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bovine viral diarrhoea

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Datasheet

bovine viral diarrhoea

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • bovine viral diarrhoea
  • Overview
  • Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), belonging to the genus Pestivirus, is one of the most widespread cattle pathogens worldwide. BVDV is responsible for a variety of respiratory, digestive tract and reproductive symptoms; the consequences of BVD...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • bovine viral diarrhoea

International Common Names

  • English: acute bovine virus diarrhea, bvd, mucosal disease, pestivirus; bovine virus diarrhea, bvd, pestivirus, induced congenital defects in cattle; bovine virus diarrhea, bvd, virus in semen; bovine virus diarrhoea; chronic bovine virus diarrhea, bvd, pestivirus; glomerulonephritis in cattle; hydranencephaly with or without cerebellar lesions in ruminants; mucosal disease; mucosal disease complex

English acronym

  • BVD

Overview

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Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), belonging to the genus Pestivirus, is one of the most widespread cattle pathogens worldwide. BVDV is responsible for a variety of respiratory, digestive tract and reproductive symptoms; the consequences of BVDV infection are dependent on the age and immune status of the cattle at infection, as well as the biological properties of the infecting virus strain.

BVDV can be divided into two types, 1 and 2, and two biotypes, cytopathic (cp) and non-cytopathic (ncp). The ncp biotype is implicated in acute, fetal and persistent infection and the cp biotype (arising from a mutation of ncp BVDV) is responsible for the induction of mucosal disease (Peterhans et al., 2010). More recently, a new putative pestivirus species, tentatively called "HoBi-like" (also referred to as bovine viral diarrhea virus 3 and atypical pestivirus) has been associated with clinical disease (Bauermann and Ridpath, 2015; Giammarioli et al., 2015; Weber et al., 2016).

BVDV is recognised as a disease of significant financial impact in a number of countries. National and regional BVDV control programmes are in place in several regions around the world. In Europe, these programmes largely rely on the identification and removal of the persistently infected animals, whereas vaccination has tended to be the chosen method of control in the United States (Heffernan et al., 2009; Ståhl and Alenius, 2012; Lanyon and Reichel, 2014).

Bovine viral diarrhoea is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For information on this disease from OIE, see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated hostCattle and Buffaloes|All Stages
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated hostCattle and Buffaloes|All Stages
Capra hircus (goats)
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host
Sus scrofa (pigs)

Hosts/Species Affected

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BVDV infections are seen in all ages of cattle and have significant economic impact due to productive and reproductive losses. Cattle are the main hosts but the virus can spread to most ruminant species. BVDV can spread to sheep and cause border disease symptoms similar to those caused by the Pestivirus border disease virus.

Systems Affected

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bone, foot diseases and lameness in large ruminants
digestive diseases of large ruminants
digestive diseases of pigs
reproductive diseases of large ruminants
urinary tract and renal diseases of large ruminants

Distribution

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For current information on disease incidence, see OIE's WAHID Interface.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 04 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BotswanaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
BurundiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ComorosAbsentJan-Jun-2018
Côte d'IvoirePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
GhanaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KenyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MozambiqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RéunionPresentJul-Dec-2019
RwandaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ZambiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
ZimbabweAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BangladeshPresentJan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChinaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IndonesiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
IranPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
IraqPresentJul-Dec-2019
IsraelPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
JapanPresentJan-Jun-2020
JordanAbsentJul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MalaysiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PakistanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
PalestineAbsentJul-Dec-2019
QatarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
South KoreaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaPresentJul-Dec-2020
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TaiwanPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
TurkmenistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Europe

AlbaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AndorraAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelarusPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
BelgiumPresentJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CroatiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CyprusPresentJul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
DenmarkPresentJan-Jun-2019
EstoniaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
FrancePresentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyPresentJul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsentJan-Jun-2018
HungaryPresentJul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandPresentJul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManPresent
ItalyAbsentJul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaPresentJul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinPresentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LuxembourgPresent
MaltaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
MontenegroPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsPresentJul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PolandPresentJan-Jun-2019
PortugalPresentJul-Dec-2019
RussiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SlovakiaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SloveniaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
SpainPresentJul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandPresentJul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
United KingdomPresentJul-Dec-2019
-Northern IrelandPresent

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaPresentJul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicPresentJan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorPresentJul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuatemalaPresentJan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HondurasPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MartiniquePresentJul-Dec-2019
MexicoPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PanamaPresentJan-Jun-2019
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
United StatesPresentJul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaPresentJan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaPresentJul-Dec-2019
New ZealandPresentJul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Timor-LesteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaPresentJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaPresentJan-Jun-2019
BrazilPresentJul-Dec-2019
ChilePresentJan-Jun-2019
ColombiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
EcuadorPresentJul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ParaguayPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
PeruPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsentJan-Jun-2019
UruguayPresentJul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaPresentJan-Jun-2019

Diagnosis

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It is important to avoid the trade of viraemic animals. It is generally considered that serologically positive, non-viraemic cattle are ‘safe’, providing that they are not pregnant. Antibody-positive pregnant cattle carrying persistently infected foetuses are important transmitters of the virus between herds. About 15% of persistently viraemic animals have antibody to the NS/2 protein and a lower percentage to the E2 glycoprotein. Therefore, seropositivity cannot be equated with ‘safety’. Latent infections are not known to occur in recovered animals.

Persistently viraemic healthy animals resulting from congenital infection can be readily identified by isolation of non-cytopathogenic virus in cell cultures from blood or serum. It is necessary to use an immune-labelling method to detect the growth of virus in the cultures. Alternative methods based on direct detection of viral antigen or viral RNA in leukocytes are also available. Persistence of virus should be confirmed by re-sampling after an interval of at least 3 weeks. These animals will usually have no or low levels of antibodies to BVDV.

Viraemia in acute cases is transient and can be difficult to detect. In fatal cases of haemorrhagic disease, virus can be isolated from tissue post-mortem. Confirmation of mucosal disease can be made by isolation of the cytopathogenic biotype of BVDV, particularly from intestinal tissues. Non-cytopathogenic virus should also be detected, especially in blood.


Serological Tests


Acute infection with BVDV is best confirmed by demonstrating seroconversion using sequential paired samples from several animals in the group. The testing of paired (acute and convalescent) samples should be done a minimum of 21 days apart and samples should be tested side by side. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibody and the virus neutralization test are the most widely used (OIE, 2000). The ELISA has been used on bulk milk samples to assess the prevalence of the disease (Beaudeau et al., 2001; Valle et al., 2001), a useful part of regional or national eradication programmes. The polymerase chain reaction has also been used to detect the virus (Pfeffer et al., 2000).


Requirements for Vaccines and Diagnostic Biologicals


There is no standard vaccine for BVD, but a number of commercial preparations are available. Modified live virus vaccine should not be administered to pregnant cattle (or to their sucking calves), due to the risk of transplacental infection. There is also a risk of inducing mucosal disease in persistently infected animals. Killed virus vaccines generally require booster vaccinations. An ideal vaccine should be able to prevent transplacental infection in pregnant cows. BVDV is a particularly important hazard to the manufacture of biological products for other diseases due to the high frequency of contamination of batches of foetal calf serum used as a culture medium supplement (OIE, 2000).

[Methods for diagnosing infection with BVDV are available online in the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals]

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Digestive Signs / Abdominal distention Sign
Digestive Signs / Abdominal distention Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Bloat in ruminants, tympany Sign
Digestive Signs / Bloat in ruminants, tympany Sign
Digestive Signs / Bloody stools, faeces, haematochezia Sign
Digestive Signs / Bloody stools, faeces, haematochezia Sign
Digestive Signs / Congestion oral mucous membranes, erythema, redness oral mucosa Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
Digestive Signs / Excessive salivation, frothing at the mouth, ptyalism Sign
Digestive Signs / Excessive salivation, frothing at the mouth, ptyalism Sign
Digestive Signs / Malformation of jaw, brachygnathia, prognathia Sign
Digestive Signs / Melena or occult blood in faeces, stools Sign
Digestive Signs / Mucous, mucoid stools, faeces Sign
Digestive Signs / Mucous, mucoid stools, faeces Sign
Digestive Signs / Oral mucosal ulcers, vesicles, plaques, pustules, erosions, tears Sign
Digestive Signs / Oral mucosal ulcers, vesicles, plaques, pustules, erosions, tears Sign
Digestive Signs / Prolapsed rectum, rectal eversion Sign
Digestive Signs / Rumen hypomotility or atony, decreased rate, motility, strength Sign
Digestive Signs / Rumen hypomotility or atony, decreased rate, motility, strength Sign
Digestive Signs / Tongue ulcers, vesicles, erosions, sores, blisters, cuts, tears Sign
Digestive Signs / Tongue ulcers, vesicles, erosions, sores, blisters, cuts, tears Sign
Digestive Signs / Unusual or foul odor, stools, faeces Sign
Digestive Signs / Unusual or foul odor, stools, faeces Sign
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Sign
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Sign
General Signs / Dehydration Sign
General Signs / Dehydration Sign
General Signs / Dysmetria, hypermetria, hypometria Sign
General Signs / Dysmetria, hypermetria, hypometria Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Sign
General Signs / Forelimb lameness, stiffness, limping fore leg Sign
General Signs / Forelimb lameness, stiffness, limping fore leg Sign
General Signs / Generalized lameness or stiffness, limping Sign
General Signs / Generalized lameness or stiffness, limping Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Haemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, bleeding Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb lameness, stiffness, limping hind leg Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb lameness, stiffness, limping hind leg Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
General Signs / Opisthotonus Sign
General Signs / Opisthotonus Sign
General Signs / Pale mucous membranes or skin, anemia Sign
General Signs / Pale mucous membranes or skin, anemia Sign
General Signs / Petechiae or ecchymoses, bruises, ecchymosis Sign
General Signs / Sudden death, found dead Sign
General Signs / Tenesmus, straining, dyschezia Sign
General Signs / Tenesmus, straining, dyschezia Sign
General Signs / Trembling, shivering, fasciculations, chilling Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Decreased mobility of forelimb joint, arthrogryposis front leg Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Decreased mobility of hindlimb joint, arthrogryposis rear leg Sign
Nervous Signs / Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Tremor Sign
Nervous Signs / Tremor Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Blindness Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Blindness Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Cataract, lens opacity Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Corneal edema, opacity Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Decreased or absent menace response but not blind Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Lacrimation, tearing, serous ocular discharge, watery eyes Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Lacrimation, tearing, serous ocular discharge, watery eyes Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Microphthalmia, small globe, cornea, phthisis bulbi Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Nystagmus Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Nystagmus Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Purulent discharge from eye Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Reproductive Signs / Bloody milk, red, pink, brown milk Sign
Reproductive Signs / Female infertility, repeat breeder Sign
Reproductive Signs / Female infertility, repeat breeder Sign
Reproductive Signs / Female infertility, repeat breeder Sign
Reproductive Signs / Male infertility Sign
Reproductive Signs / Mummy, mummified fetus Sign
Reproductive Signs / Vulval ulcers, vesicles, erosions, tears, cuts, pustules, papules Sign
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, rales, crackles, wheezes, friction rubs Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Epistaxis, nosebleed, nasal haemorrhage, bleeding Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery Sign
Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery Sign
Respiratory Signs / Purulent nasal discharge Sign
Respiratory Signs / Purulent nasal discharge Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Alopecia, thinning, shedding, easily epilated, loss of, hair Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Cold skin, cool ears, extremities Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Cracked skin, fissure Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Defective growth of nail, claw, hoof Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Hyperkeratosis, thick skin Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Overgrown nail, claw, hoof Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Rough hair coat, dull, standing on end Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Rough hair coat, dull, standing on end Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin crusts, scabs Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin crusts, scabs Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin edema Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin scales, flakes, peeling Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin ulcer, erosion, excoriation Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin ulcer, erosion, excoriation Sign
Urinary Signs / Proteinuria, protein in urine Sign

Disease Course

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The clinical signs range from subclinical to the fulminating fatal condition called mucosal disease. Acute infections may result in transient diarrhoea or pneumonia, usually in the form of group outbreaks. Acute forms of the disease associated with high mortality have also been described; often, but not always, associated with a haemorrhagic syndrome. However, most infections in the young calf are mild and are often not recognized clinically.

Infections of the bovine foetus may result in abortions, stillbirths, teratogenic effects or persistent infection in the newborn calf. Persistent infection arises from the infection of the foetus during the first trimester of pregnancy with the non-cytopathogenic BVDV. The cytopathic biotype does not cause persistent infection. This may be linked to the fact that the non-cytopathogenic biotype does not elicit (or inhibits) a type I interferon response from the challenged foetus (Charleston et al., 2001). Persistently viraemic animals may be born as weak, unthrifty calves or may appear as normal healthy calves and be unrecognized clinically. Some of these animals may later develop mucosal disease with anorexia, gastrointestinal erosions, and profuse diarrhoea, leading invariably to death. Mucosal disease can arise only in persistently infected animals following superinfection.

Epidemiology

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The virus spreads mainly by contact between cattle. The virus can be isolated from nasal discharge, saliva, semen, faeces, urine, tears, and milk. An outbreak of the disease in the Netherlands in 1999 was thought to be caused by contamination of a bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine with BVDV (Barkema et al., 2001). The contamination was thought to have come via infected foetal calf serum (this was not substantiated by further work; Antonis et al., 2001). Persistently infected animals are a major source of infection to susceptible animals. The virus can also be transmitted from persistently infected animals using hypodermic needles and contaminated nose tongs: and the virus could be isolated from flies (Musca autumnalis) that fed on ocular secretions of persistently infected cows (Gunn, 1993). Vertical transmission plays an important role in its epidemiology and pathogenesis.

Prevention and Control

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There is no specific treatment for mucosal disease. Animals with chronic diarrhoea from BVDV infection should be culled. A successful control and prevention of the disease depends on identification and eradication of persistently infected animals and immunization of breeding animals before breeding. A number of vaccines are available commercially. An inactivated type 1 vaccine (Bovilis) was shown to provide protection against infection with type 2 virus (Mackoschey et al., 2001). However, vaccines from a single strain or genotype may not always give full protection against antigenic variants of the virus. Both inactivated and modified live vaccines are available, although the modified-live should not be used in pregnant cows. The live vaccines can cause foetal infections or immunosuppression. Inactivated vaccines can be used in pregnant cows, but regular boosters are needed to maintain protection (Radostits, 1994; Quinn et al., 2002).

References

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Antonis AF, van Oirschot JT, van Es M, Bruschke CJ, 2001. Vaccination of calves with contaminated batches of bovine herpes virus 1 vaccines did not result in infection with bovine virus diarrhea virus. Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde, 126(6):208-211.

Barkema HW, Bartels CJM, Wuijckhuise Lvan, Hesselink JW, Holzhauer M, Weber MF, Franken P, Kock PA, Bruschke CJM, Zimmer GM, 2001. Outbreak of bovine virus diarrhoea on Dutch dairy farms induced by a bovine herpesvirus 1 marker vaccine contaminated with bovine virus diarrhoea virus type 2. Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde, 126(6):158-165; 33 ref.

Bauermann FV, Ridpath JF, 2015. HoBi-like viruses - the typical 'atypical bovine pestivirus'. Animal Health Research Reviews [A joint meeting on pestiviruses organized by the US BVDV Symposia Committee and the European Society for Veterinary Virology entitled "Pestiviruses: old enemies and new challenges", Kansas City, Missouri, USA, 14-15 October 2014.], 16(1):64-69. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=AHR

Beaudeau F, Assie S, Seegers H, Belloc C, Sellal E, Joly A, 2001. Assessing the within-herd prevalence of cows antibody-positive to bovine viral diarrhoea virus with a blocking ELISA on bulk tank milk. Veterinary Record, 149(8):236-240.

Charleston B, Fray MD, Baigent S, Carr BV, Morrison WI, 2001. Establishment of persistent infection with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle is associated with a failure to induce type I interferon. Journal of General Virology, 82(8):1893-1897; 17 ref.

Giammarioli M, Ridpath JF, Rossi E, Bazzucchi M, Casciari C, Mia GMde, 2015. Genetic detection and characterization of emerging HoBi-like viruses in archival foetal bovine serum batches. Biologicals, 43(4):220-224. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10451056

Gilbert SA, Burton KM, Prins SE, Deregt D, 1999. Typing of bovine viral diarrhea viruses directly from blood of persistently infected cattle by multiplex PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 37(6):2020-2023; 28 ref.

Gunn HM, 1993. Role of fomites and flies in the transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Veterinary Record, 132(23):584-585; 14 ref.

Heffernan C, Misturelli F, Nielsen L, Gunn GJ, Yu J, 2009. Analysis of Pan-European attitudes to the eradication and control of bovine viral diarrhoea. Veterinary Record, 164(6):163-167. http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/

Lanyon SR, Reichel MP, 2014. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus ('pestivirus') in Australia: to control or not to control? Australian Veterinary Journal, 92(8):277-282. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1751-0813

Makoschey B, Janssen MGJ, Vrijenhoek MP, Korsten JHM, Marel PVD, 2001. An inactivated bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) type 1 vaccine affords clinical protection against BVDV type 2. Vaccine, 19(23/24):3261-3268; 27 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2000. The Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Paris, France: Office International Des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

Pellerin C, Vandenhurk J, Lecomte J, Tijssen P, 1994. Identification of a new group of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains associated with severe outbreaks and high mortalities. Virology, 203:260-268.

Peterhans E, Bachofen C, Stalder H, Schweizer M, 2010. Cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV): emerging pestiviruses doomed to extinction. Veterinary Research, 41(6):41:44. http://www.vetres.org/

Pfeffer M, Freyburg Mvon, Kaaden OR, Beer M, 2000. A universal 'one-tube' RT-PCR protocol for amplifying isolates of bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Veterinary Research Communications, 24(7):491-503; 45 ref.

Quinn PJ, Markey BK, Carter ME, Donnelly WJ, Leonard FC, 2002. Flaviviridae. In: Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science. ISBN: 0-632-05525-1.

Radostits OM, Blood DC, Gay CC, 1994. Veterinary medicine. A textbook of the diseases of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horses. Veterinary medicine. A textbook of the diseases of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horses., Ed. 8:xxiii + 1763 pp.; many ref.

Ridpath JF, Bolin SR, Dubovi EJ, 1994. Segregation of bovine diarrhea virus into genotypes. Virology (New York), 205(1):66-74; 47 ref.

Stahl K, Alenius S, 2012. BVDV control and eradication in Europe - an update. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research [International Symposium on Worldwide Infectious Diseases of Farm Animal in Production Medicine; Prospective and Perspective, Sapporo Convention Center, Hokkaido, Japan, 3-4 February 2012.], 60(Supplement):S31-S39. http://eprints.lib.hokudai.ac.jp/bulletin/jjvr

Valle PS, Wayne Martin S, Skjerve E, 2001. A Bayesian approach to estimating the performance of a bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) antibody ELISA bulk-tank milk test. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 50(1-2):71-87.

Weber MN, Mósena ACS, Simões SVD, Almeida LL, Pessoa CRM, Budaszewski RF, Silva TR, Ridpath JF, Riet-Correa F, Driemeier D, Canal CW, 2016. Clinical presentation resembling mucosal disease associated with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus in a field outbreak. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 63(1):92-100. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tbed.12223/full

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4., Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. https://www.oie.int/

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

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