Invasive Species Compendium

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Asparagus setaceus
(asparagus fern)

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Datasheet

Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Asparagus setaceus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • asparagus fern
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. setaceus is a fast-growing climber species widely introduced throughout the tropics where it has become naturalized and invasive. Its extensive climbing habit, thorny stems, enlarged storage roots, and small...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern); frond detail. Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.
TitleFrond
CaptionAsparagus setaceus (asparagus fern); frond detail. Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2005 - CC BY 4.0
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern); frond detail. Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.
FrondAsparagus setaceus (asparagus fern); frond detail. Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.©Forest & Kim Starr-2005 - CC BY 4.0
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern); thorny stems. Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.
TitleThorny stems
CaptionAsparagus setaceus (asparagus fern); thorny stems. Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2005 - CC BY 4.0
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern); thorny stems. Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.
Thorny stemsAsparagus setaceus (asparagus fern); thorny stems. Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.©Forest & Kim Starr-2005 - CC BY 4.0
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern); invasive habit, climbing trees. Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.
TitleInvasive habit
CaptionAsparagus setaceus (asparagus fern); invasive habit, climbing trees. Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2005 - CC BY 4.0
Asparagus setaceus (asparagus fern); invasive habit, climbing trees. Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.
Invasive habitAsparagus setaceus (asparagus fern); invasive habit, climbing trees. Kamalo, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.©Forest & Kim Starr-2005 - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Asparagus setaceus (Kunth) Jessop

Preferred Common Name

  • asparagus fern

Other Scientific Names

  • Asparagopsis setacea Kunth
  • Asparagus asiaticus var. amharicus Pic.Serm.
  • Asparagus lujae De Wild.
  • Asparagus plumosus Baker
  • Asparagus zanzibaricus Baker
  • Protasparagus plumosus (Baker) Oberm.
  • Protasparagus setaceus (Kunth) Oberm.

International Common Names

  • English: climbing asparagus fern; common asparagus fern; lacy asparagus fern
  • Spanish: creston; helecho de agua
  • French: asperge plumeuse
  • Chinese: wen zhu

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: espárrago espumoso; espárrago plumoso; pinito de amor; tuya sensible
  • Dominican Republic: céfiro
  • Germany: Zier- Spargel
  • Haiti: mousseline
  • Lesser Antilles: mousseline
  • Netherlands: asperge, pluim-
  • Puerto Rico: abeto; ala de pájaro; helecho plumoso

EPPO code

  • ASPPL (Asparagus plumosus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. setaceus is a fast-growing climber species widely introduced throughout the tropics where it has become naturalized and invasive. Its extensive climbing habit, thorny stems, enlarged storage roots, and small black, bird-dispersed berries combine to make this a particularly difficult weed to eradicate (Imada et al., 2000). Currently, it is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds, where is listed as an environmental weed (Randall, 2012). It is also listed as invasive in Australia, New Zealand, Cuba, and Hawaii and on many islands in the Pacific Ocean (Healy and Edgar, 1980; Starr et al., 2002; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016).

In Australia, this species is regarded as an environmental weed and it was recently listed as a priority environmental weed. It is ranked among the top 100 most invasive weeds in Queensland where it is of particular concern in natural forests (Weeds of Australia, 2016). It Cuba it is considered an invasive species with the capability to “transform” natural habitats (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). PIER (2016) lists risk assessments prepared for Australia (Reject: score=16) and the Pacific (High risk: score=13).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Liliales
  •                         Family: Liliaceae
  •                             Genus: Asparagus
  •                                 Species: Asparagus setaceus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Asparagus is a member of the Asparagaceae family (Stevens, 2012). The exact number of species in the genus is uncertain with estimates between 120 and more than 300 species distributed primarily across the Old World with a diversification hotspot in South Africa (Dahlgren et al., 1985; Kubota et al., 2012; Norup et al., 2015). Although represented by diverse life forms, including herbaceous perennials, tender woody shrubs, and vines, all Asparagus species are characterized by the presence of photosynthetic stems (Kubota et al., 2012).

At present, there is a confusion in the application of the names for two South African species: Asparagus setaceus and A. plumosus. A widely accepted taxonomic revision of the South African species recognized only one species: A. setaceus and listed the species A. plumosus as a synonym (Jessop, 1966; The Plant List, 2013). Until now, most horticultural and taxonomic reference works have followed this classification. However, some authors consider that these two species can be distinguished by the arrangement of their cladodes (Fellingham and Meyer, 1995; Imada et al., 2000):

  • all clades in one plane = A. plumosus

  • clades radiating in many planes = A. setaceus

If this classification is followed, then the species widespread in cultivation is to be called A. plumosus, while the wild type A. setaceus does not occur in cultivation (Imada et al., 2000; PIER, 2016). PIER gives listings for both species, though with reciprocal links. Here we followed the classification proposed by The Plant List (2013), thus we are considering A. plumosus a synonym of A. setaceus (Govaerts, 2016). The species epithet setaceus is derived from the Latin saeta "hair" or "bristle", hence "hairy," while plumosus derives from the Latin for “plumed”, referring to the foliage. Despite the common name of asparagus fern, the plant is not a true fern, but has leaves resembling one.

Description

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Herbs hermaphroditic. Stems climbing, much branched, to several metres, slightly woody near base; branches spreading horizontally, with branchlets and cladodes arranged in one plane, frond-like. Cladodes in fascicles of 10-13, 4-5 mm, very slender, slightly trigonous. Leaf spur short, occasionally spinescent on main stems. Inflorescences developing after cladodes. Flowers solitary or in clusters of 2 or 3; pedicel short, articulate at middle. Perianth white; segments widely spreading, lanceolate-oblong, approximately 7 mm. The fruit are small rounded berries (4-5 mm across) and are initially green in colour. These berries turn black or bluish-black as they mature and contain one to three seeds (2.5-3.5 mm across) that are also black in colour (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016).

Distribution

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A. setaceus is native to eastern and southern Africa (USDA-ARS, 2016), from central Ethiopia to South Africa (Govaerts, 2016). It has been widely commercialized as an ornamental and can be found naturalized in China, Italy, Spain, Portugal, the USA, Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and South America and on many islands in the Pacific region (see distribution table for details, DAISIE, 2016; Govaerts, 2016; PIER, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentIntroducedWhistler, 1996Cultivated on Chagos Archipelago
ChinaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016Becoming naturalized
IsraelPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016
JapanPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
SingaporePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al., 2009
TaiwanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016

Africa

BotswanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
ComorosPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
EthiopiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
KenyaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
LesothoPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
MalawiPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
MauritiusPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
MozambiquePresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
South AfricaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
SwazilandPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
TanzaniaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
ZambiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
ZimbabwePresentNativeGovaerts, 2016

North America

BermudaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
MexicoPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
USAPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Starr et al., 2002Listed as A. plumosus

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated
HondurasPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated
SabaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated in St Croix and St Thomas

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
EcuadorPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008
UruguayPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016

Europe

GreecePresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
ItalyPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2016Also listed as naturalized in Sicilia
-SicilyPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2016
PortugalRestricted distributionIntroducedDAISIE, 2016Invasive in Azores and Madeira
-AzoresPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2016
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2016
SpainPresentIntroduced Invasive DAISIE, 2016

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016Listed as A. plumosus
AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016Listed as A. plumosus
-Lord Howe Is.PresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1987
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016Listed as A. plumosus
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016Listed as A. plumosus
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016Listed as A. plumosus
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016Listed as A. plumosus
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016Listed as A. plumosus
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedMcCormack, 2013; PIER, 2016
FijiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florence et al., 2013
GuamPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1987
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedVander, 2003
NauruPresentIntroducedThaman et al., 1994
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedMacKee, 1994
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Invasive Healy and Edgar, 1980
NiuePresentIntroducedSpace et al., 2004Cultivated
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Weeds of Australia, 2016Listed as A. plumosus
SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016Listed as A. plumosus
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016

History of Introduction and Spread

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A. setaceus has been widely introduced across tropical and subtropical regions of the world (USDA-ARS, 2016). This species is often planted as an ornamental and indoor pot plant. In the West Indies, it first appeared in herbarium collections made in 1921 in St Croix, 1926 in Cuba, 1927 in Jamaica and 1928 in Hispaniola (US National Herbarium). In Hawaii, it was first documented as naturalized and spreading outside cultivation in 1995 (Lorence et al., 1995).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of A. setaceus is high. This species is still widely cultivated as an ornamental around the world. Additionally, its fruits are easily dispersed by birds, and once established plants are difficult to eradicate. Therefore, the probability of invasion of this species, mostly in areas near cultivation, remains high.

Habitat

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A. setaceus can be found growing in tropical, subtropical and warmer temperate regions of the world (DAISIE, 2016; PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016). In Australia, it is mostly found in rainforests, forest margins, urban bushland, wetter open woodlands, along roadsides, in disturbed sites, and in parks and gardens. In New South Wales it is extensively naturalized in coastal areas (Weeds of Australia, 2016). In Fiji it grows in disturbed areas near sea level (PIER, 2016). In Hawaii, it grows in dry to moist forests (PIER, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for A. setaceus is 2n = 20 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016).

Reproductive Biology

Recent studies have suggested that most of the African species of Asparagus generally have hermaphroditic flowers, whereas the majority of Eurasian species are dioecious (Kubota et al., 2012; Stevens, 2012; Norup et al., 2015). Hybridization between species seems common in the dioecious Asparagus species (Kubota et al., 2012); dioecy seems to have evolved once in this genus (Norup et al., 2015).

Physiology and Phenology

A. setaceus is a perennial climber with stems growing up to 5 m or more long (Weeds of Australia, 2016). This species can become aggressive as it sends out self-twining shoots which will wrap around anything in their reach.

In China, this species flowers in June (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016). In Puerto Rico, it has been recorded in flower and fruit in February. In Australia, flowers have been recorded from spring through to early autumn (Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Environmental Requirements

A. setaceus prefers to grow in open moist habitats at elevations from sea level to 1880 m. It is well-adapted to a wide range of soil types including sandy, loamy and heavy clay soils with pH ranging from 5.6 to 7.8. However, it requires well-drained soils (PROTA, 2016).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -3
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 28

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall7502300mm; lower/upper limits

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Cultivated A. setaceus is prone to spider mites, scale insects and mealybugs (PROTA, 2016).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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A. setaceus spreads mostly by seeds. Its berries are readily eaten and dispersed by frugivorous birds and other animals. Seeds may also be spread in dumped garden waste (Weeds of Australia, 2016). Older plants can also spread by means of long, slender rhizomes (PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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A. setaceus is a serious environmental weed. The seeds of this species are easily dispersed by birds into nearby natural forests and disturbed sites. Once established, this species grows forming dense thickets that smother and outcompete native plant species and other more desirable plants. It is also an accomplished climber and easily scrambles over other vegetation up into the canopy (PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016; Weeds of Australia, 2016).

Social Impact

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The fruit (berries) of A. setaceus are toxic and should not be eaten by humans (PROTA, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Hybridization
  • Poisoning
  • Pollen swamping
  • Predation
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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A. setaceus is often cultivated as an ornamental plant, for planting in gardens, yards and as an indoor pot plant. Its attractive foliage is also used in floral arrangements (USDA-ARS, 2016). It is also planted as a medicinal plant. Extracts from the shoots are used for cardiac diseases, while root decoctions are used as a diuretic medicine. The dried plant is reported to possess antibiotic properties. It is used as a malaria remedy (PROTA, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

Problems with existing plants of A. setaceus may be contained if birds are prevented from accessing the berries (Weeds of Australia, 2016). In addition, the commercialization and use of this species as an ornamental should be discouraged.

Control

Small infestations of A. setaceus can be controlled by digging out roots. Remove the entire crown and underground stem to prevent regrowth. Any regrowth that occurs can be kept under control by regular mowing or digging out.

There is no herbicide currently registered for control of A. setaceus. However, the herbicides dicamba, fluroxypyr, and metsulfuron-methyl have been successfully used to control other Asparagus species (Weeds of Australia, 2016). On Lord Howe Island, Australia, Cussan (2006), referring to A. plumosus, suggests that dense towers of the climbing plant can be treated by cutting to about 15 cm above ground height, scraping the stems, and then dripping or scraping with glyphosate.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Cussan, J. le, 2006. Eradication of invasive alien plants on Lord Howe Island, NSW using three Asparagus species (Asparagus asparagoides (L.) Druce, A. plumosus Baker and A. aethiopicus L.) as a case study., Plant Protection Quarterly, 21(3):117-121

Dahlgren RMT, Clifford HT, Yeo PF, 1985. The families of the monocotyledons. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.

DAISIE, 2016. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Fellingham AC, Meyer NL, 1995. New combinations and a complete list of Asparagus species in southern Africa., Bothalia, 25:205-209

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer JY, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Fosberg FR, Sachet MH, Oliver R, 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae., Micronesia, 20(1-2):19-129

Govaerts R, 2016. Family Asparagaceae - World Checklist. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Healy AJ, Edgar E, 1980. Flora of New Zealand, Volume III: Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. Wellington, New Zealand: Government Printer. 220 pp.

Imada CT, Staples GW, Herbst DR, 2000. New Hawaiian plant records for 1999. In: Evenhuis NL, Eldredge LG, Eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1999. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 63:9-16. http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/pdf/imada-etal00.pdf

Jessop JP, 1966. The genus Asparagus in southern Africa., Bothalia, 9:31–96

Kubota S, Konno I, Kanno A, 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Asparagus (Asparagaceae) explains interspecific crossability between the garden asparagus (A. officinalis) and other Asparagus species., Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 124:345-354

Lorence DH, Flynn TW, Wagner WL, 1995. Contributions to the flora of Hawai‘i. III. New additions, range extensions, and rediscoveries of flowering plants. In: Evenhuis NL, Miller SE, Eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1994. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 41:19-58. http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/pdf/op41-19-58.pdf

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.). Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. 164 pp.

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

Norup MF, Petersen G, Burrows S, Bouchenak-Khelladi Y, Leebens-Mack J, Pires JC, Linder HP, Seberg O, 2015. Evolution of Asparagus L. (Asparagaceae): Out-of-South-Africa and multiple origins of sexual dimorphism., Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 92:25-44

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6 (Special Issue 1):22-96

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2016. PROTA4U web database. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.info

Randall RP, 2012. A global compendium of weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Space JC, Waterhouse BM, Newfield M, Bull C, 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. 80 pp. [UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity.] http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/niue_report_2004.htm

Starr F, Martz K, Loope LL, 2002. New plant records from the Hawaiian archipelago. In: Evenhuis NL, Eldredge LG, Eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2000. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 69:16-27

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Thaman RR, Fosberg FR, Manner HI, Hassall DC, 1994. The flora of Nauru. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Research Bulletin, 392:1-223

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vander VN, 2003. The vascular plants of Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands., Atoll Research Bulletin, 503:1-141

Weeds of Australia, 2016. Queensland Government Biosecurity Edition. Online resources. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/index.htm

Whistler WA, 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. Isle Botanica (online), 49 pp. http://www.zianet.com/tedmorris/dg/2005NRMP-Appendixe-botanicalsurvey.pdf

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Checklist of Cultivated Plants of Hawai‘ihttp://nsdb.bishopmuseum.org/
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)http://www.hear.org/pier/species/asparagus_setaceus.htm
Weeds of Australiahttp://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/asparagus_plumosus.htm

Contributors

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06/09/16 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

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