Invasive Species Compendium

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Aspidiotus destructor
(coconut scale)

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Datasheet

Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aspidiotus destructor
  • Preferred Common Name
  • coconut scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); slide mounted adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); slide mounted adult.
Copyright©Natural History Museum, London
Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); slide mounted adult.
AdultAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); slide mounted adult.©Natural History Museum, London
Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); anatomic details of an adult female taken from Cocos nucifera, Solomon Islands. 1: General aspect. 2: Pygidium. 3: Antenna. 4: Anterior spiracle (not to scale).
TitleAdult female
CaptionAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); anatomic details of an adult female taken from Cocos nucifera, Solomon Islands. 1: General aspect. 2: Pygidium. 3: Antenna. 4: Anterior spiracle (not to scale).
Copyright©CAB International
Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); anatomic details of an adult female taken from Cocos nucifera, Solomon Islands. 1: General aspect. 2: Pygidium. 3: Antenna. 4: Anterior spiracle (not to scale).
Adult femaleAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); anatomic details of an adult female taken from Cocos nucifera, Solomon Islands. 1: General aspect. 2: Pygidium. 3: Antenna. 4: Anterior spiracle (not to scale).©CAB International
Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); anatomic details of an adult female taken from Carica papaya, Fiji. 1: General aspect. 2: Pygidium. 3: Antenna. 4: Anterior spiracle (not to scale).
TitleAdult female
CaptionAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); anatomic details of an adult female taken from Carica papaya, Fiji. 1: General aspect. 2: Pygidium. 3: Antenna. 4: Anterior spiracle (not to scale).
Copyright©CAB International
Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); anatomic details of an adult female taken from Carica papaya, Fiji. 1: General aspect. 2: Pygidium. 3: Antenna. 4: Anterior spiracle (not to scale).
Adult femaleAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); anatomic details of an adult female taken from Carica papaya, Fiji. 1: General aspect. 2: Pygidium. 3: Antenna. 4: Anterior spiracle (not to scale).©CAB International
Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); anatomic details of an adult female taken from Persea americana, Fiji. 1: General aspect. 2: Pygidium. 3: Antenna. 4: Anterior spiracle (not to scale).
TitleAdult female
CaptionAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); anatomic details of an adult female taken from Persea americana, Fiji. 1: General aspect. 2: Pygidium. 3: Antenna. 4: Anterior spiracle (not to scale).
Copyright©CAB International
Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); anatomic details of an adult female taken from Persea americana, Fiji. 1: General aspect. 2: Pygidium. 3: Antenna. 4: Anterior spiracle (not to scale).
Adult femaleAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); anatomic details of an adult female taken from Persea americana, Fiji. 1: General aspect. 2: Pygidium. 3: Antenna. 4: Anterior spiracle (not to scale).©CAB International
Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); anatomic details of an adult female taken from Citrus maxima, Western Samoa. 1: General aspect. 2: Pygidium. 3: Antenna. 4: Anterior spiracle (not to scale).
TitleAdult female
CaptionAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); anatomic details of an adult female taken from Citrus maxima, Western Samoa. 1: General aspect. 2: Pygidium. 3: Antenna. 4: Anterior spiracle (not to scale).
Copyright©CAB International
Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); anatomic details of an adult female taken from Citrus maxima, Western Samoa. 1: General aspect. 2: Pygidium. 3: Antenna. 4: Anterior spiracle (not to scale).
Adult femaleAspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); anatomic details of an adult female taken from Citrus maxima, Western Samoa. 1: General aspect. 2: Pygidium. 3: Antenna. 4: Anterior spiracle (not to scale).©CAB International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aspidiotus destructor Signoret, 1869

Preferred Common Name

  • coconut scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Aspidiotus cocotis Newstead, 1893
  • Aspidiotus lataniae Green, 1896
  • Aspidiotus simillimus translucens Fernald
  • Aspidiotus translucens Cockerell & Robinson, 1915
  • Aspidiotus transparens Green, 1890
  • Aspidiotus vastatrix Leroy
  • Aspidiotus watanabei Takagi, 1969
  • Temnaspidiotus destructor (Signoret) Borchsenius

International Common Names

  • English: bourbon aspidiotus; bourbon scale; transparent scale
  • Spanish: cochinilla blanca-amarilla del coco; cochinilla del cocotero; escama blanca del cocotero; escama del cocotero; escama del pino; escama transparente
  • French: cochenille du cocotier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Schildlaus, Kokospalmen-
  • Italy: Cocciniglia del cocco

EPPO code

  • ASPDDE (Aspidiotus destructor)
  • ASPDTR (Aspidiotus transparens)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Diaspididae
  •                                     Genus: Aspidiotus
  •                                         Species: Aspidiotus destructor

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Aspidiotus destructor was first described by Signoret in 1869. Williams and Watson (1988) list synonyms and discuss nomenclature.

Description

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Jalaluddin and Mohanasundaram (1992) describe the morphology of different instars and the adult female and male of A. destructor. Williams and Watson (1988) provide a key and give detailed descriptions and illustrations of adult female morphology. Considerable variation occurs in the relative sizes and number of distinguishing features, such as median and second lobes, macroduct number and marginal setae (Williams and Watson, 1988).

Egg

The eggs are yellow and very small. They are laid under the scale around the body of the female.

Larva and Pupa

Females have two nymphal stages, while males have two feeding nymphal stages, followed by non-feeding pre-pupal and pupal stages (four immature stages altogether) (Tabibullah and Gabriel, 1973).

The first-instar larvae are about 1mm long, yellowish-brown, oval and translucent. Second-instar females become immobile and secrete a translucent wax scale cover. The second-instar males are smaller than the females. They group together, secrete a filamentous waxy material and become immobile. The male pre-pupal and pupal stages are spent under the scale produced by the second instar stage.

Adults

The scale cover of the adult female is oval to circular, 1.5-2.0 mm across, fairly flat, very thin and translucent. The pale yellow exuviae are more or less central on the scale (Williams and Watson, 1988). The yellow adult female under the scale is 0.6-1.1 mm long.

The adult male scale cover is redder than the female's, smaller and more oval (Williams and Watson, 1988). The male has one pair of wings and is motile.

Distribution

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A. destructor apparently originated in the Pacific islands (Burger and Ulenberg, 1990) but is now recorded in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. It is present in nearly all countries where coconuts are grown. In the northern parts of its range, it is found only under glass (Danzig and Pellizzari, 1998). It has been recorded under glass at a few botanic gardens in the UK (C Malumphy, Central Science Laboratory, UK, personal communication).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
BurundiPresent
Cabo VerdePresent
CameroonPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Congo, Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EritreaPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
Guinea-BissauPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MauritaniaPresent
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
RwandaPresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent
SenegalPresent
SeychellesPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
SomaliaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AzerbaijanPresent
BangladeshPresent
BhutanPresent
British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresent
BruneiPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-HainanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-SichuanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-GujaratPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-LakshadweepPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-Irian JayaPresentOriginal citation: Williams and Watson (1988)
-JavaPresent
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresent
-SumatraPresent
IranPresent
JapanPresent
-Bonin IslandsPresent
-HonshuPresent
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MaldivesPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
North KoreaPresent
OmanPresent, Widespread
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
SingaporePresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresent
YemenPresent

Europe

FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
ItalyPresent
PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MadeiraPresent
RussiaPresent
SpainPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Canary IslandsPresent

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent
Cayman IslandsPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
MontserratPresent
Netherlands AntillesPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ConnecticutPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresentOriginal citation: Heu, 2002
-PennsylvaniaPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
FijiPresent, Widespread
French PolynesiaPresent, Widespread
GuamPresent
Marshall IslandsPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent, Widespread
Solomon IslandsPresent
TuvaluPresent, Localized
VanuatuPresentOriginal citation: NAPPO 15:2
Wallis and FutunaPresent

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlagoasPresent
-AmazonasPresent
-BahiaPresent
-CearaPresent
-Fernando de NoronhaPresent
-MaranhaoPresent
-ParaPresent
-ParaibaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-PiauiPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do NortePresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
-SergipePresent
ChilePresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Easter IslandPresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
-Galapagos IslandsPresentOriginal citation: CIE, 1966
GuyanaPresent
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent
VenezuelaPresent

Hosts/Species Affected

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A. destructor is a highly polyphagous species. Davidson and Miller (1990) recorded it from hosts belonging to 75 genera in 44 plant families, but its host range is probably wider than this. Its hosts are typically perennial species and include many species of fruit trees, such as avocado, breadfruit, mango, guava and papaya.

Coconut is its favourite host; the undersurface of the leaves is mainly attacked, but frond stalks, flower clusters and young fruit can also be affected. Older trees (over 4 years) or trees on well-drained soil are seldom seriously infested.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
ActinidiaActinidiaceaeMain
    AleuritesEuphorbiaceaeOther
      AllamandaApocynaceaeOther
        AlpiniaZingiberaceaeOther
          AnnonaAnnonaceaeOther
            Annona cherimola (cherimoya)AnnonaceaeOther
              Annona muricata (soursop)AnnonaceaeOther
                Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)MoraceaeOther
                  BrassicaBrassicaceaeOther
                    CamelliaTheaceaeOther
                      Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeOther
                        Capsicum (peppers)SolanaceaeOther
                          Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
                            Cassia (sennas)FabaceaeOther
                              Ceiba pentandra (kapok)BombacaceaeOther
                                Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon)LauraceaeOther
                                  CitrusRutaceaeOther
                                    Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeMain
                                      Colocasia esculenta (taro)AraceaeOther
                                        Cucumis (melons, cucuimbers, gerkins)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                          Dioscorea (yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
                                            Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)ArecaceaeMain
                                              Eucalyptus deglupta (kamarere)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                EugeniaMyrtaceaeOther
                                                  Euphorbia (spurges)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                    FicusMoraceaeOther
                                                      Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeOther
                                                        Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                          Hibiscus (rosemallows)MalvaceaeOther
                                                            Jasminum (jasmine)OleaceaeOther
                                                              Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
                                                                Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
                                                                  Myristica fragrans (nutmeg)MyristicaceaeOther
                                                                    Pandanus (screw-pine)PandanaceaeOther
                                                                      Passiflora (passionflower)PassifloraceaeOther
                                                                        Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
                                                                          Phoenix (date palm)ArecaceaeOther
                                                                            Phoenix dactylifera (date-palm)ArecaceaeOther
                                                                              Physalis (Groundcherry)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                Piper (pepper)PiperaceaeOther
                                                                                  Piper betle (betel pepper)PiperaceaeOther
                                                                                    Piper nigrum (black pepper)PiperaceaeOther
                                                                                      Plumeria (frangipani)ApocynaceaeOther
                                                                                        Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                          Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                            Raphanus (radish)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                                                              Rhizophora (mangrove)RhizophoraceaeOther
                                                                                                Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                  Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                    Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                      Spondias purpurea (red mombin)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                                                                                        Syzygium aromaticum (clove)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                                                                          Tamarindus indica (tamarind)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                            Theobroma cacao (cocoa)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                              Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeOther
                                                                                                                  Xanthosoma sagittifolium (elephant ear)AraceaeOther
                                                                                                                    Zingiber officinale (ginger)ZingiberaceaeOther

                                                                                                                      Growth Stages

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                                                                                                                      Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                                                                                      Symptoms

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                                                                                                                      On leaves, A. destructor causes yellow spots to develop beneath the insects, due to the toxicity of saliva injected in to plant tissues while feeding. Entire leaves may turn yellow to brown and fall, and fruits may be discoloured, stunted or fall prematurely. The bright yellow colour of affected coconut palms is clearly visible from a great distance. The undersurface of the leaves is mainly attacked, but frond stalks, flower clusters and young fruit can also be affected. In extreme cases, the leaves dry out, entire fronds drop off and the crown dies.

                                                                                                                      List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                                                                                      SignLife StagesType
                                                                                                                      Fruit / discoloration
                                                                                                                      Fruit / external feeding
                                                                                                                      Fruit / lesions: black or brown
                                                                                                                      Leaves / abnormal colours
                                                                                                                      Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
                                                                                                                      Leaves / necrotic areas
                                                                                                                      Stems / external feeding

                                                                                                                      Biology and Ecology

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                                                                                                                      A. destructor reproduces sexually. Males locate unmated females by following pheromones released by them. The life cycle of A. destructor typically lasts for 32-34 days. In one study the life cycle was found to be 32 days for females and 27 days for males (Tabibullah and Gabriel, 1973; Taylor, 1935, also did an in-depth study).

                                                                                                                      Each female deposits 20-50 eggs under her scale cover over a few days. In China on Actinidia, the average number of eggs laid by one female was 32-42 (Zhou et al., 1993). At room temperature (26-28°C), the egg stage lasted for 5 days, the larval stage lasted 17 days, the pre-oviposition stage in adult females lasted 25 days, the female generation lasted 44 days and the male generation lasted 38 days (Zhou et al., 1993). In the Philippines, on coconut, the egg stage lasted for 8 days in both sexes (Tabibullah and Gabriel, 1973). After hatching, the nymphs crawl under the scale edge out into the open and colonize the undersides of leaves and tender shoots. They drop off the leaves easily, so mortality is high during heavy rain.

                                                                                                                      In China, A. destructor produced three generations annually, with the fertilized females overwintering on the stems of Actinidia trees (Zhou et al., 1993). In Japan on tea plants, A. destructor had only one generation per year (Murakami, 1970). However, in tropical conditions in Trinidad reproduction is continuous (Goberdhan, 1962).

                                                                                                                      The dispersal phase of A. destructor is the first instar, or crawler, which has legs. Crawlers can walk up to perhaps 1 m, but can be distributed across much greater distances by wind, flying insects and birds and transport of infested plant material by man.

                                                                                                                      Natural enemies

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                                                                                                                      Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                                                                                      Aleurodothrips fasciapennis Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs Fiji Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Anicetus communis Parasite Australia ornamental plants
                                                                                                                      Aphytis chrysomphali Parasite Adults/Nymphs Fiji Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Aphytis lingnanensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs India; Karnataka; Kerala Citrus; Dodonaea viscosa
                                                                                                                      Aphytis melinus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                      Azya orbigera Predator Adults/Nymphs Grenada Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Brumoides suturalis Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                      Chilocorus cacti Predator Adults/Nymphs Dominican Republic Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Chilocorus circumdatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                      Chilocorus dohrni Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs
                                                                                                                      Chilocorus kuwanae Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                      Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs Oman Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Chilocorus politus Predator Adults/Nymphs Mauritius Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Chilocorus schioedtei Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs
                                                                                                                      Cladis nitidula Predator Adults/Nymphs St Vincent and the Grenadines Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Coccidophilus cariba Predator Adults/Nymphs Cayman Islands Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Comperiella bifasciata Parasite Adults Guam Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Comperiella unifasciata Parasite Adults Fiji; Mauritius Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Cryptognatha flaviceps Predator Adults/Nymphs St Lucia Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Cryptognatha nodiceps Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs Angola; Bahamas; Cayman Islands; Dominican Republic; Fiji; Florida; French Polynesia; Grenada; Guam; Hawaii; Jamaica; Pakistan; Puerto Rico; Saipan; Sao Tome and Principe; St Kitts Nevis; St Lucia; St Vincent and the Grenadines; Vanuatu bananas; Cocos nucifera; oil palms; ornamental plants; tobacco
                                                                                                                      Cryptognatha simillima Predator Adults/Nymphs Puerto Rico; St Lucia Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Cryptognatha simillima trinitatis Predator Adults/Nymphs Fiji Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Cryptogonus orbiculus Predator Adults/Nymphs Caroline Islands; Guam Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Curinus coeruleus Predator Adults/Nymphs St Vincent and the Grenadines Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Cybocephalus gibbulus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae
                                                                                                                      Egius platycephalus Predator Adults/Nymphs Trinidad Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Encarsia citrina Parasite Adults/Nymphs Bali; Fiji Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Encarsia lounsburyi Parasite
                                                                                                                      Lioscymnus diversipes Predator Adults/Nymphs St Vincent and the Grenadines Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Lotis neglecta Predator Adults/Nymphs St Vincent and the Grenadines Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Lotis nigerrima Predator Adults/Nymphs St Vincent and the Grenadines Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Pentilia castanea Predator Adults/Nymphs Dominican Republic; Puerto Rico Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Pentilia egena Predator Adults/Nymphs St Lucia Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Pentilia insidiosa Predator Adults/Nymphs Fiji Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Pharoscymnus c-luteum Predator Adults/Nymphs Oman Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Pharoscymnus horni Predator
                                                                                                                      Pharoscymnus taoi Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                      Pseudoazya trinitatis Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs Angola; Bahamas; Fiji; Florida; French Polynesia; Grenada; Jamaica; Pakistan; Puerto Rico; Saipan; St Lucia; Vanuatu Cocos nucifera; ornamental plants
                                                                                                                      Pseudoscymnus anomalus Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs American Samoa; Hawaii; Rota; Saipan; Vanuatu Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Pseudoscymnus dwipakalpa Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                      Pteroptrix parvipennis Parasite Adults/Nymphs Fiji Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Rhyzobius lophanthae Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae Guam; Republic of Georgia; St Vincent and the Grenadines; Trinidad Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Rhyzobius pulchellus Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs Fiji; Grenada; Montserrat; St Lucia Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Rhyzobius satelles Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs American Samoa; Caroline Islands; Saipan; Vanuatu; Wallis and Futuna Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Rodolia rubea Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                      Scymnus cadapani Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae Philippines
                                                                                                                      Scymnus gabrieli Predator Adults/Nymphs Philippines
                                                                                                                      Scymnus luteus Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae
                                                                                                                      Scymnus severini Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                      Signiphora borinquensis Parasite
                                                                                                                      Spaniopterus crucifer Parasite Fiji; Mauritius Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Sukunahikona prapawan Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                      Telsimia nitida Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae American Samoa; Ponape; St Vincent and the Grenadines Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Telsimia sanchezi Predator Adults/Eggs/Larvae Philippines Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Thomsonisca pakistanensis Parasite
                                                                                                                      Zagloba aeneipennis Predator Adults/Nymphs Fiji; Puerto Rico Cocos nucifera
                                                                                                                      Zaomma lambinus Parasite Adults Mauritius Cocos nucifera

                                                                                                                      Notes on Natural Enemies

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                                                                                                                      Predators play a significant part in limiting A. destructor populations. The most common are the coccinellid beetles Chilocorus spp., Azya trinitatis, Cryptognatha nodiceps, Rhyzobius lophanthae and Pentilia castanea. Parasites of local significance include Comperiella, Aphytis and Encarsia. A number of parasitoids and predators of A. destructor are described by Rosen (1990).

                                                                                                                      The parasitoids of A. destructor in India are described by Tandon and Srivastava (1980) and those in Pakistan by Rafiq Ahmad and Ghani (1972). Natural enemies of A. destructor have been described from Sri Lanka (Sinnathamby, 1980), China (Zhou et al., 1993) and Taiwan (Wu and Tao, 1976).

                                                                                                                      Gordon (1978) describes coccinellid predators from the West Indies. Mariau and Julia (1977) report that predation by coccinellids was usually sufficient to maintain scale populations below the economic level in coconuts in Ivory Coast. The coccinellid Cryptognatha nodiceps is a particularly effective predator (Rosen, 1990).

                                                                                                                      Natural enemies of other scale insects may adapt to feeding on A. destructor as it colonizes new areas. However, continuous unchecked attacks of A. destructor were recorded on coconuts in Fiji, Mauritius and New Hebrides, until natural enemies were introduced.

                                                                                                                      Narendra and Rao (1974) describe an entomogenous fungus attacking A. destructor in India. Evans and Prior (1990) list fungal pathogens of A. destructor.

                                                                                                                      Impact

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                                                                                                                      A. destructor is potentially the most destructive pest species on coconut, wherever it occurs in the world (Chua and Wood, 1990); the undersurface of the leaves is mainly attacked, but frond stalks, flower clusters and young fruit can also be affected. In extreme cases, the leaves dry up, entire fronds drop off, the crown dies and the whole crop is lost. Neglected coconut plantations are particularly susceptible to damage by A. destructor. A. destructor is also an important economic pest of mango in Asia, Africa, the Philippines, India and Brazil; and of banana in Asia, the Pacific Islands, West Indies, Africa, Madagascar and South America. It attacks the leaves and fruits of oil palms, reducing the quality of the fruits (Chua and Wood, 1990). The species is also a pest of bananas worldwide (Chua and Wood, 1990). However, natural controls appear to keep A. destructor in check in most regions, and few major outbreaks have been recorded in recent years.

                                                                                                                      Before the introduction of successful biological control in 1955, copra production in Principe fell from 1400 to 500 tons per year owing to an invasion of A. destructor (Rosen, 1990a). After a heavy attack by A. destructor on coconuts in Côte d'Ivoire, yield was reduced by at least 25% over the next 2-3 years, although some heavily infested trees were able to catch up production in the 2 years after elimination of the infestation (Mariau and Julia, 1977).

                                                                                                                      A. destructor is a cosmetic pest on a wide range of fruits, causing blemishes and other marks that reduce quality. On mango, A. destructor prefers grafted varieties; its economic impact is caused by feeding on tender shoots in nursery plants and because it adversely affects fruit setting in older plants. On oil palm, A. destructor is found feeding on leaves and fruit. It occasionally causes severe damage to guava in India (Hayes, 1970).

                                                                                                                      This species is highly polyphagous and therefore can easily be re-introduced, even if it is successfully controlled on the primary host crop.

                                                                                                                      Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                                                                                                      Aspidiotus excisus looks very similar to A. destructor in life but can be distinguished when slide-mounted adult females are examined microscopically; the median lobes on the pygidium of A. excisus are recessed into the margin, whereas in A. destructor they are not recessed (Williams and Watson, 1988).

                                                                                                                      Prevention and Control

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                                                                                                                      Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                                                      Introduction

                                                                                                                      A. destructor is highly polyphagous and therefore can easily be re-introduced, even if it is successfully controlled on the primary host crop.

                                                                                                                      Host-Plant Resistance

                                                                                                                      Differences in size and mortality rates were observed on different coconut cultivars by Tabibullah and Gabriel (1973).

                                                                                                                      Chemical Control

                                                                                                                      Chemical control may be difficult owing to the height of the trees and may not be commercially viable in some cases owing to the cost. Chemical control may be necessary in the dry season. Malathion has been used successfully. However, insecticide sprays may also kill natural enemies and affect biological control.

                                                                                                                      Jalaluddin and Mohanasundaram (1991) describe effective chemical treatment for A. destructor in coconut nurseries in India. Zhou et al. (1993) describe the effective chemical control of the larval stages of A. destructor in China. Mariau and Julia (1977) describe the effective chemical control of A. destructor on young coconuts on the Ivory Coast.

                                                                                                                      Cultural Control

                                                                                                                      During the early stages of an outbreak of A. destructor on coconut, cutting and burning the affected fronds may be effective.

                                                                                                                      Phytosanitary Measures

                                                                                                                      Dharmaraju and Laird (1984) describe the transport of A. destructor around Oceania, mainly through human agency. They emphasize the importance of rigid quarantine procedures.

                                                                                                                      Biological Control

                                                                                                                      The most successful biological control of A. destructor has been achieved using predators rather than parasitoids (Rosen, 1990).

                                                                                                                      An early example of biological control was the introduction of Cryptognatha nodiceps from Trinidad into Fiji in 1928, which stemmed devastating losses in the coconut/copra industry. During 1955, C. nodiceps was introduced into Principe and again almost complete control was obtained and massive economic losses in the copra industry were eliminated (Rosen, 1990). C. nodiceps has since been introduced to a number of oceanic islands; however, it was less successful in the New Hebrides, where Rhyzobius pulchellus, introduced from New Caledonia, was more effective (Rosen, 1990).

                                                                                                                      Biological control programmes have been described in the Federated States of Micronesia (Suta and Esguerra, 1993), American Samoa (Tauili' ili and Vargo, 1993) and New Hebrides (Chazeau, 1981).

                                                                                                                      The predatory coccinellid, Chilocorus nigritus, was successfully introduced into Oman from India during 1985 as a biocontrol agent against A. destructor (Kinawy, 1991). Sadakathulla (1993) has developed a technique for the mass production of Chilocorus nigritus.

                                                                                                                      Rhyzobius lophanthae effectively controlled A. destructor in tea plantations in the Republic of Georgia (Gaprindashvili, 1975).

                                                                                                                      In Taiwan, the natural enemies of A. destructor were so effective in areas with a rich flora that no chemical control measures were required (Wu and Tao, 1976).

                                                                                                                      References

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                                                                                                                      APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA)

                                                                                                                      Beardsley JW, 1966. Insects of Micronesia, Homoptera: Coccoidea. Insects of Micronesia, 6:377-562

                                                                                                                      Beardsley JW, 1969. Aspidiotus destructor Signoret, an armored scale pest new to the Hawaiian Islands. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 20(3):505-508

                                                                                                                      Bennett FD, Alam MM, 1985. An annotated check-list of the insects and allied terrestrial arthropods of Barbados. Bridgetown, Barbados; Caribbean Agricultural Research & Development Institute, vi + 81 pp

                                                                                                                      Buyckx EJE, 1962. Précis des maladies et des insectes nuisibles recontrés sur les plantes cultivées au Congo, au Rwanda et au Burundi. Brussels, Belgium: Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo (INEAC)

                                                                                                                      Charlin CR, 1973. Coccoidea of Easter Island (Homoptera). Revista Chilena de Entomologia, 7:111-114

                                                                                                                      Chazeau J, 1981. The biological control of the transparent coconut scale Temnaspidiotus destructor (Signoret) in the New Hebrides (Homoptera, Diaspididae). Cahiers ORSTOM, Serie Biologie, No. 44:11-22

                                                                                                                      Chua TH, Wood BJ, 1990. Other Tropical Fruit Trees and Shrubs. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 543-552

                                                                                                                      CIE, 1966. Aspidiotus destructor. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, June. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 218

                                                                                                                      Claps LE, Wolff VRS, González RH, 2001. Catálogo de las Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) exóticas de la Argentina, Brasil y Chile. Revista de la Socieded Entomológica Argentina, 60:9-34

                                                                                                                      CSIRO, 2001. World Wide Web page at http://www.ento.csiro.au/aicn

                                                                                                                      Danzig EM, Pellizzari G, 1998. Diaspididae. In: Kozßr F, ed. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coccoidea. Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Budapest, Hungary: Akaprint Nyomdaipari Kft., 172-370

                                                                                                                      Davidson JA, Miller DR, 1990. Ornamental plants. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 4B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 603-632

                                                                                                                      Dharmaraju E, 1984. Transport and the spread of crop pests in tropical Polynesia. Commerce and the spread of pests and disease vectors., 257-272; [2 fig.]

                                                                                                                      Evans HC, Prior C, 1990. Pathogens. In: Rosen D, ed. World Crop Pests. 4B. Armoured Scale Insects: their biology, natural enemies and control. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 3-17

                                                                                                                      Fernandes IM, 1974. Study of some Coccids from S. Tome. Garcia de Orta, Serie Zoologia, 3(1):1-3

                                                                                                                      Foldi I, 1988. New contribution to the study of scale insects from Brazilian Amazonia (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 24(1):77-87

                                                                                                                      Gaprindashvili NK, 1975. Biological control of the main pests on tea plantations in the Georgian SSR. VIII International Plant Protection Congress, Moscow, 1975. Vol. III. Papers at sessions V... VI... and VII... Moscow. USSR, 29-33

                                                                                                                      Germain JF, Matile-Ferrero D, 2005. Scale insects from greenhouses in France: an illustrated survey. III - Diaspididae. (Les cochenilles sous serres en France: inventaire illustré. III - Les Diaspididae.) Phytoma, No.583:32-35

                                                                                                                      Goberdhan LC, 1962. Scale insects of the coconut palm with special reference to Aspidiotus destructor. Journal of the Agricultural Society of Trinidad and Tobago, 62:49-70

                                                                                                                      Gordon RD, 1978. West Indian Coccinellidae II (Coleoptera): some scale predators with keys to genera and species. Coleopterists Bulletin, 32(3):205-218

                                                                                                                      Hayes WB, 1970. Fruit growing in India. Kitabistan, Allahabad

                                                                                                                      Heu RA ed., 2002. Distribution and host records of agricultural pests and other organisms in Hawaii. USA: State of Hawaii Department of Agriculture.

                                                                                                                      IPPC, 2005. IPP Report No. TV-1/2. Rome, Italy: FAO

                                                                                                                      Jalaluddin M, Mohanasundaram M, 1989. Control of the coconut scale Aspidiotus destructor Sign. in the nursery. Entomon, 14(3-4):203-206

                                                                                                                      Jalaluddin SM, Mohanasundaram M, 1992. Detailed study on the morphological features of coconut scale Aspidiotus destructor Sign. Indian Coconut Journal (Cochin), 22(11):10-13; 3 ref

                                                                                                                      Kawai S, 1980. Scale Insects of Japan in Colours. Tokyo, Japan: National Agriculture Education Association, 455 pp

                                                                                                                      Kinawy MM, 1991. Biological control of the coconut scale insect (Aspidiotus destructor Sign. Homoptera: Diaspididae) in the southern region of Oman (Dhofar). Tropical Pest Management, 37(4):387-389

                                                                                                                      Kondo T, 2001. Las cochinillas de Colombia (Hemiptera: Coccoidea). Biota Colombiana, 2(1):31-48

                                                                                                                      Longo S, Marotta S, Pellizzari G, Russo A, Tranfaglia A, 1995. An annotated list of the scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidea) of Italy. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:113-130

                                                                                                                      Mariau D, Julia JF, 1977. New research on the coconut scale Aspidiotus destructor (Sign.). Oleagineux, 32(5):217-224

                                                                                                                      Miller DR, 1996. Checklist of the scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 98(1):68-86; 33 ref

                                                                                                                      Murakami Y, 1970. A review of biology and ecology of diaspine scales in Japan (Homoptera: Coccoidea). MUSHI, 43(7):65-114

                                                                                                                      Nakahara S, 1982. Checklist of the Armored Scales (Homoptera: Diapididae) of the Conterminous United States. Washington, USA: USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, 110 pp

                                                                                                                      Narendra DV, Rao VG, 1974. A new entomogenous species of Phoma. Mycopathologia & Mycologia Applicata, 54(1):135-140

                                                                                                                      Rafiq Ahmad, Ghani MA, 1972. Studies on Aspidiotus destructor Sign.(Hem.:Diaspididae) and its parasites, Aphytis melinus DeBach (Hym.:Aphelinidae) and Pakencyrtus pakistanensis Ahmad. (Hym.: Encyrtidae) in Pakistan. Technical Bulletin of the Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, No. 15:51-57

                                                                                                                      Rai BK, 1977. Damage to coconut palms by Azteca sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and insecticidal control with bait, in Guyana. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 67(1):175-183

                                                                                                                      Rosen D, 1990. World Crop Pests. 4B. Armoured Scale Insects: their biology, natural enemies and control. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, 688 pp

                                                                                                                      Sadakathulla S, 1993. Technique of mass production of the predatory coccinellid, Chilocorus nigritus (Fabricius) on coconut scale, Aspidiotus destructor Sign. Indian Coconut Journal (Cochin), 23(9):12-13

                                                                                                                      Shah AH, Jhala RC, Patel CB, 1988. Bioefficacy of aldicarb and BPMC against mango scales and its residues on/in mango fruits. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal, 13(2):19-22

                                                                                                                      Sinnathamby SV, 1980. Developments in the control of coconut scale, Aspidiotus destructor Sign. in Sri Lanka. Ceylon Coconut Quarterly, 28(3-4):81-88

                                                                                                                      Suta AR, Esguerra NM, 1993. Recent history of biological control in the freely associated states of Micronesia. Micronesica, No. 4 suppl:61-64

                                                                                                                      Tabibullah M, Gabriel BF, 1973. Biological study of Aspidiotus destructor Signoret in different coconut varieties and other host plants. Philippine Entomologist, 2(6):409-426

                                                                                                                      Takagi S, 1969. Diaspididae of Taiwan based on material collected in connection with the Japan - U.S. co-operative science programme, 1965 (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Part I. Insecta Matsumurana, Series Entomology, 32:1-110

                                                                                                                      Tandon PL, Srivastava RP, 1980. New records of parasites and predators of important insect pests of mango. Entomon, 5(3):243-244

                                                                                                                      Tang SJ, Qin HZ, 1991. Study on Temnaspidiotus destructor (Signoret). Journal of Shanghai Agricultural College, 9(3):190-196

                                                                                                                      Tao C, 1999. List of Coccoidea (Homoptera) of China. Taichung, Taiwan: Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wufeng, 1-176

                                                                                                                      Tauili' ili P, Vargo AM, 1993. History of biological control in American Samoa. Biological Control of Exotic Pests in the Pacific. Proceedings of a Plenary Session and Symposium, XIX International Congress of Entomology, Beijing, June 1992. Micronesica, 4 Supplement: 57-60

                                                                                                                      Taylor THC, 1935. The campaign against Aspidiotus destructor Sign., in Fiji. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 26:1-102

                                                                                                                      Velasquez FJ, 1971. Some Philippine armored scale insects of the tribe Aspidiotini (Diaspididae, Homoptera). Philippine Entomologist, 2(2):89-154

                                                                                                                      Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp

                                                                                                                      Watson GW, Ooi PAC, Girling DJ, 1995. Insects on plants in the Maldives and their management. Ascot, UK: International Institute of Biological Control

                                                                                                                      Williams DJ, Watson GW, 1988. The Scale Insects of the Tropical South Pacific Region. Part 1. The Armoured Scales (Diaspididae). Wallingford, UK: CAB International

                                                                                                                      Williams JR, Greathead DJ, 1990. Sugar Cane. In: Rosen D, ed. Armoured Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. 4B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 563-578

                                                                                                                      Williams JR, Williams DJ, 1988. Homoptera of the Mascarene Islands - an annotated catalogue. Entomology Memoir, Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Republic of South Africa, No. 72, 98 pp

                                                                                                                      Wong CY, Chen SP, Chou LP, 1999. Guidebook to scale insects of Taiwan. (In Chinese.) Taichung, Taiwan: Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, 1-98

                                                                                                                      Wu KC, Tao CCC, 1976. Natural enemies of the transparent scale and control of the leaf bud beetle attacking coconut palm in Taiwan. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 25(2):141-155

                                                                                                                      Zhou CA, Zou JJ, Peng JC, 1993. Bionomics of coconut scale - a main pest insect on Actinidia and its control. Entomological Knowledge, 30(1):18-20

                                                                                                                      Distribution References

                                                                                                                      APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

                                                                                                                      Bennett F D, Alam M M, 1985. An annotated check-list of the insects and allied terrestrial arthropods of Barbados. Bridgetown, Barbados: Caribbean Agricultural Research & Development Institute. vi + 81 pp.

                                                                                                                      Buyckx EJE, 1962. (Précis des maladies et des insectes nuisibles recontrés sur les plantes cultivées au Congo, au Rwanda et au Burundi)., Brussels, Belgium: Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo (INEAC).

                                                                                                                      CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                                                                                      CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                                                                                      CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                                                                                      Charlin C R, 1973. Coccoidea of Easter Island (Homoptera). (Coccoidea de la Isla de Pascua (Homoptera).). Revista Chilena de Entomologia. 111-114.

                                                                                                                      Claps LE, Wolff VRS, González RH, 2001. (Catálogo de las Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) exóticas de la Argentina)., 60 9-34.

                                                                                                                      CSIRO, 2001. World Wide Web., http://www.ento.csiro.au/aicn

                                                                                                                      Danzig EM, Pellizzari G, 1998. Diaspididae. In: Catalogue of Palaearctic Coccoidea, [ed. by Kozßr F]. Budapest, Hungary: Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Akaprint Nyomdaipari Kft. 172-370.

                                                                                                                      Fernandes I M, 1974. Study of some Coccids from S. Tome. (Estudo de algumas cochonilhas de S. Tome.). Garcia de Orta, Serie Zoologia. 3 (1), 1-3.

                                                                                                                      Foldi I, 1988. New contribution to the study of scale insects from Brazilian Amazonia (Homoptera: Coccoidea). (Nouvelle contribution a l'étude des cochenilles de l'Amazonie Brésilienne (Homoptera: Coccoidea).). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. 24 (1), 77-87.

                                                                                                                      Germain J F, Matile-Ferrero D, 2005. Scale insects from greenhouses in France: an illustrated survey. III - Diaspididae. (Les cochenilles sous serres en France: inventaire illustré. III - Les Diaspididae.). Phytoma. 32-35.

                                                                                                                      IPPC, 2005. IPP Report No. TV-1/2., Rome, Italy: FAO.

                                                                                                                      Kawai S, 1980. Scale Insects of Japan in Colours., Tokyo, Japan: National Agriculture Education Association. 455 pp.

                                                                                                                      Kinawy M M, 1991. Biological control of the coconut scale insect (Aspidiotus destructor Sign. Homoptera: Diaspididae) in the southern region of Oman (Dhofar). Tropical Pest Management. 37 (4), 387-389.

                                                                                                                      Kondo T, 2001. The scale insects of Colombia (Hemiptera: Coccoidea). (Las Cochinillas de Colombia (Hemiptera: Coccoidea).). Biota Colombiana. 2 (1), 31-48.

                                                                                                                      Kondo T, Muñoz J A, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with avocado crop, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Valle del Cauca and neighboring departments of Colombia. Insecta Mundi. 1-24. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2016

                                                                                                                      Longo S, Marotta S, Pellizzari G, Russo A, Tranfaglia A, 1995. An annotated list of the scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidea) of Italy. In: Israel Journal of Entomology [Proceedings of the VII International Symposium of Scale Insect Studies, held in Bet Dagan, Israel, June 12-17 1994.], 29 [ed. by Ascher K R S, Ben-Dov Y]. 113-130.

                                                                                                                      Miller D R, 1996. Checklist of the scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 98 (1), 68-86.

                                                                                                                      Nakahara S, 1982. Checklist of the Armored Scales (Homoptera: Diapididae) of the Conterminous United States., Washington, USA: USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine. 110 pp.

                                                                                                                      NHM, 1930. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

                                                                                                                      NHM, 1940. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

                                                                                                                      NHM, 1957. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

                                                                                                                      NHM, 1958. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

                                                                                                                      NHM, 1967. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

                                                                                                                      NHM, 1968. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

                                                                                                                      NHM, 1969. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

                                                                                                                      NHM, 1985. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

                                                                                                                      NHM, 1992. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

                                                                                                                      Suh SooJung, Bombay K, 2015. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) found on dracaena and ficus plants (Asparagales: Asparagaceae, Rosales: Moraceae) from southeastern Asia. Insecta Mundi. 1-10. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2015

                                                                                                                      Sunil Joshi, Sangma R H Ch, 2015. Natural enemies associated with aphids and coccids from Sikkim, India. Journal of Biological Control. 29 (1), 3-7. http://journalofbiologicalcontrol.com/index.php/jbc/article/view/75778/59026

                                                                                                                      Suta A R, Esguerra N M, 1993. Recent history of biological control in the freely associated states of Micronesia. In: Micronesica [Biological Control of Exotic Pests in the Pacific. Proceedings of a Plenary Session and Symposium, XIX International Congress of Entomology, Beijing, June 1992.], 61-64.

                                                                                                                      Takagi S, 1969. Diaspididae of Taiwan based on material collected in connection with the Japan-U.S. Co-operative Science Programme, 1965 (Homoptera: Coccoidea) Part I. Insecta Matsumurana, Entomology. 32 (1), 1-110.

                                                                                                                      Tao C, 1999. List of Coccoidea (Homoptera) of China., Taichung, Taiwan: Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Wufeng. 1-176.

                                                                                                                      UK, CAB International, 1966. Aspidiotus destructor. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 218. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20056600218

                                                                                                                      Velasquez F J, 1971. Some Philippine armored scale insects of the tribe Aspidiotini (Diaspididae, Homoptera). Philippine Entomologist. 2 (2), 89-154.

                                                                                                                      Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

                                                                                                                      Watson G W, Ooi P A C, Girling D J, 1995. Insects on plants in the Maldives and their management. Ascot, UK: International Institute of Biological Control (IIBC). 124 pp.

                                                                                                                      Wong CY, Chen SP, Chou LP, 1999. Guidebook to scale insects of Taiwan., Taichung, Taiwan: Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute. 1-98.

                                                                                                                      Zhou C A, Zou J J, Peng J C, 1993. Bionomics of coconut scale - a main pest insect on Actinidia and its control. Entomological Knowledge. 30 (1), 18-20.

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