Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Nasua nasua
(ring-tailed coati)

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Datasheet

Nasua nasua (ring-tailed coati)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Nasua nasua
  • Preferred Common Name
  • ring-tailed coati
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Mammalia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Nasua nasua, the ring-tailed coati, is a medium-sized, omnivorous, social, diurnal, forest-living carnivore distributed throughout much of South America. Few documented cases of invasive coatis exist. However,...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Nasua nasua (coati); juvenile, captive. Amiens Zoo, France. August, 2007.
TitleJuvenile
CaptionNasua nasua (coati); juvenile, captive. Amiens Zoo, France. August, 2007.
CopyrightPublic Domain/released by Vassil/via wikipedia
Nasua nasua (coati); juvenile, captive. Amiens Zoo, France. August, 2007.
JuvenileNasua nasua (coati); juvenile, captive. Amiens Zoo, France. August, 2007.Public Domain/released by Vassil/via wikipedia

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766)

Preferred Common Name

  • ring-tailed coati

International Common Names

  • English: coatimundi
  • Spanish: coati

Summary of Invasiveness

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Nasua nasua, the ring-tailed coati, is a medium-sized, omnivorous, social, diurnal, forest-living carnivore distributed throughout much of South America. Few documented cases of invasive coatis exist. However, given their ability to feed from anthropogenic food resources, high densities in some Brazilian urban parks, and their omnivorous diets which may lead to adverse environmental effects on prey items, they should be considered to have the potential to be invasive. Reported introductions of N. nasua are limited to the Juan Fernández Islands in Chile, where the species was introduced in the early 20th century and may have negative impacts on native birds, and sightings of a few escaped individuals in the UK. N. nasua is classified as a species of least concern by the IUCN (IUCN, 2016). As a potential invader, it is on the list of invasive alien species of European Union concern (European Commission, 2015).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Mammalia
  •                     Order: Carnivora
  •                         Family: Procyonidae
  •                             Genus: Nasua
  •                                 Species: Nasua nasua

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Coati taxonomy and nomenclature are currently in flux. Traditionally, two main species of coatis have been recognized: the South American ring-tailed coati (Nasua nasua), and the Central American white-nosed coati (Nasua narica) (Decker, 1991). While the two species look distinct based on coat colour patterns, it is highly likely that genetic studies will lead to the identification and naming of several more species (M. Tsuchiya, K. Koepfli, J. Maldonado and K. Helgen, Smithsonian Institution, USA, personal communication, 2015).

The closely related mountain coati Nasuella olivacea (which is also in taxonomic flux) is confined to high mountain habitats, and is ecologically distinct from the two “main” coati species (Helgen et al., 2009).

The name ‘coatimundi’ is derived from the Tupi-Guarani term for solitary adult male coatis. Its use to refer to coatis in general is incorrect and not appropriate (B. Hirsch, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, personal communication, 2015).

Description

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Coatis are medium sized (4-7 kg) procyonids noted for their omnivorous diet, keen sense of smell, and ability to adapt to human presence (Gompper, 1995).

N. nasua has a head-to-tail length of 80-130 cm with a litttle more than half being tail. It has short forelegs, long hind legs, black feet, a pointed snout with black facial markings and a long banded tail (Downing et al., undated). It is highly variable in colour; some populations have two distinct colour morphs, light golden brown and dark brown/black, but other colours include grey and red-brown/black (B. Hirsch, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, personal communication, 2016; Downing et al., undated). N. nasua can be distinguished from the similar-looking N. narica by the lack of the distinctive white coloration that surrounds the nose/muzzle in N. narica (B. Hirsch, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, personal communication, 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

South America

ArgentinaLocalisedNative Not invasive Gompper and Decker, 1998
BoliviaWidespreadNative Not invasive Gompper and Decker, 1998
BrazilWidespreadNative Not invasive Gompper and Decker, 1998
ChileLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Colwell, 1989Juan Fernández Islands
ColombiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Gompper and Decker, 1998
EcuadorWidespreadNative Not invasive Gompper and Decker, 1998
French GuianaPresentNativeIUCN, 2016
GuyanaWidespreadNative Not invasive Gompper and Decker, 1998
ParaguayLocalisedNative Not invasive Gompper and Decker, 1998
PeruWidespreadNative Not invasive Gompper and Decker, 1998
SurinameWidespreadNative Not invasive Gompper and Decker, 1998
UruguayLocalisedNative Not invasive B. Hirsch, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, personal communication, 2015; Gompper and Decker, 1998reportedly locally rare/extirpated
VenezuelaWidespreadNative Not invasive Gompper and Decker, 1998

Europe

UKPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Not invasive Downing et al., undated; Marchant, 2012Some sightings in Cumbria. One source says there is a wild population, and another that it is probably not established.

History of Introduction and Spread

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There are currently only two known cases of this species being introduced.

Since 2003-04 there have been occasional sightings of N. nasua that have escaped from captivity in England, UK, in particular in Cumbria. Although Downing et al. (undated) say that a wild population ‘is known to reside in Cumbria’, Marchant (2012) states that the species is not thought to be established in the UK.

N. nasua were deliberately introduced to the Juan Fernández Islands, Chile, in the early part of the 20th century, and may have negative impacts on the native fauna (Colwell, 1989).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Chile Ecuador 1920s Intentional release (pathway cause) Yes No Colwell (1989) Juan Fernández Islands
UK 2004-2005 Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause) No No Marchant (2012) Cumbria, northern England. Downing et al. (undated) suggest that there is a wild population.

Risk of Introduction

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Coatis present a clear and present threat to native wildlife if introduced to new areas, as they are generalist omnivores that can and will eat a wide diversity of prey items (Alves-Costa et al., 2004; Hirsch, 2009). However the likelihood that they will be introduced to an area is probably small in most cases. They are rarely kept as pets, and when they are it is generally in countries where they are native. There is also little evidence that local hunters move coatis to different regions (which has occurred with the closely related raccoon, Procyon lotor -- Childs et al., 2000). In general, there is little reason for coatis to be transported, and little risk of accidental introduction, so the probability that a coati introduction would occur appears to be relatively low. Nevertheless Marchant (2012), discussing the situation in the UK, says ‘The South American coati is a popular subject for zoological collections and is relatively skilled at escaping from captivity’.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Principal habitat Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Several studies have been undertaken on coati genetics, focused on within-group relatedness in relation to social behavior (Hirsch and Maldonado, 2011; Hirsch et al., 2012b), phylogenetic studies (Fulton and Strobeck, 2007; Koepfli et al., 2007; McFadden et al., 2008, 2010; Helgen et al., 2009), or genetic diversity (Tsuchiya-Jerep, 2009), although not all of these involved N. nasua specifically.

Reproductive Biology

Coatis are seasonal breeders and typically have one litter of 2-7 pups per year (Hirsch, 2007b). In some cases, coatis have been reported to produce a second litter if the first litter dies quickly. No reproductive suppression has been reported in coatis, and all adult females in a social group can reproduce simultaneously (Hirsch and Gompper, in press). In regions with low juvenile mortality, this can lead to rapidly expanding group sizes within a few years (Hirsch and Gompper, in press). Adult females within a social group typically come into oestrus almost simultaneously for a period of 4-5 days. The breeding season within a population generally lasts 3-4 weeks total (Hirsch, 2007b; Hirsch and Maldonado, 2011).

Longevity

Little is known about longevity in wild coatis. The maximum longevity for a captive coati (N. narica) is 26 years (Weigl, 2005). Given average predation rates for most populations, it is unlikely that wild coatis could reach this age. Based on tooth wear and other physical characteristics, “older” N. nasua individuals appeared to be between 7-10 years old (Grau et al., 1970).

Activity Patterns

Coatis are the only diurnal procyonids (Kaufmann, 1962). In some populations, coatis will take afternoon “siestas,” particularly during warm summer months with long days (Hirsch, 2007b). In some rare cases, coati groups have been observed travelling at night (B. Hirsch, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, personal observation). Mating may also take place at night (Kaufmann, 1962; B. Hirsch, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA, personal observation).

Population Size and Structure

Coati groups (sometime called “bands”) are composed of adult females, juveniles (between 2 months and 1 year of age) and subadults (between 1-2 years of age). While most adult males live alone, N. nasua groups typically contain one adult male per group outside the mating season (Hirsch, 2011).

Population size varies widely depending on locale. Average group sizes for N. nasua range from 6.5-31.5 (Hirsch and Gompper, in press), with an upper limit of 65 (Hirsch, 2007a). Groups will often disband during the birthing season. During this period, pregnant adult females leave their groups and construct individual nests for their litters. They typically return to their groups after a period of 7-8 weeks (Hirsch, 2007a). The mortality rate of adult female coatis during this solitary birthing period is significantly higher than during the rest of the year when they live in groups (Hirsch and Gompper, in press).

Nutrition

Coatis are omnivores, and most of their diet is composed of fruit and ground litter invertebrates (Hirsch and Gompper, in press). They are opportunistic hunters/scavengers, and will eat vertebrates and eggs if the opportunity arises. Despite claims to the contrary (Smythe, 1970), vertebrates make up a small fraction of coati diets (Hirsch and Gompper, in press). There is some evidence based on travel patterns that coatis trade-off between fruit and invertebrate foraging during the day (Hirsch et al., 2013), which may indicate that they attempt to balance their nutrient intake over the course of a day.

Associations

Coatis do not generally associate with other species.

Environmental Requirements

Very little is understood about the environmental requirements of coatis. While they typically live in forested habitats, it is poorly understood why some habitats have higher or lower population densities. High population densities are probably most often linked to anthropogenic food sources (for example Iguazu, Argentina, and Parque das Mangabeiras, Brazil).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Tolerated < 860mm precipitation annually
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Boa Predator All Stages not specific
Felis concolor Predator All Stages not specific
Leopardus pardalis Predator All Stages not specific
Panthera onca Predator All Stages not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The principal predators of coatis throughout most of their range are the medium-large felid species: ocelot (Felis pardalis or Leopardus pardalis), puma (Felis concolor or Puma concolor), and jaguar (Panthera onca). Large reptiles such as crocodiles and large snakes are likely to attack and eat coatis as well (Hirsch and Gompper, in press; M. Gompper, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA, personal communication, 2015). In addition, snake and raptor species that are too small to attack and kill adult coatis may be able to kill juveniles during their first 3 months of life.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Coati home range sizes vary from 0.17 to 32 km2 (Hirsch and Gompper, in press). Little is known about daily travel distances, although Hirsch et al. (2013) calculated an average of 3.02 km travel distance per day in Iguazu, Argentina. As with other species, there is likely to be a positive relationship between daily travel distance and home range.

Coatis exhibit female philopatry and males disperse at approximately two years of age (Hirsch, 2007a,b). There is some evidence that females in exceedingly small groups will join other groups (Gompper, 1994, referring to N. narica), but in general, males are the only dispersing sex. After dispersal, males may associate with other dispersing males of the same age for a period of 2-4 months (Hirsch, 2011), but adult males are generally solitary in both species. Very little is known about the overall dispersal distances of adult males, or about the average or maximum dispersal distance of coatis in general. Hirsch (2011) observed some males entering adjacent social groups at three years of age, but the behaviour of most dispersing males was not observed. In addition, larger scale, landscape level dispersal and movement patterns are poorly understood. Current research into coati landscape genetics and phylogenetics may shed additional light on this issue.

Accidental Introduction

Since 2003-04 there have been occasional sightings of N. nasua that have escaped from captivity in England, UK, in particular in Cumbria. Although Downing et al. (undated) say that a wild population ‘is known to reside in Cumbria’, Marchant (2012) states that the species is not thought to be established in the UK.

Intentional Introduction

N. nasua were deliberately introduced to the Juan Fernández Islands, Chile, in the early part of the 20th century (Colwell, 1989).

Pathway Causes

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Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Impact: Economic

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Coatis have little to no economic impact. However, although there is no information in the scientific literature documenting coati crop raiding, it is highly likely that coatis can and will raid certain types of crops. Coatis in Iguazu, Argentina were frequently observed feeding from introduced fruit trees planted near commercial and residential buildings inside the national park (Hirsch, 2009). Fruit crops planted adjacent to intact forest are most likely to be vulnerable.

Coatis carry a host of external and internal parasites and diseases (Gompper and Decker, 1998). Most work has focused on Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, the causative agents of Chagas disease in humans and Mal de Cadeiras disease in horses, respectively (Herrera et al., 2001; Olifiers, 2010; Alves et al., 2011; Rocha et al., 2013; Olifiers et al., 2015). However, N. nasua is potentially susceptible to, or carrier of, a variety of other infectious diseases, including canine distemper (Appel and Gillespie, 1972), feline panleucopaenia (Johnson and Halliwell, 1968); histoplasmosis (Costa et al., 1994), leptospirosis (Leptospira spp. – Langoni et al., 2009), sporotrichosis (Costa et al., 1994), and tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis  – Spencer and Barnes, 1973). Moreover some other diseases have been reported in N. narica: epizootic mange (Notoedres cati -- Valenzuela et al., 2000), rabies (Aréchiga-Ceballos et al., 2010), and salmonellosis (Salmonella sp. -- Risser, 1963). Coatis present a realistic threat of vector transmission to naive populations; however, to date, no disease or parasite outbreaks have been linked to them.

Impact: Environmental

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Impact on Habitats

There appears to be little habitat-level impact of coatis in forested ecosystems. While they are an important disperser of fruit seeds (Alves-Costa et al., 2004; Hirsch, 2009), there is no indication that particular fruit species are solely or predominantly dispersed by coatis. While coatis are a frequent prey species for some predators, only a few cases have been documented where N. nasua constitutes the majority of prey items for a predator.

Impact on Biodiversity

The impact of coatis on biodiversity is unclear. There is concern that introduced N. nasua in the Juan Fernández Islands, Chile, may have had negative impacts on native birds, in particular the critically endangered Juan Fernandez Firecrown, Sephanoides fernandensis (Colwell, 1989). However, it is unclear what exact role coatis played in these bird declines, compared to the multitude of other factors affecting the birds such as massive habitat destruction and feral cats, dogs, and goats. (Observations from Argentina indicate that bird eggs make up a very small proportion of the diet -- Hirsch, 2009).

Because coatis have strong tendencies to exploit a wide diversity of available resources, in cases when their ecological impacts are in doubt it may be best to err on the side of caution, and assume that they have the ability to exert significant top-down effects on some classes of prey species and present a clear and present threat to native wildlife if introduced to new areas. They could be particularly problematic in island systems, although in both cases of coati introductions to islands – one for each species -- they have not been proven to have major roles in driving native prey to extinction or local extirpation.

They may reach high population densities when supplemented with anthropogenic foods, such as refuse bins (Hirsch, 2009; Alves-Costa et al., 2004) or deliberate feeding by tourists. In these areas, their ecological effects may be exaggerated compared to normal populations.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Ardenna creatopusVU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)ChilePredationIUCN, 2016
Pterodroma defilippianaVU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)ChilePredationIUCN, 2016
Sephanoides fernandensisCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)ChilePredationColwell, 1989

Impact: Social

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Coatis do not have significant social impacts in most regions, although they do present a theoretical risk of transmission of Chagas disease and other zoonoses  (see Economic Impact section). Like the closely related raccoons, they are very adept at entering and removing food from refuse bins (Hirsch, 2009; Alves-Costa et al., 2004).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Predation

Uses

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Economic Value

There is currently no known economic value to coati species. While some subsistence hunters will kill and consume coatis, this is not a widespread occurrence. 

Social Benefit

The presence of coatis in some areas may be a tourism attraction. In parts of Brazil, coatis have become a symbol of wildlife. For example, the “mascot” for the Foz De Iguazu National Park is a cartoon coati. Additionally, coatis have been used as an emblematic symbol for the conservation education group Proyecto Quatis, in Mangabeiras, Brazil.

Environmental Services

Coatis disperse the seeds of many tree species (Alves-Costa et al., 2004; Hirsch, 2009). Given that they are reported to travel 3 km per day on average, it is highly likely that they disperse seeds far enough to ensure that the seeds escape distance-dependent mortality effects (Hirsch et al., 2012a, 2013).

Although coatis are often eaten by the three largest felid species in the Americas, only a few cases have been documented where N. nasua constitutes a significant portion of prey items for a predator (Dalponte, 2002; Azevedo, 2008).

Medium sized carnivores, like coatis, play an important role in the ecosystem. Given their smaller size and ability to thrive in diverse habitats, they are usually more abundant than large carnivores and could serve as drivers of ecosystem function, structure, or dynamics, controlling prey population and inhibiting competitors (Roemer et al., 2009)..

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Pet/aquarium trade
  • Sociocultural value

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Ecologically and behaviorally, coatis in the genus Nasua are very similar to each other. Although differences between species exist (Hirsch and Gompper, in press), for the purposes of invasiveness potential, the genus Nasua can be considered as one group.

N. nasua can be distinguished from N. narica by the lack of the distinctive white coloration that surrounds the nose/muzzle in N. narica.

The related genus Nasuella is typically confined to montane habitats. Background knowledge on the ecology and behavior of Nasuella species is lacking (Helgen et al., 2009), and any conclusions about the invasiveness of Nasuella would be premature.

Prevention and Control

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Because so few cases of coati invasions have been reported, it is difficult to describe potential detection, inspection, and removal methods. In general, coatis should be treated in a similar manner to raccoons. If they need to be removed from an area, raccoon sized tomahawk traps are the standard method for trapping.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Currently, very little is known about landscape level and habitat induced variation in population density of coatis. In addition, not enough is known about habitat selection and habituation to anthropogenically disturbed habitats (although it appears that coatis only live in areas with at least some forest cover and are unable to live in exclusively urbanized habitats, unlike raccoons, Procyon lotor, which are closely related).

Little information is known about the ecological impacts of coatis on either island to which they have been introduced, and this information may be crucial for understanding the threat that the two species would have if introduced elsewhere.

References

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Aguiar LM, Moro-Rios RF, Silvestre T, Silva-Pereira JE, Bilski DR, Passos FC, Sekiama ML, Rocha VJ, 2011. Diet of brown-nosed coatis and crab-eating raccoons from a mosaic landscape with exotic plantations in southern Brazil. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 46(3):153-161. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/nnfe20

Alves FM, Olifiers N, Bianchi RC, Duarte AC, Cotias PMT, D'Andrea PS, Gompper ME, Herrera HM, Mourão GM, Herrera HM, Jansen AM, 2011. Modulating variables of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi transmission in free-ranging coati (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal region. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 11:835-841.

Alves-Costa CP, Fonseca GAB da, Christofaro C, 2004. Variation in the diet of the brown-nosed coati (Nasua nasua) in Southeastern Brazil. Journal of Mammalogy, 85:478-482.

Appel, M. J. G., Gillespie, J. H., 1972. Canine distemper virus., Virology Monographs, 11:1-96

Aréchiga-Ceballos, N., Velasco-Villa, A., Shi, M., Flores-Chávez, S., Barrón, B., Cuevas-Domínguez, E., González-Origel, A., Aguilar-Setién, A., 2010. New rabies virus variant found during an epizootic in white-nosed coatis from the Yucatan Peninsula., Epidemiology and Infection, 138(11):1586-1589 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=HYG

Azevedo, F. C. C. de, 2008. Food habits and livestock depredation of sympatric jaguars and pumas in the Iguaçu National Park Area, south Brazil., Biotropica, 40(4):494-500 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/120119903/HTMLSTART

Childs JE, Curns AT, Dey ME, Real LA, Feinstein L, Bjørnstad ON, Krebs JW, 2000. Predicting the local dynamics of epizootic rabies among raccoons in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(25):13666-13671.

Colwell RK, 1989. Hummingbirds of the Juan Fernández Islands: natural history, evolution and population status. Ibis, 131:548-566.

Costa, E. O., Diniz, L. S. M., Fava Netto, C., Arruda, C., Dagli, M. L. Z., 1994. Epidemiological study of sporotrichosis and histoplasmosis in captive Latin American wild mammals, Sáo Paulo, Brazil., Mycopathologia, 125(1):19-22

Dalponte JC, 2002. Dieta del jaguar y depredación de ganado en el norte del Pantanal, Brasil (Diet of the jaguar and predation on livestock in the northern Pantanal, Brazil)., In: El Jaguar en el Nuevo Milenio (ed. by: Medellín, R.A. \Equihua, C. \Chetkiewicz, C.L.B. \Crawshaw, P.G. \Rabinowitz, A. \Redford, K.H. \ Robinson, J.G. \Sanderson, E.W. \Taber, A.). Mexico City, Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Wildlife Conservation Society, Fondo de Cultura Económica. 209-221.

Decker DM, 1991. Systematics of the coatis, genus Nasua (Mammalia: Procyonidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 104:370-386.

Downing S, Wade M, Ames V, McKee K, undated. Coatimundi. Sand Hutton, UK: GB Non-native Species Secretariat, 2 pp. http://www.nonnativespecies.org/downloadDocument.cfm?id=85

European Commission, 2015. Draft COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) .../... adopting a list of invasive alien species of Union concern pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission. [D041932/02 (Draft implementing measure/act) in dossier CMTD(2015)1227, DG Environment.] http://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regcomitology/index.cfm?do=search.documentdetail&bwHdF0XQEm1gaiA6/7rT01oJn0lakAv30Qlt9kf8v8q0yjcmiFTUQTSkkOVTUeCz

Fulton TL, Strobeck C, 2007. Novel phylogeny of the raccoon family (Procyonidae: Carnivora) based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA evidence., Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 43:1171-1177 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2006.10.019

Gompper ME, 1994. The importance of ecology, behavior, and genetics in the maintenance of coati (Nasua narica) social structure [PhD dissertation]. Knoxville, Tennessee, USA: University of Tennessee.

Gompper ME, 1995. Nasua narica. Mammalian Species, 487:1-10.

Gompper ME, Decker DM, 1998. Nasua nasua. Mammalian Species, 580:1-9.

Grau GA, Sanderson GC, Rogers JP, 1970. Age determination in raccoons. Journal of Wildlife Management, 34:364-372.

Helgen KM, Kays R, Helgen LE, Tsuchiya-Jerep MTN, Pinto CM, Koepfli KP, Eizirik E, Maldonado JE, 2009. Taxonomic boundaries and geographic distributions revealed by an integrative systematic overview of the mountain coatis, Nasuella (Carnivora: Procyonidae). Small Carnivore Conservation, 41:65-74.

Herrera HM, Aquino LPCT, Menezes RF, Marques LC, Moraes MAV, Werther K, Machado RZ, 2001. Trypanosoma evansi experimental infection in the South American coati (Nasua nasua): clinical, parasitological and humoral immune response. Veterinary Parasitology, 102(3):209-216.

Hirsch BT, 2007. Spoiled brats: an extreme form of juvenile dominance in the ring-tailed coati (Nasua nasua). Ethology, 113:446-456.

Hirsch BT, 2007. Within-group spatial position in ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua): balancing predation, feeding success, and social competition [PhD dissertation]. Stony Brook, New York, USA: Stony Brook University.

Hirsch BT, 2009. Seasonal variation in the diet of ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua) in Iguazu, Argentina. Journal of Mammalogy, 90:136-143.

Hirsch BT, 2011. Long term adult male sociality in ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua). Mammalia, 75:301-304.

Hirsch BT, Gompper ME, in press. Causes and consequences of coati sociality. In: Biology and Conservation of the Musteloids (badgers, otters, skunks, raccoons and their kin) [ed. by Macdonald, D. \Newman, C. \Harrington, L.]. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Hirsch BT, Kays R, Pereira VE, Jansen PA, 2012. Directed seed dispersal towards areas with low conspecific tree density by a scatter-hoarding rodent. Ecology Letters, 15(12):1423-1429. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1461-0248

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Principal Source

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Draft datasheet under review

Contributors

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16/06/15: Original text by:

Ben Hirsch, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

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