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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- rinderpest virus
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
- Unknown: "RNA viruses"
- Order: Mononegavirales
- Family: Paramyxoviridae
- Genus: Morbillivirus
- Species: rinderpest virus
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
Pathogen CharacteristicsTop of page
The complete genome sequence is available for rinderpest virus (RPV), human measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) and partial sequence data for the other morbilliviruses. They are identical in structure, being pleiomorphic, enveloped viruses of approximately 300-nm diameter with a typical paramyxovirus nucleocapsid structure. The virion is composed of six structural proteins and the genetic material of a single piece of RNA of negative-sense polarity contained in the nucleocapsid coiled within the virus envelope. Once the virus enters the cell, transcription of the negative-sense genome RNA begins and messenger RNAs are produced for each virus protein. Later in infection, replication of the virus RNA begins. This is accomplished by making a full-length positive-sense copy of the genome RNA, instead of the individual mRNAs, and this functions as the template to produce new virion RNA. Newly synthesized template and virion RNAs are surrounded and protected by the nucleocapsid protein (N protein) which, in association with the virus polymerase (L protein) and phosphoprotein (P protein), form ribonucleoprotein complexes called nucleocapsids.
The virus envelope contains two virus-coded glycoproteins, the haemagglutinin (H protein) and fusion proteins (F protein), responsible for attachment to and fusion with the host cell, respectively. The lipid layer of the virus envelope is derived from the host cell during virus budding. A non-glycosylated matrix protein (M protein) interacts both with the internal domains of the envelope glycoproteins and with the nucleocapsids formed within the host cell cytoplasm during genome replication. This brings the internal and external components together and enables the new virus to bud from the host cell. The virus genome RNA is approximately 16 kb in length and consists of a short 3' leader RNA followed by the coding regions for the six structural protein genes, with defined stop-start sequence motifs between each gene, and ends in a short 5' trailer RNA. The organization of the rinderpest genome is 3'Leader: 55; N 1692; P 1658; M 1463; F 2370; H 1961; L 6646; 5'Trailer 37; Total length 15882.
Two virus-encoded non-structural proteins (C and V) are produced in infected cells and are probably concerned with regulation of virus replication. The C non-structural protein is translated from an alternate reading frame in the phosphoprotein mRNA, beginning at the second AUG codon. The V protein is translated from an mRNA which is not an exact copy of the P gene sequence but from an edited mRNA which has an extra G residue inserted at a conserved slippery sequence motif positioned about halfway along the P gene where the virus polymerase 'stutters' and adds the extra non-templated G. This editing (or more properly, alternative transcription) occurs in about 30-50% of the mRNAs transcribed from the P gene in the case of MV, RPV and CDV and there is evidence that it occurs in all other morbilliviruses. Translation of this mRNA produces a chimeric protein consisting of the N-terminus of the P protein with a new C-terminus, rich in cysteine residues, derived from sequences in the third reading frame. The V protein is probably not required for growth of these viruses in tissue culture as mutations in the editing site of DMV did not affect the ability to grow in Vero cells.
Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.
Host AnimalsTop of page
|Animal name||Context||Life stage||System|
|Axis axis (Indian spotted deer)|
|Bos grunniens (yaks)||Domesticated host, Wild host|
|Bos taurus (cattle)||Domesticated host|
|Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)|
|Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)||Domesticated host|
|Capra hircus (goats)|
|Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)|
|Ovis aries (sheep)||Domesticated host|
|Sus scrofa (pigs)||Domesticated host|
ReferencesTop of page
OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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