Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Nasua narica
(white-nosed coati)



Nasua narica (white-nosed coati)


  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Nasua narica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white-nosed coati
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Mammalia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • White-nosed coatis, Nasua narica, are medium sized omnivorous, social, diurnal, forest-living mammals of the order Carnivora, distributed throughout Central America and into the southernmost USA. Recorded introductions are limited to occa...

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Nasua narica (white-nosed coati); adult, near human habitation. Xel-Ha, Mexico. December, 2012.
CaptionNasua narica (white-nosed coati); adult, near human habitation. Xel-Ha, Mexico. December, 2012.
Copyright©Robert Pittman-2012/Lostwithiel, Cornwall, UK - CC BY-ND 2.0
Nasua narica (white-nosed coati); adult, near human habitation. Xel-Ha, Mexico. December, 2012.
AdultNasua narica (white-nosed coati); adult, near human habitation. Xel-Ha, Mexico. December, 2012.©Robert Pittman-2012/Lostwithiel, Cornwall, UK - CC BY-ND 2.0
White-nosed Coati (Nasua narica); adult. Madera Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, SE Arizona, USA. April 2013.
CaptionWhite-nosed Coati (Nasua narica); adult. Madera Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, SE Arizona, USA. April 2013.
Copyright©Sarah Louise Winch/Wildlife Wanderer/via flickr - CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
White-nosed Coati (Nasua narica); adult. Madera Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, SE Arizona, USA. April 2013.
AdultWhite-nosed Coati (Nasua narica); adult. Madera Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, SE Arizona, USA. April 2013.©Sarah Louise Winch/Wildlife Wanderer/via flickr - CC BY-NC-ND 2.0


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Nasua narica (Storr, 1780)

Preferred Common Name

  • white-nosed coati

International Common Names

  • Spanish: coatí

Local Common Names

  • Costa Rica: pizote

Summary of Invasiveness

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White-nosed coatis, Nasua narica, are medium sized omnivorous, social, diurnal, forest-living mammals of the order Carnivora, distributed throughout Central America and into the southernmost USA. Recorded introductions are limited to occasional sightings of escaped animals in Florida; the population on Cozumel island, Mexico (sometimes considered a separate species) may result from an introduction in prehistoric times. Ecologically and behaviourally, coatis in the genus Nasua are very similar to each other. Although differences between species exist, for the purposes of invasiveness potential, the genus Nasua can be considered as one group. Few documented cases of invasive coatis exist. However they should be considered to have the potential to be invasive, given their ability to feed from anthropogenic food resources, high densities of N. nasua in some Brazilian urban parks, and their omnivorous diets which may lead to adverse environmental effects on prey items. N. narica is classified as species of least concern by IUCN, although it is classified as an endangered species in New Mexico and listed on Appendix III of CITES by Honduras (CITES, 2017; IUCN, 2015).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Mammalia
  •                     Order: Carnivora
  •                         Family: Procyonidae
  •                             Genus: Nasua
  •                                 Species: Nasua narica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Coati taxonomy and nomenclature are currently in flux. Traditionally, two main species of coatis have been recognized: the South American ring-tailed coati (Nasua nasua), and the Central American white-nosed coati (Nasua narica) (Decker, 1991). While the two species look distinct based on coat colour patterns, it is highly likely that genetic studies will lead to the identification and naming of several more species (M. Tsuchiya, K. Koepfli, J. Maldonado and K. Helgen, Smithsonian Institution, USA, personal communication, 2015). It is currently uncertain whether the coati population of Cozumel Island, Mexico, which may represent an ancient introduction by humans, constitutes a separate species (N. nelsoni) or a subspecies of N. narica (Hirsch and Gompper, in press; Decker, 1991; Helgen and Wilson, 2004; McFadden, 2004; McFadden et al., 2008, 2010; Flores-Manzanero, 2014).

The closely related mountain coati Nasuella olivacea (which is also in taxonomic flux) is confined to high mountain habitats, and is ecologically distinct from the two “main” coati species (Helgen et al., 2009).


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Coatis are medium sized (3-7 kg) procyonids noted for their omnivorous diet, keen sense of smell, and ability to adapt to human presence (Gompper, 1995, 1996). N. narica has a head-to-tail length of 66-134 cm (Hall, 1981; Gompper, 1996). It has a long, slender, non-prehensile tail which is equal in length to the head and body and often held vertically erect while foraging. It also has an elongated rostrum, terminating in a flexible rhinarium that protrudes beyond the end of the lower mandible (Gompper, 1995).

Coat colour in N. narica varies from dark to light brown, although this variation is geographical, and individuals within a population tend to have very similar coat coloration. Leucistic individuals have been reported (Silva-Caballero et al., 2014). N. narica can be distinguished from N. nasua by the distinctive white coloration surrounding the nose/muzzle (B. Hirsch, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, personal communication, 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes



North America

BelizePresent, LocalizedNative
Costa RicaPresent, WidespreadNative
El SalvadorPresent, LocalizedNative
GuatemalaPresent, WidespreadNative
HondurasPresent, WidespreadNative
MexicoPresent, LocalizedNative
NicaraguaPresent, WidespreadNative
PanamaPresent, WidespreadNative
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ArizonaPresent, LocalizedNativeChiricahua mountain range
-FloridaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced
-New MexicoPresent, Localized
-TexasPresent, Localized

History of Introduction and Spread

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There are very few known cases of coati introductions -- currently only two for N. narica:

1) Occasional sightings of escaped coati pets in South Florida, with no evidence of successful establishment. For example on October 31st, 2013, a coati (N. narica) was observed in suburban Tampa (EDDMapS, 2015)

2) Cozumel Island, Mexico hosts a small population of endemic N. narica (sometimes considered to be a separate species, N. nelsoni). Genetic evidence indicates that this population has been isolated from that on the mainland for between 1200 and 83,000 years; it is not known whether it reached the island naturally or was introduced by Native Americans (McFadden et al., 2008; Glatston, 1994). The debate about the origin of the Cozumel coati (natural dispersal or human introduction) and its uncertain taxonomic level (subspecies versus species) has major implications for whether this population should be treated as pests or should be a protected native species.


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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Florida 2013 Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause) No No EDDMapS (2015) Probably an escaped pet
Mexico   Yes No McFadden et al. (2008) Native to Mexico. Uncertain whether Cozumel Island population is native or introduced -- see text

Risk of Introduction

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Coatis present a clear and present threat to native wildlife if introduced to new areas, as they are generalist omnivores that can and will eat a wide diversity of prey items (Kaufmann, 1962; Gompper, 1995). However, the likelihood that they will be introduced to an area is probably very small in most cases. They are rarely kept as pets, and when they are it is generally in countries where they are native. The observations of escaped coatis in South Florida could be linked to the presence of major “exotic pet” breeders and their customers in the region. There is also little evidence that local hunters move coatis to different regions (which has occurred with the closely related raccoon, Procyon lotor -- Childs et al., 2000). In general, there is little reason for coatis to be transported, and little risk of accidental introduction, so the probability that a coati introduction would occur appears to be relatively low.


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It appears that coatis only live in areas with at least some forest cover and are unable to live in exclusively urbanized habitats (unlike raccoons, Procyon lotor, which are closely related).

Habitat List

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Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Several studies have been undertaken on coati genetics, focused on within-group relatedness in relation to social behaviour (Gompper et al., 1997, 1998), phylogenetic studies (Fulton and Strobeck, 2007; Koepfli et al., 2007; McFadden et al., 2008, 2010; Helgen et al., 2009), and genetic diversity (Flores-Manzanero, 2014; Silva-Caballero et al., 2017).

Reproductive Biology

Coatis are seasonal breeders and typically have one litter of 2-7 pups per year (Gompper, 1996). In some cases, they have been reported to produce a second litter if the first litter dies quickly. No reproductive suppression has been reported in coatis, and all adult females in a social group can reproduce simultaneously (Hirsch and Gompper, in press). In regions with low juvenile mortality, this can lead to rapidly expanding group sizes within a few years (Hirsch and Gompper, in press). Adult females within a social group typically come into oestrus almost simultaneously for a period of 4-5 days. The breeding season within a population generally lasts 3-4 weeks in total (Kaufmann, 1962; Gompper, 1996).


Little is known about longevity in wild coatis. The maximum longevity for a captive coati is 26 years (Weigl, 2005). Given average predation rates for most coati populations, it is unlikely that wild coatis could reach this age.

Activity Patterns

Coatis are the only diurnal procyonids (Kaufmann, 1962). Mating may also take place at night (Kaufmann, 1962; B. Hirsch, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, personal observation).

Population Size and Structure

Coati groups (sometime called “bands”) are composed of adult females, juveniles (between 2 months and 1 year of age) and subadults (between 1-2 years of age). Adult male N. narica rarely enter social groups outside the mating season (Gompper and Krinsley, 1992).

Population size varies widely depending on locale. Average group sizes for N. narica range from 5.4-22.5 individuals (Hirsch and Gompper, in press). Upper limits of group size are reported to be >150 individuals for N. narica (Booth-Binczik, 2001). Groups will often disband during the birthing season. During this period, pregnant adult females will leave their groups for 6-8 weeks until their offspring are mobile (Hass and Valenzuela, 2002, citing Kaufmann, 1962). The mortality rate of adult female coatis during this solitary birthing period is significantly higher than during the rest of the year when they live in groups (Hass and Valenzuela, 2002).


Coatis are omnivores, and most of their diet is composed of fruit and ground litter invertebrates (Hirsch and Gompper, in press). They are opportunistic hunters/scavengers, and will eat vertebrates and eggs if the opportunity arises. Despite claims to the contrary (Smythe, 1970), vertebrates make up a small fraction of coati diets (Hirsch and Gompper, in press).


Coatis do not generally associate with other species. One widely reported association is the observation that coatis on Barro Colorado Island in Panama would eat ticks off tapirs (McClearn, 1992). However, this occurrence was probably related to the habituation of both species to a feeding station near the main research lab. The behaviour has not been observed since the feeding station was shut down, or at any other coati study site.

Environmental Requirements

Very little is understood about the environmental requirements of coatis. While they typically live in forested habitats, it is not well understood why some habitats have higher or lower population densities. High population densities are probably most often linked to anthropogenic food sources (for example Barro Colorado Island, Panama, until the 1980s), while low densities are found at the northern edge of the range in Arizona (Chiricahua mountains) (Hass, 2002; McColgin, 2006), which is in relatively dry/unproductive habitat.


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A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Tolerated < 860mm precipitation annually
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Boa Predator All Stages not specific
Cebus capucinus Predator Other|Juvenile not specific
Felis concolor Predator All Stages not specific
Leopardus pardalis Predator All Stages not specific
Panthera onca Predator All Stages not specific
Ursus americanus Predator not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The principal predators of coatis throughout most of their range are the medium-large felid species: ocelot (Felis pardalis or Leopardus pardalis), puma (Felis concolor or Puma concolor) and jaguar (Panthera onca). In addition, Hass and Valenzuela (2002) found evidence that black bears (Ursus americanus) predated adult coatis in Mexico. Large reptiles such as boa constrictors (Boa constrictor) and crocodiles are likely to attack and eat coatis as well (Hirsch and Gompper, in press; M. Gompper, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA, personal communication, 2015). While the range of predators on adult coatis is limited, juvenile coatis are vulnerable to a larger set of predators. Sáenz (1994) documented extremely high levels of juvenile coati mortality due to nest raiding by white faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus). In addition, snake and raptor species that are too small to attack and kill adult coatis may be able to kill juveniles during their first 3 months of life.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Coati home range sizes vary from 0.17 to 32 km2 (Hirsch and Gompper, in press). Little is known about daily travel distances, although it has been calculated to be between 1.5 and 2.3 km for bands and 4.2 to 4.6 km for males (Gompper, 1995; Valenzuela and Ceballos, 2000); Hirsch et al. (2013) calculated an average of 3.02 km travel distance per day for N. nasua in Iguazu, Argentina. As with other species, there is likely to be a positive relationship between daily travel distance and home range.

Coatis exhibit female philopatry and males disperse at approximately two years of age (Kaufman, 1962; Hirsch, 2007a, b). There is some evidence that females in exceedingly small groups will join other groups (Gompper, 1994), but in general, males are the only dispersing sex. After dispersal, males may associate with other same-age dispersing males for a period of 2-4 months (Hirsch, 2011, referring to N. nasua), but adult males are generally solitary in both species. Very little is known about the overall dispersal distances of adult males, or about the average or maximum dispersal distance of coatis in general. Despite the fact that they are considered to be animals with limited dispersal capabilities (Valenzuela and Ceballos, 2000), there is at least one case of a male N. narica moving more than 20 km between years in Arizona (Lanning, 1976). Larger scale, landscape level dispersal and movement patterns are also poorly understood. Current research into coati landscape genetics and phylogenetics may shed additional light on this issue.

Accidental Introduction

There are occasional sightings of escaped coati pets in South Florida, with no evidence of successful establishment.

Intentional Introduction

The presence of coatis on Cozumel island, Mexico, may be a result of introduction by Native Americans several thousand years ago.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes
Intentional releasePossible prehistoric introduction to Cozumel Island, Mexico Yes

Impact: Economic

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Coatis have little to no economic impact. However, although there is no information in the scientific literature documenting crop raiding, it is highly likely that coatis can and will raid certain types of crops. Fruit crops planted adjacent to intact forest are most likely to be vulnerable; N. nasua in Iguazu, Argentina were frequently observed feeding from introduced fruit trees planted near commercial and residential buildings inside the national park (Hirsch, 2009).

Coatis carry a host of external and internal parasites and diseases (Gompper, 1995). Most work has focused on Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, the causative agents of Chagas disease in humans and Mal de Cadeiras disease in horses, respectively (Herrera et al., 2001; Olifiers, 2010, Alves et al., 2011; Rocha et al., 2013; most of these studies refer to N. nasua). Nevertheless, there are records that N. narica is affected by other diseases, including canine distemper (Risser, 1963; Valenzuela, 2002), epizootic mange (Notoedres cati -- Valenzuela et al., 2000), rabies (Schimmel, 1968; Valenzuela, 2002; Aréchiga-Ceballos et al., 2010), salmonellosis (Salmonella sp. -- Risser, 1963), and tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis  – Nóbrega and Reis, 1941). Coatis present a realistic threat of disease transmission to naive populations; however, to date no disease or parasite outbreaks have been linked to them.

Impact: Environmental

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It is unknown what the ecological impact of the possible historical introduction of coatis to Cozumel Island (Mexico) was. Given the current low population levels on the island, it is doubtful that the species has a major impact on the ecology of the island at the present day (Cuarón et al., 2004).

Impact on Habitats

There appears to be little habitat-level impact of coatis in forested ecosystems. While they are an important disperser of fruit seeds (Alves-Costa et al., 2004; Hirsch, 2009), there is no indication that particular fruit species are solely or predominantly dispersed by coatis. Coatis are a frequent prey species for some predators, and several cases have been documented where they constitute a significant portion of prey items for a predator (see under 'Environmental Services' heading in 'Uses' section).

Impact on Biodiversity

The impact of coatis on biodiversity is unclear. They are generalist omnivores that can and will eat a wide diversity of prey items (Kaufmann, 1962; Gompper, 1995). This could have drastic impacts on naïve fauna, especially nesting birds or other slow moving animals that are easy prey. In particular, there is some worry about the effects on bird species that nest close to the ground (Colwell, 1989). However, direct observations of coatis have demonstrated that bird eggs are a very small proportion of their diets (Gompper, 1996), and there is currently insufficient evidence to conclude that there are significant impacts on bird species. They could be particularly problematic for native species in island systems, although in both cases of coati introductions to islands – one for each species -- they have not been assigned major roles in driving native prey to extinction or local extirpation.

Because coatis have strong tendencies to exploit a wide diversity of available resources, in cases when their ecological impacts are in doubt it may be best to err on the side of caution, and assume that they have the ability to exert significant top-down effects on some classes of prey species and present a clear and present threat to native wildlife if introduced to new areas.

They may reach high population densities when supplemented with anthropogenic foods, such as refuse bins (Hirsch, 2009; Alves-Costa et al., 2004) or deliberate feeding by tourists. In these areas, their ecological effects may be exaggerated compared to normal populations.

Impact: Social

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Coatis do not have significant social impacts in most regions, although they do present a theoretical risk of transmission of Chagas disease or other zoonoses (see Economic Impact section). Populations of N. narica in several touristic locations in Mexico have adapted to close contact with humans. There have been reports of coatis attacking tourists for food in national parks and urban areas where people feed them (B. Hirsch, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, personal communication, 2015). Like the closely related raccoons, they are very adept at entering and removing food from refuse bins (Hirsch, 2009; Alves-Costa et al., 2004).

Risk and Impact Factors

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  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact mechanisms
  • Predation


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Economic Value

There is currently no known economic value to coati species. While some subsistence hunters will kill and consume coatis, this is not a widespread occurrence.

Social Benefit

The presence of coatis in some areas may be a tourism attraction.

Environmental Services

Coatis disperse the seeds of many tree species (Alves-Costa et al., 2004; Hirsch, 2009). Given that they are reported to travel 3 km per day on average, it is highly likely that they disperse seeds far enough to ensure that the seeds escape distance-dependent mortality effects (Hirsch et al., 2012, 2013). Medium sized carnivores, like coatis, play an important role in the ecosystem. Given their smaller size and ability to thrive in diverse habitats, they are usually more abundant than large carnivores and could serve as drivers of ecosystem function, structure, or dynamics, controlling prey population and inhibiting competitors (Roemer et al., 2009). Coatis are eaten by the three largest felid species in the Americas, and are a frequent prey species for some predators (e.g. Panthera onca, Puma concolor); several cases have been documented where they constitute a significant proportion of prey items for a predator (Aranda and Sánchez-Cordero, 1996; Núñez et al., 2000; Amín, 2004; Novack et al., 2005; Hernández, 2008; Foster et al., 2010; Gómez-Ortiz and Monroy-Vilchis, 2013; Rueda et al., 2013; Hernández-SaintMartín et al., 2015; Cassaigne et al., 2016).

Uses List

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  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Pet/aquarium trade
  • Sociocultural value

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Ecologically and behaviourally, coatis in the genus Nasua are very similar to each other. Although differences between species exist (Hirsch and Gompper, in press), for the purposes of invasiveness potential, the genus Nasua can be considered as one group.

N. narica can be visually distinguished from N. nasua by the distinctive white coloration surrounding the nose/muzzle.

The related genus Nasuella is typically confined to montane habitats. Background knowledge on the ecology and behavior of Nasuella species is lacking (Helgen et al., 2009), and any conclusions about the invasiveness of Nasuella would be premature.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Because so few cases of coati invasions have been reported, it is difficult to describe potential detection, inspection, and removal methods. In general, coatis should be treated in a similar manner to raccoons. If they need to be removed from an area, raccoon-sized tomahawk traps are the standard method for trapping.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Currently, very little is known about landscape-level and habitat-induced variation in population density of coatis. In addition, not enough is known about habitat selection and habituation to anthropogenically disturbed habitats (although it appears that coatis only live in areas with at least some forest cover and are unable to live in exclusively urbanized habitats, unlike raccoons, Procyon lotor, which are closely related).

Little is known about the ecological impacts of coatis on either island to which they have been introduced, and this information may be crucial for understanding the threat that the two species would present if introduced elsewhere.


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Alves FM, Olifiers N, Bianchi RC, Duarte AC, Cotias PMT, D'Andrea PS, Gompper ME, Herrera HM, Mourão GM, Herrera HM, Jansen AM, 2011. Modulating variables of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi transmission in free-ranging coati (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal region. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 11:835-841.

Alves-Costa CP, Fonseca GAB da, Christofaro C, 2004. Variation in the diet of the brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua) in Southeastern Brazil. Journal of Mammalogy, 85:478-482.

Amín, M.A., 2004. Patrones de alimentación y disponibilidad de presas de jaguar (Panthera onca) y puma (Puma concolor) en Calakmul (MSc thesis). Mexico City, Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Aranda M, Sánchez-Cordero V, 1996. Prey spectra of jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor) in tropical forests of Mexico., Acta Zoológica Mexicana, 62:11-22

Aréchiga-Ceballos, N., Velasco-Villa, A., Shi, M., Flores-Chávez, S., Barrón, B., Cuevas-Domínguez, E., González-Origel, A., Aguilar-Setién, A., 2010. New rabies virus variant found during an epizootic in white-nosed coatis from the Yucatan Peninsula., Epidemiology and Infection, 138(11):1586-1589

Booth-Binczik SD, 2001. Ecology of coati social behavior in Tikal National Park, Guatemala [PhD Dissertation]. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida.

Cassaigne I, Medellín RA, Thompson RW, Culver M, Ochoa A, Vargas K, Childs JL, Sanderson J, List R, Torres-Gómez A, 2016. Diet of pumas (Puma concolor) in Sonora, Mexico, as determined by GPS kill sites and molecular identified scat, with comments on jaguar (Panthera onca) diet., The Southwestern Naturalist, 61(2):125-132

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Decker DM, 1991. Systematics of the coatis, genus Nasua (Mammalia: Procyonidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 104:370-386.

EDDMapS, 2015. Early detection and distribution mapping system Tifton, Georgia, USA: The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health

Flores-Manzanero A, 2014. Evaluación de la estructura y diversidad genética del mapache (Procyon pygmaeus) y coatí (Nasua nelsoni) del Caribe Mexicano (Evaluation of the genetic structure and diversity of the raccoon (Procyon pygmaeus) and the coati (Nasua nelsoni) of the Mexican Caribbean). (MSc thesis). Mexico City, Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Foster, R. J., Harmsen, B. J., Valdes, B., Pomilla, C., Doncaster, C. P., 2010. Food habits of sympatric jaguars and pumas across a gradient of human disturbance., Journal of Zoology, 280(3):309-318

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Gómez-Ortiz Y, Monroy-Vilchis O, 2013. Feeding ecology of Puma concolor in Mexican montane forests with comments about Panthera onca., Wildlife Biology, 19:179-187

Gompper ME, 1994. The importance of ecology, behavior, and genetics in the maintenance of coati (Nasua narica) social structure [PhD dissertation]. Knoxville, Tennessee, USA: University of Tennessee.

Gompper ME, 1995. Nasua narica. Mammalian Species, 487:1-10.

Gompper ME, 1996. Sociality and asociality in white-nosed coatis (Nasua narica): foraging costs and benefits. Behavioral Ecology, 7:254-263.

Gompper ME, Gittleman JL, Wayne RK, 1997. Genetic relatedness, coalitions, and social behavior of white-nosed coatis (Nasua narica). Animal Behaviour, 53:781-797.

Gompper ME, Gittleman JL, Wayne RK, 1998. Dispersal, philopatry, and genetic relatedness in a social carnivore: comparing males and females. Molecular Ecology, 7:157-163.

Gompper ME, Krinsley JS, 1992. Variation in social behavior of adult male coatis (Nasua narica) in Panama. Biotropica, 24:216-219.

Hall, E. R., 1981. The mammals of North America (2nd ed.). New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons. 1181 pp.

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Distribution References

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16/06/15: Original text by:

Ben Hirsch, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

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