Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Morone americana
(white perch)

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Datasheet

Morone americana (white perch)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Morone americana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white perch
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • M. americana can thrive in a wide range of environments, but is naturally found in brackish waters and can invade freshwater habitats. M. americana has the ability to compete with native species, preying o...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Morone americana (white perch); artwork of adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionMorone americana (white perch); artwork of adult.
CopyrightReleased into the Public Domain by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service/National Digital Library - Original artwork by Duane Raver Jr.
Morone americana (white perch); artwork of adult.
AdultMorone americana (white perch); artwork of adult.Released into the Public Domain by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service/National Digital Library - Original artwork by Duane Raver Jr.

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Morone americana (Gmelin, 1789)

Preferred Common Name

  • white perch

Other Scientific Names

  • Morone americanus (Gmelin, 1789)
  • Morone pallida Mitchill, 1814
  • Morone rufa Mitchill, 1814
  • Perca americana Gmelin, 1789
  • Perca immaculata Walbaum, 1792
  • Roccus americanus (Gmelin, 1789)

International Common Names

  • English: narrow-mouthed bass; sea perch; silver perch; wreckfish
  • Spanish: lubina blanca
  • French: bar blanc d'Amerique; baret; cernier atlantique; perche blanche
  • Russian: morona

Local Common Names

  • Canada: baret
  • Denmark: amerikansk bars; bars
  • Finland: amerikanbassi
  • Germany: Seebarsch
  • Italy: spigola americana
  • Norway: havabbor; hvit havabbor
  • Poland: rokiel srebrzysty
  • Portugal: robalo do norte; robalo-do-norte
  • Sweden: vitabborre

Summary of Invasiveness

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M. americana can thrive in a wide range of environments, but is naturally found in brackish waters and can invade freshwater habitats. M. americana has the ability to compete with native species, preying on fish eggs and young fish, and has the ability to hybridize with native species and quickly become the dominant species in freshwater lakes. It is native to the Atlantic seaboard and inland rivers of northeastern USA, but has invaded the Great Lakes and surrounding watersheds and also occasionally further west. Like many invasive fish, it can become the most abundant species in many environments due to its opportunistic feeding, broadcast spawning with no preference for specific substrate type, and high fecundity.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Perciformes
  •                         Suborder: Percoidei
  •                             Family: Moronidae
  •                                 Genus: Morone
  •                                     Species: Morone americana

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Jordan and Gibert (1883) revised the genus Roccus to include Morone as a subgenus, but later Morone was separated as a genus from Roccus by Berg (1949) (Woolcot, 1957). Morone americana, commonly known in English as the white perch, has hybridized with Morone chrysops (native white bass) in western Lake Erie, USA, first noted in in the early 1980s at the same time as M. americana were increasing in abundance in this area (Natureserve, 2008). This hybridization is probably also occurring in the other Great Lakes.

Description

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M. americana is a demersal and semi-anadromous species, usually reaching a length of 12.7-17.8 cm and weighing from an average of 250 g up to 650 g (Riede, 2004). However, a maximum length of 49.5 cm has been recorded (IGFA, 2001), and a maximum weight of 2200 g (Robins and Ray, 1986). The recorded maximum age is 16 years (Froese and Pauly, 2008).

M. americana has a deep and laterally compressed body. The colour varies from dark greyish-green, dark silvery-green, or dark brown to almost black on the back, pale-olive or silvery-green on the sides and silvery-white on the belly. The white perch has a terminal mouth and a tongue with two narrow tooth patches on the anterolateral margin for grasping prey items (Jenkins and Burkhead, 1994). It does not have barbels. M. americana has two dorsal fins, slightly connected by a membrane, the anterior with six to ten spines, the posterior with one spine and 10-13 rays, no adipose fin, anal fin with one spine and eight to ten rays and lateral line with 44-52 ctenoid scales. The juveniles are similar to the adults, but may have faint lateral stripes.

Other identifying characteristics include the following. The body is deepest just ahead of, or at the beginning of, the dorsal fin; there are no lines or stripes on the back or sides; when the spiny dorsal fin is pulled erect, the soft dorsal fin also becomes erect; the second and third bony anal spines are almost exactly the same length; and the anal fin usually has eight or nine soft rays behind the three bony spines (National Sea Grant, 1998; Wisconsin Sea Grant, 2002b; Chesapeake Bay Program, 2006).

Distribution

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The native range of M. americana isNorth America’s Atlantic Slope drainages from the St. Lawrence-Lake Ontario drainage, Quebec, south to Pee Dee River, South Carolina (Fuller et al., 2008). Peak abundance of this species is in the Hudson River and Chesapeake Bay (Lee et al., 1980). Inland populations are more common in northern areas (Natureserve, 2008).

It has made its way into the Great Lakes through the Erie and Welland canals and it has established in all of them and their surrounding states, as well as in Kentucky, Massachusetts, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, and Vermont (Fuller et al., 2008). The current status in Colorado and Kansas is unknown. Lake Ontario populations may have colonized through the Erie Canal and a few have been recorded from the Lake Erie drainage. In some states of the USA it is both native to some parts and exotic to other areas.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Atlantic, NorthwestPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
Atlantic, Western CentralPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004

North America

CanadaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
-New BrunswickPresentNative Not invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-Nova ScotiaPresentNative Not invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-OntarioPresentIntroduced Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-Prince Edward IslandPresentNative Not invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-QuebecPresentNative Not invasive Fuller et al., 2006
USAPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced Not invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-ConnecticutPresentNative Not invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-IndianaPresentIntroduced Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-IowaPresentIntroduced Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-KansasPresentIntroduced Not invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced Not invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-MainePresent Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-MarylandPresentNative Not invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-MassachusettsPresent Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-MichiganPresentIntroduced Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-MinnesotaPresentIntroduced Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-MissouriPresentIntroduced Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-New HampshirePresent Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-New JerseyPresentNative Not invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-New YorkPresent Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-OhioPresentIntroduced Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-Rhode IslandPresentNative Not invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-South CarolinaPresentNative Not invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-VermontPresent Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-VirginiaPresent Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Fuller et al., 2006
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced Invasive Fuller et al., 2006

History of Introduction and Spread

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The introduction and spread of M. americana in the USA is detailed in Fuller et al. (2008). The first report of white perch in the Great Lakes drainage was from Cross Lake, central New York, in 1950 (Dence, 1952), where it apparently gained access to the lake via movement through the Erie Barge Canal in the 1930s and 1950s (Lee et al., 1980; Johnson and Evans, 1990; Mills et al., 1993). Scott and Christie (1963) stated that the white perch most likely gained access to Lake Ontario via the Oswego River, as a result of the spread of Hudson River populations northward and westward through the Mohawk River Valley and Erie Barge Canal. Once in Lake Ontario, it gained access to Lake Erie through the Welland Canal in 1953 and continued to spread to the upper Great Lakes (Johnson and Evans, 1990; Mills et al., 1993). The first reports of westward movement through the Great Lakes are as follows: Lake Erie in 1953 (Larsen, 1954), Lake St. Clair in 1977, Lake Huron in 1987 (Johnson and Evans, 1990), Lake Michigan at Green Bay-Fox River, Wisconsin in May 1988 (Cochran and Hesse, 1994), and Illinois waters of Lake Michigan off Chicago in September 1988 (Savitz et al., 1989). One oddity is that the first record from Lake Superior was in 1986 from Duluth Harbor - 1 year before the fish was found in Lake Huron, and 2 years before it was seen in Lake Michigan. The Duluth Harbor population may be restricted to that location because it is the warmest part of the lake. This population likely represents a separate introduction because it does not fit the pattern of western dispersal (Johnson and Evans, 1990). 

White perch were brought from New Jersey to Nebraska in 1964, and fry produced that year in a hatchery were accidentally introduced into a reservoir that provided access to the Missouri River (Hergenrader and Bliss, 1971). White perch have been stocked intentionally in other areas for sport fishing. In Kansas, fish found at Browning Oxbow on the Missouri River are believed to have come from Nebraska. The species was not recorded from the Missouri River in Missouri until the 1990s (Pflieger, 1997). The source of M. americana in the two Kansas reservoirs is a result of stock contamination from a striped bass stocking (Fuller et al., 2008). It was stocked in West Virginia in the early 1900s, and illegally stocked by individuals in inland lakes in Indiana (Fuller et al., 2008).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Canada USA 1950 Yes Crossman (1991) Introduced into Lake Ontario via the Erie Barge Canal and the Mohawk River in USA. Sighted in Lake Erie in 1953 and was surely established by 1975

Risk of Introduction

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There is a possibility of angler introductions of M. americana into new areas for sport fishing (Wisconsin Sea Grant, 2002b).

Habitat

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M. americana occurs in fresh, brackish and coastal waters (Robins and Ray, 1986). It is found predominantly in brackish water and close to the shore in saltwater (Natureserve, 2008), but is also common in pools and other quiet water areas of medium to large rivers, usually over mud (Froese and Pauly, 2008), far up medium to large rivers in fresh water and in lakes and ponds having no sea connection (Natureserve, 2008).M. americana is very common in shallow portions of inland lakes and rivers in its native range of Atlantic Slope drainages from St. Lawrence-Lake Ontario drainage in Quebec south to the Pee Dee River of South Carolina (Minnesota Sea Grant, 2001; Wisconsin Sea Grant, 2002b). It has been observed to move offshore during the day and onshore at night.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
Lakes Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Rivers / streams Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Ponds Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Brackish
Estuaries Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Marine
Inshore marine Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The recorded haploid and diploid chromosome numbers of M. americanain Maine, USA are 24 (n) and 48-48 (2n), respectively (Arkhipchuk, 1999). There are no documented genetic markers of M. americana.

M. americana hybridizes with Moronechrysops (native white bass) (Todd, 1986) and with Morone mississippiensis (Irons et al., 2002) in the USA. These hybrids are capable of back-crossing with parent species as well as crossing among themselves; therefore M. americana will dilute the gene pool of both parent species (Natureserve, 2008).

Reproductive Biology

In its native estuarine environment, M. americana is semi-anadromous and spawns in the spring when water temperatures are between 10 and 16°C (Mansueti, 1961; Jenkins and Burkhead, 1994). It migrates from the saltier bays and coastal areas into tidal, but more freshwater portions of streams and rivers to spawn in spring. In landlocked waters, it spawns in both rivers and reservoirs, and migrates from deep to shallow waters to spawn when temperatures are between 15 and 20°C, but may show no preference for habitat types during spawning and egg deposition (Zuerlein, 1981).

M. americanamaturation is size-specific with males maturing at smaller sizes than females (Mansueti, 1961). Males may spawn for the first time at 2 years, and females usually by 3 years, usually in late spring in brackish to nearly fresh water rivers over sandy bottoms. Spawning occurs over a period of 10 to 21 days with individual females expelling eggs on more than one occasion (Mansueti, 1961). Female M. americana are oviparous, broadcasting demersal, adhesive eggs to be fertilized externally (Mansueti, 1961). The eggs sink to the bottom and stick (Thomson et al., 1978). Its fecundity ranges between 20,000 and 150,000 eggs per individual female (Jenkins and Burkhead, 1994). Hatching takes place from 1 to 6 days following fertilization; 4 days at the usual spawning temperature of 15°C (Natureserve, 2008).

Nutrition

Larval M. americana feed on zooplankton such as rotifers, copepods and cladocerns (Setzler-Hamilton et al., 1982). One-year-old M. americanafirst feed on zooplankton early in life, but then changes their diet to benthic invertebrates (Gopalan et al., 1998), and as they grow larger, aquatic insect larvae (chironomids, trichopterans, and ephemeropterans) become an important part of the diet. Large individuals consume a high percentage of fishes (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Fish eggs are an important component of the M. americanadiet especially in spring months. It may consume its own eggs (McGovern and Olney, 1988), or Stizostedion vitreum(walleye) orMorone chrysops (white bass) eggs can make up to 100% of theM. americanadiet depending on which fish is spawning. M. americanaalso feed heavily on minnows of Notropis spp. and zooplankton.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
19-60 0 0 0

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Salinity (part per thousand) <3.0 Optimum >8.0 tolerated
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 18 20 Optimum Hatching of eggs and larvae

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cyclops bicuspidatus Larval not specific Smith and Kernehan, 1981
Esox lucius Predator Juveniles not specific Ward and Neumann, 1998
Lepomis macrochirus Larval not specific Margulies, 1990
Micropterus salmoides Predator Juveniles not specific Ward and Neumann, 1998
Morone saxatilis Predator Adult/Juvenile not specific Hartman and Brandt, 1995
Pomatomus saltatrix Predator Adult/Juvenile/Larval not specific Hartman and Brandt, 1995; Juanes et al., 1993
Sander vitreus Predator Adult/Juvenile not specific Knight and Vondracek, 1993

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Although M. americana can be detrimental to native fish populations, it can also provide a valuable forage base for sports fish (Harris, 2006). Several predatory fish prey on M. americana. In their native estuarine environment, M. americana have been a prey to striped bass (M. saxatilis) of over 20 cm in length (Gardinier and Hoff, 1982) and bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) (Juanus et al., 1993). Some species prey on M. americana when their preferred food is depleted or not available. Walleye (Sander vitreus) prey on M. americana when gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) are not abundant (Hartman and Margraf, 1992). When M. americana becomes abundant, northern pike (Esox lucius), and other piscivores that prey on spiny rayed species such as largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), will target it (Ward and Neumann, 1998).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)
 

M. americana invaded the Great Lakes through the Erie and Welland canals in the 1950s (WDNR, 2004).

Intentional Introduction

M. americana have been stocked intentionally in non-native waters by voluntary and incidental agency stocking (Jenkins and Burkhead, 1994; Carlander, 1997; Fuller et al., 1999), and possible angler introductions in other areas for sport fishing (Wisconsin Sea Grant, 2002b). Between 1880 and 1950, federal and state hatcheries established inland populations of M. americana in Maine, Maryland, Connecticut, New York and Massachusetts, USA (Zeurlein, 1981). It also has been illegally stocked by individuals in inland lakes in Indiana, USA (Fuller et. al., 2008).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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Invasion by M. americana can have a negative impact on resident fish populations (Harris, 2006), which in turn could cause degradation in fishing quality and subsequent economic impacts. Drops in abundance of native fishes have often followed white perch invasions (Hergenrader and Bliss, 1971; Zeurlein, 1981; Boileau, 1985; Gopalan et al., 1998; Wong et al., 1999; Madenjian et al., 2000).

Environmental Impact

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The ability of M. americana to compete for food with other species can cause negative effects on biodiversity. The competition between M. americana and native yellow perch (Perca flavescens) for zooplankton (Parrish and Margraf, 1990) and diet overlap (Fuller et al., 2008) may be the reason for the decline in growth rates of yellow perch since the invasion of M. americana in Lake Erie, especially in the western basin. Parrish and Margraf (1994) speculated that competition between juvenile M. americana and forage fishes, such as emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) and spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), may be responsible for the declines of the latter species.

There can be a secondary effect of this competition as decline of these species could also affect walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), the top predator in Lake Erie ( Schaeffer and Margraf, 1987; Parrish and Margraf, 1994, in Fuller et al., 2008). The collapse of the walleye fishery in the Bay of Quinte on the north shore of Lake Ontario coincided with an increase in the M. americana population and may have been a result of egg predation and the resulting lack of recruitment (Fuller et al., 2008). M. americana are also thought to cause declines in white bass [(Morone chrysops)] (Todd, 1986) populations in the Great Lakes region. M. americana completely replaced the previously dominant black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) 3 years after being introduced into a Nebraska reservoir, from 74% black bullhead to 70% white perch (Fuller et al., 2008).

The tendency of M. americana to hybridize with native fish poses a threat to biodiversity by diluting and polluting the gene pool. Hybridization and competition may represent another threat to the already dwindling yellow bass of the Great Lakes region.M. americana is known to form hybrids with white bass in Lake Erie in Ohio and Michigan, and the Detroit River and the St. Clair River in Michigan (Todd, 1986), and with yellow bass Morone mississippiensis in the Illinois River (Irons et al., 2002).

M. americana is regarded as having moderate to high vulnerability based on ‘L’ maximum and ‘K’ growth values (Cheung et al., 2005), whereas according to Froese and Pauly (2008) it was not evaluated in the IUCN Red List.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition
  • Hybridization
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

M. americana is a food fish and provides angling opportunities, but tends to stunt and become undesirable when over-population occurs in freshwater lakes (Scott and Crossman, 1990). Due to this tendency towards over-population and stunting in fresh waters,it is not often exploited as a game fish and generally is regarded as undesirable. It is an excellent panfish, highly regarded as a food fish in the Eastern USA (Wisconsin Sea Grant, 2002b); however, in general, it is of minor commercial importance in fisheries and use in public aquariums (Froese and Pauly, 2008).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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M. americana can be confused with Morone chrysops (white bass), although M. chrysops has six to ten dark horizontal lines on its back and sides and M. americana does not, and when the spiny dorsal fin is gently pulled erect, the soft dorsal fin also becomes erect in M. americana (Wisconsin Sea Grant, 2002a). To confuse the issue further, the freshwater drum (or sheepshead) [Aplodinotus grunniens] is sometimes (incorrectly) called M. americana (Wisconsin Sea Grant, 2002a), but the freshwater drum can be distinguished by a lateral line that extends all the way to the end of its bluntly pointed caudal (tail) fin.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

SPS measures

M. americana has been included in the list of fish species that are illegal to import, possess, or release into public waters without a permit in certain states in the USA such as Indiana, as a preventive measure against its spread. According to law, if a M. americana is caught it should not be released, but killed. Transferring this species from one water body to another is prohibited to prevent further spread.

Control

No specific control measures for M. americana are recorded.

References

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Arkhipchuk VV, 1999. Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk.

Bath DW; O'Connor JM, 1985. Food preferences of white perch in the Hudson River Estuary. New York Fish and Game Journal, 32(1):63-70.

Bay Science Foundation, 2008. Morone americana online. http://zipcodezoo.com/Animals/M/Morone_americana.asp

Carlander KD, 1997. Handbook of freshwater fisheries biology, volume 3, life history data on ichthyopercid and percid fishes of the United States and Canada. Ames, Iowa, USA: Iowa State University Press.

Chesapeake Bay Program, 2006. White Perch in the Bay and its Rivers (online). http://www.chesapeakebay.net/info/white_perch.cfm

Cheung WWL; Pitcher TJ; Pauly D, 2005. A fuzzy logic expert system to estimate intrinsic extinction vulnerabilities of marine fishes to fishing. Biological Conservation, No. 124:97-111.

Cochran PA; Hesse PJ, 1994. Observations on the white perch (Morone americana) early in its invasion of Wisconsin. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts and Letters, No. 82:23-58.

Cross FB; Mayden RL; Stewart JD, 1986. Fishes in the western Mississippi basin (Missouri, Arkansas, and Red Rivers). In: The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes [ed. by Hocutt CH, Wiley EO, ] New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 363-412.

Crossman EJ, 1991. Introduced freshwater fishes: A review of the North American perspective with emphasis on Canada. Can. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 48 (Suppl. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci, No. 48 (Suppl. 1):46-57.

Dence WA, 1952. Establishment of white perch, Morone americana, in central New York. Copeia, 1952(3):200-201.

Froese R; Pauly D, 2004. FishBase DVD. Penang, Malaysia: Worldfish Center. Online at www.fishbase.org.

Froese R; Pauly D, 2008. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Fuller P; Maynard E; Raikow D, 2006. Morone americana. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL (online). http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=777

Fuller P; Maynard E; Raikow D, 2008. Morone americana. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=777

Fuller PL; Nico LG; Williams JD, 1999. Nonindigenous fishes introduced into inland waters of the United States. Bethesda, Maryland, USA: American Fisheries Society. [American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 27]

Gardinier MN; Hoff TB, 1982. Diet of striped bass in the Hudson River Estuary. New York Fish and Game Journal, 29(2):153-165.

Gopalan G; Culver DA; Wu L; Trauben BK, 1998. Effects of recent ecosystem changes on the recruitment of young-of-the-year fish in western Lake Erie. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, No. 55:2572-2579.

Harris JL, 2006. Impact of the invasive white perch on the fish assemblage of Kerr Reservoir, Virginia. MSc Thesis. USA: Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 135 pp.

Hartman KJ; Brandt SB, 1995. Trophic resource partitioning, diets, and growth of sympatric estuarine predators. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 124(4):520-537.

Hartman KJ; Margraf FJ, 1992. Effects of prey and predator abundances on prey consumption and growth of walleyes in western Lake Erie. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, No. 121:245-260.

Hergenrader GL; Bliss QP, 1971. The white perch in Nebraska. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 100(4):734-738.

IGFA, 2001. 2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. Fort Lauderdale, USA: IGFA.

Irons KS; O'Hara TM; McClelland MA; Pegg MA, 2002. White perch occurrence, spread, and hybridisation in the middle Illinois River, upper Mississippi River system. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science, 95(3):207-214.

ISSG, 2005. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

Jenkins RE; Burkhead NM, 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. Bethesda, MD, USA: American Fisheries Society, 1079.

Johnson TB; Evans DO, 1990. Size-dependent winter mortality of young-of-the-year white perch: climate warming and invasion of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, No. 119:301-313.

Juanes F; Marks RE; McKown KA; Conover DO, 1993. Predation by age-0 bluefish on age-0 anadromous fishes in the Hudson River estuary. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 122(3):348-356.

Knight RL; Vondracek B, 1993. Changes in prey fish populations in western lake Erie, 1969-88, as related to walleye, Stizostedion vitreum, predation. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, No. 50:1289-1298.

Larsen L, 1954. First record of the white perch (Morone americana) in Lake Erie. Copeia, 1954(2):154.

Lee DS; Gilbert CR; Hocutt CH; Jenkins RE; McAllister DE; Stauffer JR, 1980. Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, 867 pp.

Mansueti RJ, 1961. Movements, reproduction, and mortality of the white perch, Roccus americanus, in the Patuxent Estuary, Maryland. Chesapeake Science, No. 2:142-205.

Mansueti RJ, 1964. Eggs, larvae, and young of the white perch, Roccus americanus, with comments on its ecology in the estuary. Chesapeake Science, 5(1-2):3-45.

Margulies D, 1990. Vulnerability of larval white perch, Morone americana, to fish predation. Environ. Biol. Fish, 27(3):187-200.

McGovern JC; Olney JE, 1988. Potential predation by fish and invertebrates on early life history stages of striped bass in Pamunkey River, Virginia. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 117:152-161.

Mills EL; Leach JH; Carlton JT; Secor CL, 1993. Exotic species in the Great Lakes: a history of biotic crisis and anthropogenic introductions. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 19(1):1-54.

National Sea Grant, 1998. White Perch (Morone americana). http://www.iisgcp.org/EXOTICSP/white_perch.htm

Natureserve, 2008. Morone americana, White perch. In: An Online encyclopedia of life. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer/servlet/NatureServe?searchName=Morone+americana

Page LM; Burr BM, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 432 pp.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Illinois-Indiana Sea Granthttp://www.iisgcp.org/
Non-indigenous Aquatic Species, United States Geography Surveyhttp://nas.er.usgs.gov/
ZipcodeZoohttp://zipcodezoo.com/

Organizations

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Italy: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, http://www.fao.org/

Switzerland: IUCN (The World Conservation Union), Rue Mauverney 28, Gland 1196, Gland, Switzerland, http://www.iucn.org/

USA: United States Geological Survey, USGS National Center 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA 20192, http://www.usgs.gov/

Contributors

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24/04/08 Original text by:

Sunil Siriwardena, Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK

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