease, 65(1):58-60

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