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bovine viral diarrhoea

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Datasheet

bovine viral diarrhoea

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • bovine viral diarrhoea
  • Overview
  • Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), belonging to the genus Pestivirus, is one of the most widespread cattle pathogens worldwide. BVDV is responsible for a variety of respiratory, digestive tract and reproductive sympt...

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    CAB International
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    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • bovine viral diarrhoea

International Common Names

  • English: acute bovine virus diarrhea, bvd, mucosal disease, pestivirus; bovine virus diarrhea, bvd, pestivirus, induced congenital defects in cattle; bovine virus diarrhea, bvd, virus in semen; bovine virus diarrhoea; chronic bovine virus diarrhea, bvd, pestivirus; glomerulonephritis in cattle; hydranencephaly with or without cerebellar lesions in ruminants; mucosal disease; mucosal disease complex

English acronym

  • BVD

Overview

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Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), belonging to the genus Pestivirus, is one of the most widespread cattle pathogens worldwide. BVDV is responsible for a variety of respiratory, digestive tract and reproductive symptoms; the consequences of BVDV infection are dependent on the age and immune status of the cattle at infection, as well as the biological properties of the infecting virus strain.

BVDV can be divided into two types, 1 and 2, and two biotypes, cytopathic (cp) and non-cytopathic (ncp). The ncp biotype is implicated in acute, fetal and persistent infection and the cp biotype (arising from a mutation of ncp BVDV) is responsible for the induction of mucosal disease (Peterhans et al., 2010). More recently, a new putative pestivirus species, tentatively called "HoBi-like" (also referred to as bovine viral diarrhea virus 3 and atypical pestivirus) has been associated with clinical disease (Bauermann and Ridpath, 2015; Giammarioli et al., 2015; Weber et al., 2016).

BVDV is recognised as a disease of significant financial impact in a number of countries. National and regional BVDV control programmes are in place in several regions around the world. In Europe, these programmes largely rely on the identification and removal of the persistently infected animals, whereas vaccination has tended to be the chosen method of control in the United States (Heffernan et al., 2009; Ståhl and Alenius, 2012; Lanyon and Reichel, 2014).

Bovine viral diarrhoea is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For information on this disease from OIE, see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated hostCattle & Buffaloes: All Stages
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated hostCattle & Buffaloes: All Stages
Capra hircus (goats)
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host
Sus scrofa (pigs)

Hosts/Species Affected

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BVDV infections are seen in all ages of cattle and have significant economic impact due to productive and reproductive losses. Cattle are the main hosts but the virus can spread to most ruminant species. BVDV can spread to sheep and cause border disease symptoms similar to those caused by the Pestivirus border disease virus.

Systems Affected

Top of page bone, foot diseases and lameness in large ruminants
digestive diseases of large ruminants
digestive diseases of pigs
reproductive diseases of large ruminants
urinary tract and renal diseases of large ruminants

Distribution

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For current information on disease incidence, see OIE's WAHID Interface.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanNo information availableOIE, 2009
ArmeniaNo information availableOIE, 2009
AzerbaijanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BahrainNo information availableOIE, 2009
BangladeshDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BhutanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Brunei DarussalamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CambodiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ChinaNo information availableOIE, 2009
-Hong KongNo information availableOIE, 2009
Georgia (Republic of)Last reported1989OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
IndonesiaPresentOIE, 2009
IranPresentOIE, 2009
IraqPresentOIE, 2009
IsraelPresentOIE, 2009
JapanPresentOIE, 2009
JordanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofPresentOIE, 2009
KuwaitDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
KyrgyzstanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LaosDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LebanonDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaNo information availableOIE, 2009
MyanmarDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
NepalNo information availableOIE, 2009
OmanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
PakistanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
PhilippinesNo information availableOIE, 2009
QatarNo information availableOIE, 2009
Saudi ArabiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SyriaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
TaiwanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
ThailandNo information availableOIE, 2009
TurkeyNo information availableOIE, 2009
TurkmenistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
UzbekistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamNo information availableOIE, 2009
YemenNo information availableOIE, 2009

Africa

AlgeriaNo information availableOIE, 2009
AngolaNo information availableOIE, 2009
BeninDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
BotswanaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE, 2009
BurundiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE, 2009
CongoNo information availableOIE, 2009
Congo Democratic RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiNo information availableOIE, 2009
EgyptNo information availableOIE, 2009
EritreaNo information availableOIE, 2009
EthiopiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
GabonNo information availableOIE, 2009
GambiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
GuineaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE, 2009
KenyaNo information availableOIE, 2009
LesothoDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
LibyaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MalawiNo information availableOIE, 2009
MaliNo information availableOIE, 2009
MauritiusDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MoroccoNo information availableOIE, 2009
MozambiqueDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
NamibiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
NigeriaNo information availableOIE, 2009
RéunionNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Sao Tome and PrincipeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE, 2009
SeychellesNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaNo information availableOIE, 2009
SudanDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SwazilandNo information availableOIE, 2009
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE, 2009
TogoNo information availableOIE, 2009
TunisiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
UgandaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
ZambiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ZimbabweDisease not reportedOIE, 2009

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaPresentOIE, 2009
GreenlandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MexicoPresentOIE, 2009
USAPresentOIE, 2009

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE, 2009
CubaPresentOIE, 2009
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
El SalvadorNo information availableOIE, 2009
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE, 2009
GuatemalaPresentOIE, 2009
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
HondurasPresentOIE, 2009
JamaicaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MartiniqueNo information availableOIE, 2009
NicaraguaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
PanamaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaPresentOIE, 2009
BoliviaPresentOIE, 2009
BrazilPresentOIE, 2009
ChilePresentOIE, 2009
ColombiaPresentOIE, 2009
EcuadorPresentOIE, 2009
Falkland IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaNo information availableOIE, 2009
GuyanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
UruguayPresentOIE, 2009
VenezuelaPresentOIE, 2009

Europe

AlbaniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
AndorraCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaPresentOIE, 2009
BelarusNo information availableOIE, 2009
BelgiumDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Bosnia-HercegovinaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaNo information availableOIE, 2009
CroatiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
CyprusPresentOIE, 2009
Czech RepublicPresentOIE, 2009
DenmarkPresentOIE, 2009
EstoniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
FinlandDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
FranceNo information availableOIE, 2009
GermanyPresentOIE, 2009
GreeceDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
HungaryRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
IrelandNo information availableOIE, 2009
Isle of Man (UK)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyPresentOIE, 2009
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LiechtensteinPresentOIE, 2009
LithuaniaPresentOIE, 2009
LuxembourgPresentOIE, 2009
MacedoniaAbsent, reported but not confirmedOIE, 2009
MaltaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MoldovaLast reported1987OIE Handistatus, 2005
MontenegroDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
NetherlandsPresentOIE, 2009
NorwayDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
PolandNo information availableOIE, 2009
PortugalAbsent, reported but not confirmedOIE, 2009
RomaniaNo information availableOIE, 2009
Russian FederationPresentOIE, 2009
SerbiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
SlovakiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SloveniaPresentOIE, 2009
SpainRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
SwedenPresentOIE, 2009
SwitzerlandPresentOIE, 2009
UKPresentOIE, 2009
-Northern IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaPresentOIE, 2009
French PolynesiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
New CaledoniaPresentOIE, 2009
New ZealandPresentOIE, 2009
SamoaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Diagnosis

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It is important to avoid the trade of viraemic animals. It is generally considered that serologically positive, non-viraemic cattle are ‘safe’, providing that they are not pregnant. Antibody-positive pregnant cattle carrying persistently infected foetuses are important transmitters of the virus between herds. About 15% of persistently viraemic animals have antibody to the NS/2 protein and a lower percentage to the E2 glycoprotein. Therefore, seropositivity cannot be equated with ‘safety’. Latent infections are not known to occur in recovered animals.

Persistently viraemic healthy animals resulting from congenital infection can be readily identified by isolation of non-cytopathogenic virus in cell cultures from blood or serum. It is necessary to use an immune-labelling method to detect the growth of virus in the cultures. Alternative methods based on direct detection of viral antigen or viral RNA in leukocytes are also available. Persistence of virus should be confirmed by re-sampling after an interval of at least 3 weeks. These animals will usually have no or low levels of antibodies to BVDV.

Viraemia in acute cases is transient and can be difficult to detect. In fatal cases of haemorrhagic disease, virus can be isolated from tissue post-mortem. Confirmation of mucosal disease can be made by isolation of the cytopathogenic biotype of BVDV, particularly from intestinal tissues. Non-cytopathogenic virus should also be detected, especially in blood.


Serological Tests


Acute infection with BVDV is best confirmed by demonstrating seroconversion using sequential paired samples from several animals in the group. The testing of paired (acute and convalescent) samples should be done a minimum of 21 days apart and samples should be tested side by side. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibody and the virus neutralization test are the most widely used (OIE, 2000). The ELISA has been used on bulk milk samples to assess the prevalence of the disease (Beaudeau et al., 2001; Valle et al., 2001), a useful part of regional or national eradication programmes. The polymerase chain reaction has also been used to detect the virus (Pfeffer et al., 2000).


Requirements for Vaccines and Diagnostic Biologicals


There is no standard vaccine for BVD, but a number of commercial preparations are available. Modified live virus vaccine should not be administered to pregnant cattle (or to their sucking calves), due to the risk of transplacental infection. There is also a risk of inducing mucosal disease in persistently infected animals. Killed virus vaccines generally require booster vaccinations. An ideal vaccine should be able to prevent transplacental infection in pregnant cows. BVDV is a particularly important hazard to the manufacture of biological products for other diseases due to the high frequency of contamination of batches of foetal calf serum used as a culture medium supplement (OIE, 2000).

[Methods for diagnosing infection with BVDV are available online in the OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals]

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Digestive Signs / Abdominal distention Sign
Digestive Signs / Abdominal distention Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Bloat in ruminants, tympany Sign
Digestive Signs / Bloat in ruminants, tympany Sign
Digestive Signs / Bloody stools, faeces, haematochezia Sign
Digestive Signs / Bloody stools, faeces, haematochezia Sign
Digestive Signs / Congestion oral mucous membranes, erythema, redness oral mucosa Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
Digestive Signs / Excessive salivation, frothing at the mouth, ptyalism Sign
Digestive Signs / Excessive salivation, frothing at the mouth, ptyalism Sign
Digestive Signs / Malformation of jaw, brachygnathia, prognathia Sign
Digestive Signs / Melena or occult blood in faeces, stools Sign
Digestive Signs / Mucous, mucoid stools, faeces Sign
Digestive Signs / Mucous, mucoid stools, faeces Sign
Digestive Signs / Oral mucosal ulcers, vesicles, plaques, pustules, erosions, tears Sign
Digestive Signs / Oral mucosal ulcers, vesicles, plaques, pustules, erosions, tears Sign
Digestive Signs / Prolapsed rectum, rectal eversion Sign
Digestive Signs / Rumen hypomotility or atony, decreased rate, motility, strength Sign
Digestive Signs / Rumen hypomotility or atony, decreased rate, motility, strength Sign
Digestive Signs / Tongue ulcers, vesicles, erosions, sores, blisters, cuts, tears Sign
Digestive Signs / Tongue ulcers, vesicles, erosions, sores, blisters, cuts, tears Sign
Digestive Signs / Unusual or foul odor, stools, faeces Sign
Digestive Signs / Unusual or foul odor, stools, faeces Sign
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Sign
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Sign
General Signs / Dehydration Sign
General Signs / Dehydration Sign
General Signs / Dysmetria, hypermetria, hypometria Sign
General Signs / Dysmetria, hypermetria, hypometria Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Sign
General Signs / Forelimb lameness, stiffness, limping fore leg Sign
General Signs / Forelimb lameness, stiffness, limping fore leg Sign
General Signs / Generalized lameness or stiffness, limping Sign
General Signs / Generalized lameness or stiffness, limping Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Haemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, bleeding Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb lameness, stiffness, limping hind leg Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb lameness, stiffness, limping hind leg Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
General Signs / Opisthotonus Sign
General Signs / Opisthotonus Sign
General Signs / Pale mucous membranes or skin, anemia Sign
General Signs / Pale mucous membranes or skin, anemia Sign
General Signs / Petechiae or ecchymoses, bruises, ecchymosis Sign
General Signs / Sudden death, found dead Sign
General Signs / Tenesmus, straining, dyschezia Sign
General Signs / Tenesmus, straining, dyschezia Sign
General Signs / Trembling, shivering, fasciculations, chilling Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Decreased mobility of forelimb joint, arthrogryposis front leg Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Decreased mobility of hindlimb joint, arthrogryposis rear leg Sign
Nervous Signs / Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Tremor Sign
Nervous Signs / Tremor Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Blindness Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Blindness Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Cataract, lens opacity Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Corneal edema, opacity Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Decreased or absent menace response but not blind Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Lacrimation, tearing, serous ocular discharge, watery eyes Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Lacrimation, tearing, serous ocular discharge, watery eyes Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Microphthalmia, small globe, cornea, phthisis bulbi Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Nystagmus Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Nystagmus Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Purulent discharge from eye Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Reproductive Signs / Bloody milk, red, pink, brown milk Sign
Reproductive Signs / Female infertility, repeat breeder Sign
Reproductive Signs / Female infertility, repeat breeder Sign
Reproductive Signs / Female infertility, repeat breeder Sign
Reproductive Signs / Male infertility Sign
Reproductive Signs / Mummy, mummified fetus Sign
Reproductive Signs / Vulval ulcers, vesicles, erosions, tears, cuts, pustules, papules Sign
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, rales, crackles, wheezes, friction rubs Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Epistaxis, nosebleed, nasal haemorrhage, bleeding Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery Sign
Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery Sign
Respiratory Signs / Purulent nasal discharge Sign
Respiratory Signs / Purulent nasal discharge Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Alopecia, thinning, shedding, easily epilated, loss of, hair Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Cold skin, cool ears, extremities Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Cracked skin, fissure Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Defective growth of nail, claw, hoof Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Hyperkeratosis, thick skin Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Overgrown nail, claw, hoof Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Rough hair coat, dull, standing on end Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Rough hair coat, dull, standing on end Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin crusts, scabs Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin crusts, scabs Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin edema Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin scales, flakes, peeling Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin ulcer, erosion, excoriation Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin ulcer, erosion, excoriation Sign
Urinary Signs / Proteinuria, protein in urine Sign

Disease Course

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The clinical signs range from subclinical to the fulminating fatal condition called mucosal disease. Acute infections may result in transient diarrhoea or pneumonia, usually in the form of group outbreaks. Acute forms of the disease associated with high mortality have also been described; often, but not always, associated with a haemorrhagic syndrome. However, most infections in the young calf are mild and are often not recognized clinically.

Infections of the bovine foetus may result in abortions, stillbirths, teratogenic effects or persistent infection in the newborn calf. Persistent infection arises from the infection of the foetus during the first trimester of pregnancy with the non-cytopathogenic BVDV. The cytopathic biotype does not cause persistent infection. This may be linked to the fact that the non-cytopathogenic biotype does not elicit (or inhibits) a type I interferon response from the challenged foetus (Charleston et al., 2001). Persistently viraemic animals may be born as weak, unthrifty calves or may appear as normal healthy calves and be unrecognized clinically. Some of these animals may later develop mucosal disease with anorexia, gastrointestinal erosions, and profuse diarrhoea, leading invariably to death. Mucosal disease can arise only in persistently infected animals following superinfection.

Epidemiology

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The virus spreads mainly by contact between cattle. The virus can be isolated from nasal discharge, saliva, semen, faeces, urine, tears, and milk. An outbreak of the disease in the Netherlands in 1999 was thought to be caused by contamination of a bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine with BVDV (Barkema et al., 2001). The contamination was thought to have come via infected foetal calf serum (this was not substantiated by further work; Antonis et al., 2001). Persistently infected animals are a major source of infection to susceptible animals. The virus can also be transmitted from persistently infected animals using hypodermic needles and contaminated nose tongs: and the virus could be isolated from flies (Musca autumnalis) that fed on ocular secretions of persistently infected cows (Gunn, 1993). Vertical transmission plays an important role in its epidemiology and pathogenesis.

Prevention and Control

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There is no specific treatment for mucosal disease. Animals with chronic diarrhoea from BVDV infection should be culled. A successful control and prevention of the disease depends on identification and eradication of persistently infected animals and immunization of breeding animals before breeding. A number of vaccines are available commercially. An inactivated type 1 vaccine (Bovilis) was shown to provide protection against infection with type 2 virus (Mackoschey et al., 2001). However, vaccines from a single strain or genotype may not always give full protection against antigenic variants of the virus. Both inactivated and modified live vaccines are available, although the modified-live should not be used in pregnant cows. The live vaccines can cause foetal infections or immunosuppression. Inactivated vaccines can be used in pregnant cows, but regular boosters are needed to maintain protection (Radostits, 1994; Quinn et al., 2002).

References

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Antonis AF, van Oirschot JT, van Es M, Bruschke CJ, 2001. Vaccination of calves with contaminated batches of bovine herpes virus 1 vaccines did not result in infection with bovine virus diarrhea virus. Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde, 126(6):208-211.

Barkema HW, Bartels CJM, Wuijckhuise Lvan, Hesselink JW, Holzhauer M, Weber MF, Franken P, Kock PA, Bruschke CJM, Zimmer GM, 2001. Outbreak of bovine virus diarrhoea on Dutch dairy farms induced by a bovine herpesvirus 1 marker vaccine contaminated with bovine virus diarrhoea virus type 2. Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde, 126(6):158-165; 33 ref.

Bauermann FV, Ridpath JF, 2015. HoBi-like viruses - the typical 'atypical bovine pestivirus'. Animal Health Research Reviews [A joint meeting on pestiviruses organized by the US BVDV Symposia Committee and the European Society for Veterinary Virology entitled "Pestiviruses: old enemies and new challenges", Kansas City, Missouri, USA, 14-15 October 2014.], 16(1):64-69. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=AHR

Beaudeau F, Assie S, Seegers H, Belloc C, Sellal E, Joly A, 2001. Assessing the within-herd prevalence of cows antibody-positive to bovine viral diarrhoea virus with a blocking ELISA on bulk tank milk. Veterinary Record, 149(8):236-240.

Charleston B, Fray MD, Baigent S, Carr BV, Morrison WI, 2001. Establishment of persistent infection with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle is associated with a failure to induce type I interferon. Journal of General Virology, 82(8):1893-1897; 17 ref.

Giammarioli M, Ridpath JF, Rossi E, Bazzucchi M, Casciari C, Mia GMde, 2015. Genetic detection and characterization of emerging HoBi-like viruses in archival foetal bovine serum batches. Biologicals, 43(4):220-224. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10451056

Gilbert SA, Burton KM, Prins SE, Deregt D, 1999. Typing of bovine viral diarrhea viruses directly from blood of persistently infected cattle by multiplex PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 37(6):2020-2023; 28 ref.

Gunn HM, 1993. Role of fomites and flies in the transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Veterinary Record, 132(23):584-585; 14 ref.

Heffernan C, Misturelli F, Nielsen L, Gunn GJ, Yu J, 2009. Analysis of Pan-European attitudes to the eradication and control of bovine viral diarrhoea. Veterinary Record, 164(6):163-167. http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/archive/

Lanyon SR, Reichel MP, 2014. Bovine viral diarrhoea virus ('pestivirus') in Australia: to control or not to control? Australian Veterinary Journal, 92(8):277-282. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1751-0813

Makoschey B, Janssen MGJ, Vrijenhoek MP, Korsten JHM, Marel PVD, 2001. An inactivated bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) type 1 vaccine affords clinical protection against BVDV type 2. Vaccine, 19(23/24):3261-3268; 27 ref.

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