Asphodelus tenuifolius (onionweed)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav.
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Asphodelus fistulosus L. (1753)
International Common Names
- English: asphodelus (USA); hollow-stemmed asphodel; onion weed; wild onion
- Spanish: caramuixa; gamonita
- French: asphodèle creux
Local Common Names
- Germany: Affodill, Röhriger
- India: bhukat; bokat; pyazi
- Pakistan: pyazi
- Saudi Arabia: barok; basal-esh sheitan
- ASHFI (Asphodelus fistulosus)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Monocotyledonae
- Order: Liliales
- Family: Liliaceae
- Genus: Asphodelus
- Species: Asphodelus tenuifolius
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Chromosome number (2n) = 28 or 56 (Richardson and Smythies 1980).
Many authorities include the genus Asphodelus in the family Liliaceae.
DescriptionTop of page
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|-Haryana||Present, Widespread||Original citation: Malik & Singh, 1994|
|-Jammu and Kashmir||Present, Widespread|
|-West Bengal||Present, Widespread|
|Saudi Arabia||Present, Widespread|
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Present|
|-New South Wales||Present|
|New Zealand||Present, Localized|
HabitatTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Beta vulgaris (beetroot)||Chenopodiaceae||Other|
|Brassica juncea var. juncea (Indian mustard)||Brassicaceae||Other|
|Cicer arietinum (chickpea)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)||Malvaceae||Other|
|Hordeum vulgare (barley)||Poaceae||Other|
|Linum usitatissimum (flax)||Main|
|Medicago sativa (lucerne)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Phoenix dactylifera (date-palm)||Arecaceae||Other|
|Pisum sativum (pea)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)||Poaceae||Other|
|Solanum tuberosum (potato)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Triticum aestivum (wheat)||Poaceae||Main|
|Zea mays (maize)||Poaceae||Other|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
In germination trials, Tripathi (1968a) collected fresh seed and stored it in bottles prior to conducting germination trials. Fresh and 6-month-old seed did not germinate, suggesting that they possess innate dormancy. After 8, 20 and 32 months, germination was 22, 90 and 100%, respectively. Further trials have shown that germination may be promoted by scarification by acid, fluctuating temperatures and stratification (Holm et al., 1997). Khan and Chaudri (1957) demonstrated an internal periodicity of germination whereby germinability of seeds increased during the growing season until December after which time it slowly decreased. These increases in germination coincided with the growth cycle of the plant. Maximum emergence occurs from 2 to 3 cm soil depth (Sahai and Bhan, 1991a).
Seed dispersal occurs when the fruiting capsule breaks open into three parts, each of which contains two seeds which normally fall slightly away from the parent plant. Adult plants harvested with the crop may contain seed, and A. tenuifolius is often a contaminant of wheat seed in India (Tripathi, 1977) and is dispersed over long distances in this manner. Seeds may also be dispersed from field to field via farm machinery or manure.
ImpactTop of page
A. tenuifolius is an alternative host for the root-rot-causing fungus, Macrophomina phaseoli in Pakistan (Anon., 1985), and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been isolated from A. tenuifolius in mustard fields (Rathore et al., 1993).
Sharma (1977) noted that one gram of seed was fatal to some birds.
UsesTop of page
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Fodder/animal feed
Human food and beverage
- Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Cultural Control
In India, a regime of two hand weedings, 30 and 45 days after sowing, was more effective than herbicides for controlling A. tenuifolius in winter pulses (Sekhon et al., 1993). In north-west India the time of crop sowing was critical, with early sowings considerably increasing infestation compared to planting in mid-November (Sahai and Bhan, 1991b). Tripathi (1968b) found that manual control by clipping the plants at or close to soil level in January and February did not adequately control the weed. The population density of this weed may also be kept in check by ensuring a high density of crop plants (Sen, 1981), increasing intervals between irrigation (Tripathi, 1968a), and by crop rotation which reduces the soil seed bank. Farmers in India have also used a heavy roller immediately before crop sowing to prevent early seedling emergence.
The population density and growth of A. tenuifolius in wheat and winter maize can be effectively reduced by early applications of 2,4-D and atrazine, respectively. Singh and Saroha (1975) treated weed species with 2,4-D at several stages after anthesis and found that later treatments allowed more viable seed production. Treatments at the time of 50% flowering prevented seed formation in A. tenuifolius. Isoproturon has been found effective in wheat and mustard, but not in chickpea (Rajput et al., 1993). Applied pre-emergence in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), yield was significantly improved and weed densities reduced. Pendimethalin is effective in peas and lentils (Sekhon et al., 1993), methabenzthiazuron and metoxuron in mustard (Brassica campestris) (Rajput et al., 1993) and fluchloralin in chick peas (Yadav et al., 1995). For efficient weed management herbicide treatments often need to be supplemented with one manual weeding between 30 and 45 days after sowing.
ReferencesTop of page
Adlakha PA; Shrivastava AK; Sirohi SS; Sharma VK, 1971. Weed Flora of Ludhiana. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 3(1):37-44.
Agrawal VS, 1990. Economic Plants of India. Dehra Dun, India: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh.
Ahmad M; Baluch A; Soomro SK, 1968. A note on the effect of U-46 and gramaxone weedicides on the rabi weeds of the Hyderabad region. West Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(1):125-126.
Anon, 1985. The Wealth of India. Raw Materials. Vol. I. New Delhi, India: Publication & Information Directorate, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research.
Bamber CJ, 1916. Plants of Punjab. Punjab, India: Superintendent Government Printing.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Holm L; Doll J; Holm E; Pancho J; Herberger J, 1997. World Weeds. Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Joshi NC, 1974. Manual of Weed Control. Delhi, India: Researchco Pub.
Khan A; Chaudhri I, 1957. Studies on the seed dormancy of Asphodelus tenuifolius. Proceedings of the Pakistan Science Conference, Lahore, Pakistan, 9:25-26.
Richardson IBK; Smythies BE, 1980. 5. Asphodelus L. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds. Flora Europaea, Volume 5. Alismataceae to Orchidaceae Monocotyledones. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 17.
Sanjai Chaudhry; Rathi JPS; Chaudhary DK; Singh OP, 2009. Weed management in field pea (Pisum sativum) through agronomic manipulations. International Journal of Plant Sciences (Muzaffarnagar), 4(2):524-526. http://www.hhindagrichorticulturalsociety.com
Sant HR; Singh RL; Pandey DD, 1979. Productivity of Asphodelus tenuifolius, a common weed of cultivated fields of Varanasi, India. Proceedings of the 7th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, Sydney, Australia, 445-446.
Sekhon HS; Guriqbal Singh; Brar JS, 1993. Effect of chemical, mechanical and cultural manipulations on weed growth and grain yield of various pulse crops. Integrated weed management for sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of an Indian Society of Weed Science International Symposium, Hisar, India, 18-20 November 1993 Hisar, Haryana, India; Indian Society of Weed Science, Vol. III:141-146
Sen DN; Kasera PK, 1988. Biology of some important Kharif and rabi weeds in Indian arid zone. VIIIe Colloque International sur la Biologie, l'Ecologie et la Systematique des Mauvaises Herbes Paris, France; A.N.P.P., Vol. 2:325-333
Sharma M, 1977. The role of the common sparrow in the control of weeds of the major crops in the Meerut district. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 47:224.
Thakur C, 1954. Weeds. Bankipur, Patna, Bihar, India: Motilal Banarasidas Publishers and Booksellers.
Tripathi RS, 1967. Mutual interaction of gram (Cicer arietinum L.) and two common weeds (Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav. and Euphorbia dracunculoides Lamk.). Tropical Ecology, 8(1-2):105-109.
Tripathi RS, 1968. Certain autecological observations on Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav., a troublesome weed of Indian agriculture. Tropical Ecology, 9(2):208-219.
Tripathi RS, 1968. Comprison of competitive ability of certain common weed species. Tropical Ecology, 9(1):37-41.
Abdul Waheed, Rahmatullah Qureshi, Jakhar G S, Hayatullah Tareen, 2009. Weed community dynamics in wheat crop of district Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 41 (1), 247-254. http://www.pjbot.org
Anon, 1985. The Wealth of India. In: Raw Materials, I New Delhi, India: Publication & Information Directorate, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
EPPO, 2014. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/
Ihsan Ullah, Wazir S M, Ayesha Farooq, Khan S U, Zahid Hussain, 2011. Identification of common weeds and its distribution pattern in wheat fields of FR Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 17 (4), 407-416. http://www.wssp.org.pk/174-12.pdf
Kazi B R, Buriro A H, Kubar R A, Jagirani A W, 2007. Weed spectrum frequency and density in wheat, (Triticum aestivum L.) under Tandojam conditions. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 13 (3/4), 241-246. http://wssp.org.pk/
Khan I, Marwat K B, Khan I A, Haidar Ali, Dawar K, Khan H, 2011. Invasive weeds of southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 17 (2), 161-174. http://www.wssp.org.pk/PJWSR-17-2-161-174.pdf
Khan R U, Wazir S M, Muhammad Subhan, Saad Ullah, Hidayat Ullah, Aysha Farooq, Farheen Jaffar, Shazia, Shah I A, Mustafa Kamal, 2012. Weed flora of sugarcane in district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 18 (4), 541-552. http://www.wssp.org.pk/article.htm
Nayak S K, Satapathy K B, 2015. Diversity, uses and origin of invasive alien plants in Dhenkanal district of Odisha, India. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 4 (2), 21-27. http://www.isca.in/IJBS/Archive/v4/i2/4.ISCA-IRJBS-2014-223.pdf
Richardson IBK, Smythies BE, 1980. 5. Asphodelus L. In: Flora Europaea, Volume 5. Alismataceae to Orchidaceae Monocotyledones, 5 [ed. by Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 17.
Sanjai Chaudhry, Rathi J P S, Chaudhary D K, Singh O P, 2009. Weed management in field pea (Pisum sativum) through agronomic manipulations. International Journal of Plant Sciences (Muzaffarnagar). 4 (2), 524-526.
Sekhon H S, Guriqbal Singh, Brar J S, 1993. Effect of chemical, mechanical and cultural manipulations on weed growth and grain yield of various pulse crops. In: Integrated weed management for sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of an Indian Society of Weed Science International Symposium, Hisar, India, 18-20 November 1993. [Integrated weed management for sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of an Indian Society of Weed Science International Symposium, Hisar, India, 18-20 November 1993.], Hisar, Haryana, India: Indian Society of Weed Science. 141-146.
Sen D N, Kasera P K, 1988. Biology of some important Kharif and rabi weeds in Indian arid zone. In: VIIIe Colloque International sur la Biologie, l'Écologie et la Systématique des Mauvaises Herbes. [VIIIe Colloque International sur la Biologie, l'Écologie et la Systématique des Mauvaises Herbes.], Paris, France: A.N.P.P. 325-333.
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