Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Mytilus galloprovincialis
(Mediterranean mussel)

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Datasheet

Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 March 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mytilus galloprovincialis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Mediterranean mussel
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Mollusca
  •       Class: Bivalvia
  •         Subclass: Pteriomorphia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, has been introduced to various regions around the world outside its native Mediterranean range, both unintentionally through shipping and through cultivation...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel); colony in natural habitat. Trieste, Italy.
TitleColony
CaptionMytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel); colony in natural habitat. Trieste, Italy.
Copyright©Roberto Pillon/WoRMS - CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel); colony in natural habitat. Trieste, Italy.
ColonyMytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel); colony in natural habitat. Trieste, Italy.©Roberto Pillon/WoRMS - CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819

Preferred Common Name

  • Mediterranean mussel

Other Scientific Names

  • Mytilus edulis form galloprovincialis
  • Mytilus edulis galloprovincialis

International Common Names

  • English: black mussel; Black Sea mussel; blue mussel; common mussel; edible mussel; European mussel; mussel
  • Spanish: mejillón; mejillón Mediterráneo
  • French: moule; moule commune; moule Méditerranéenne
  • Arabic: tamr el bahr

Local Common Names

  • Canada: gallo mussel
  • Croatia: dagnja
  • Germany: Miesmuschel; Mittelmeer-Miesmuschel
  • Greece: mýdi
  • Israel: zidpit galit
  • Italy: mitilo
  • Spain: clotxina; musclo
  • Turkey: midye
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): dagnja

Summary of Invasiveness

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The Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, has been introduced to various regions around the world outside its native Mediterranean range, both unintentionally through shipping and through cultivation. It is considered highly invasive, at least in some parts of the world, due to its quick rate of spread and its ability to displace and outcompete native mussels.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Mollusca
  •             Class: Bivalvia
  •                 Subclass: Pteriomorphia
  •                     Order: Mytiloida
  •                         Unknown: Mytiloidea
  •                             Family: Mytilidae
  •                                 Genus: Mytilus
  •                                     Species: Mytilus galloprovincialis

Description

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All Mytilus species have distinctive shells ranging in colouration from black with blue or purplish hues to dark brown and occasionally light brown. Although Mytilus galloprovincialis differs in shape from other Mytilus species, in practice analyses of multiple morphological characters in combination (i.e. morphometrics) are most frequently used to reliably distinguish it from other Mytilus species (McDonald et al., 1991Beaumont, 2008; Gardner and Thompson, 2009). In Puget Sound (Pacific North America), Elliot et al. (2008) report that ratios of shell height to length can be used to identify M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus. In the Sea of Japan, Semenikhina et al. (2008) describe morphological differences between M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus larvae. According to ISSG (2019)M. galloprovincialis tends to grow larger than other species, up to 15 cm, although typically it only reaches 5-8 cm.

Distribution

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Mytilus galloprovincialis lives on hard substrates from the intertidal zone to depths of 40 m. It is found along coasts and rocky shores, and in sheltered harbours and estuaries. The native range is in the Mediterranean (Barsotti and Meluzzi, 1968) and the eastern Atlantic, from Ireland and the United Kingdom (Gosling, 1992) to northern Africa (Comesana et al., 1998); presumably range expansion into the Atlantic has been natural. This species is also found on the Pacific coast of North America (McDonald and Koehn, 1988) and in Japan (Wilkins et al., 1983), Hong Kong (Lee and Morton, 1985), South Africa (Grant and Cherry, 1985), Chile (Hilbish et al., 2000; Gérard et al., 2008), and Australia (Hilbish et al., 2000; Gérard et al., 2008). Introduction to these regions has undoubtedly been due to human activities, unless the native Australian mussels are considered to be part of the same species as M. galloprovincialis (McDonald et al., 1991; Daguin and Borsa, 2000; Gérard et al., 2008; Hilbish et al., 2000). Historical introductions have probably been accidental, but this species is actively cultivated so aquaculture may also be the source of secondary introductions; it was introduced into Washington State through hatcheries because of its putative greater resistance to disseminated-hemic neoplasia than the native M. trossulus, and its subsequent spread in the region has probably been through shipping and boating (Wonham, 2004). Fly et al. (2015) provide a paper on the physiology and biogeography of European mussels (including M. galloprovincialis) in response to climate change.

Delineating the exact range of Mytilus galloprovincialis is complicated by the lack of reliable morphological differences between Mytilus species and by hybridization. For example, in France, Britain and Ireland, M. galloprovincialis is sympatric with M. edulis and the two interbreed (Gosling, 1992). Outside its native range, M. galloprovincialis is known to hybridize with M. trossulus in the Pacific (Rawson and Hilbish, 1995; Brannock et al., 2009). In Chile, Australia, and New Zealand there is evidence for two distinct types of mussels, one of which is M. galloprovincialis (Hilbish et al., 2000; Gérard et al., 2008), but whether or not they are hybridizing is unknown.

Mytilus galloprovincialis is cultivated in Albania, Bulgaria (where it is one of the most important commercial species -- Merdzhanova et al., 2016), China, Croatia, Egypt, France, Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, the Russian Federation, Spain, South Africa, Turkey, Ukraine, the former Yugoslavia (Hickman, 1992; FIGIS, 2005), Canada (J Shields, University of Queensland, Australia, personal communication, 2010), and Scotland (UK) (Beaumont, 2008). Because of the difficulties of species identification, it is likely that some farms may be inadvertently rearing M. galloprovincialis in addition to native Mytilus species. Aquaculture facilities may use new techniques to produce triploid and tetraploid mussels, which are functionally sterile, thereby eliminating the risk of wild populations establishing (McEnnulty et al., 2001).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 26 Feb 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNativeISSG (2017)Wild
EgyptPresentNativeHickman (1992); ISSG (2017)
LibyaPresentNativeISSG (2017)Wild
MoroccoPresentNativeHickman (1992); Comesana et al. (1998); ISSG (2017)
NamibiaPresentIntroducedDIAS (2005)
South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGrant and Cherry (1985); ISSG (2005)
TunisiaPresentGammoudi et al. (2017)Cultured in Bizerta Lagoon

Asia

ChinaPresentMcDonald et al. (1990)
Hong KongPresentIntroducedLee and Morton (1985); DIAS (2005)
JapanPresentIntroducedWilkins et al. (1983); DIAS (2005); Brannock et al. (2009)
North KoreaPresentIntroducedISSG (2017)Wild
South KoreaPresentIntroducedDaguin and Borsa (2000)
TurkeyPresentNativeHickman (1992); Canyurt (2005); ISSG (2017)Wild and cultured

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNativeHickman (1992)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentNativeISSG (2017)Wild
BulgariaPresentNativeHickman (1992)
CroatiaPresentNativeHamer et al. (2016); ISSG (2017)Wild and cultured
FrancePresentNativeHickman (1992)
GreecePresentNativeHickman (1992); Theodorou et al. (2015)Includes aquaculture
IrelandPresentIntroducedISSG (2017)Wild
ItalyPresentNativeHickman (1992)
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedISSG (2017)Wild
PortugalPresentNativeHickman (1992)
RomaniaPresentNativeISSG (2017)Wild
RussiaPresentHickman (1992)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentNativeHickman (1992)
SpainPresentNativeHickman (1992)
UkrainePresentFIGIS (2005)
United KingdomPresentGosling (1992)

North America

CanadaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedHeath et al. (1995); Wonham (1999); Government of British Columbia (2005); Shields et al. (2008); Shields et al. (2010)
MexicoPresentIntroducedDIAS (2005)
United StatesPresentIntroducedDIAS (2005)
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMcDonald and Koehn (1988); Wonham (1999); Dutton and Hofmann (2008)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveISSG (2005)
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedKing and Cortés-Monroy (2002)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentMcDonald et al. (1991); Daguin and Borsa (2000); Gérard et al. (2008)
-TasmaniaPresentMcDonald et al. (1991); Daguin and Borsa (2000); Gérard et al. (2008)
-VictoriaPresentFord and Hamer (2016)Wild and cultured
-Western AustraliaPresentMcDonald et al. (1991); Daguin and Borsa (2000); Gérard et al. (2008)
New ZealandPresentMcDonald et al. (1991); Daguin and Borsa (2000); Gérard et al. (2008)

Sea Areas

Atlantic - Eastern CentralPresentWoRMS Editorial Board (2020)
Atlantic - NortheastPresentWoRMS Editorial Board (2020)
Atlantic - SoutheastPresentIntroducedWoRMS Editorial Board (2020)
Indian Ocean - EasternPresentWoRMS Editorial Board (2020)
Mediterranean and Black SeaPresentNativeGosling (1992)
Pacific - Eastern CentralPresentIntroducedWoRMS Editorial Board (2020)
Pacific - NortheastPresentIntroducedWoRMS Editorial Board (2020)
Pacific - NorthwestPresentWoRMS Editorial Board (2020)
Pacific - SoutheastPresentDaguin and Borsa (2000)
Pacific - SouthwestPresentWoRMS Editorial Board (2020)

South America

ChilePresentDaguin and Borsa (2000); Gérard et al. (2008)

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Hong Kong 1983 Unknown Yes No
Japan 1926 Unknown Yes No
Mexico Mediterranean and Black Sea Unknown Yes No
Namibia 1990s Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No
South Africa Mediterranean and Black Sea 1970s Unknown Yes No
USA Mediterranean and Black Sea 19th century Unknown Yes No
Netherlands France Self-propelled (pathway cause) No No FAO (2017)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Estuaries Present, no further details
Marine
Inshore marine Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Inshore marine Principal habitat Natural
Inshore marine Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Benthic zone Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Benthic zone Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

Genetics

There have been numerous population genetic studies of M. galloprovincialis, motivated by the poor resolution of morphology for species identification and the propensity of this species to hybridize with other mussels – with M. edulis in the natural species range, and M. trossulus in its introduced range.

Genetic markers have been developed to differentiate these species, but each marker varies in its ability to distinguish between them:

  • ITS – distinguishes between M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis/M. edulis, but not between M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis (Heath et al., 1995).
  • PLIIa – distinguishes between M. trossulus and M. galloprovincialis/M. edulis, but not between M. galloprovincialis and M. edulis (Heath et al., 1995).
  • Glu5’ (same as Me15/16 (Inoue et al., 1995)) – a nuclear DNA locus that produces three alleles diagnostic for M. edulis, M. galloprovincialisand M. trossulus. Hybrid mussels are identified as heterozygous (Rawson et al., 1996).

Genomic research of M. galloprovincialis has recently been advanced by the latest next-generation pyrosequencing technology (Craft et al., 2010). This recent pyrosequencing has provided extensive genomic information for M. galloprovincialis and identified novel expression differences among various tissues, mitochondria and associated microorganisms (Craft et al., 2010). It will also facilitate the much needed production of an oligonucleotide microarray for M. galloprovincialis, further advancing genomic research of this organism.

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Bicarbonate (mg/l) <=5 >=30 Egg Harmful outside this range
Salinity (part per thousand) 27 40 Optimum Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 13 25 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 15 20 Optimum Egg

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Arcotheres atrinae Parasite Sun et al., 2006
Asterias rubens Predator
Aves Predator
Carcinus maenas Predator
Charybdis japonica Predator Oikawa et al., 2004
Diplodus sargus sargus Predator
Ectopleura crocea Aquatic/Larval/Juveniles Fitridge and Keough, 2013
Hexaplex trunculus Predator Güler and Lök, 2016
Imogine mediterranea Predator Gammoudi et al., 2017
Pisaster ochraceus Predator Wonham, 1999
Sparus aurata Predator Glamuzina et al., 2014
Telmessus acutidens Predator Oikawa et al., 2004

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture Yes Yes
Hitchhiker Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Ship ballast water and sediment Yes
Ship hull fouling Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive
Native fauna Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

A number of studies have looked at the impact of mussel farming on the surrounding natural habitat, e.g. Neofitou et al. (2014) and Nizzoli et al. (2006).

Impact on Biodiversity

The effect of Mytilus galloprovincialis on native species is an area of active study. The effects of introduced M. galloprovincialis at the community level have been best studied in South Africa, where since introduction for aquaculture in the 1970s it has now become the dominant intertidal organism over 1500 km from Namibia to the eastern Cape (Griffiths and Robinson, 2003). North of the Cape of Good Hope, it has displaced a native mussel (Aulacomya atra) and polychaete (Gunnarea gaimardi, formerly Gunnarea capensis) from exposed shorelines, adversely affected one native limpet (Scutellastra argenvillei) in more exposed habitats but not less exposed ones, and caused mass mortality of the crab Ovalipes trimaculatus (Griffiths et al., 1992; Branch and Steffani, 2004); it has had mixed but net positive effects on the abundance of another limpet (Scutellastra granularis) (Branch et al., 2010) and provided an additional source of food for the rare and endangered African black oystercatcher, Haematopus moquini (Branch and Steffani, 2004). On the southern coast of South Africa, M. galloprovincialis and the resident dominant bivalve Perna perna coexist with some niche displacement of each species (Bownes and McQuaid, 2006).

In the Aegean Sea, juveniles of the endangered fan mussel Pinna nobilis have been found growing on M. galloprovincialis in long line and rope aquaculture (Theodorou et al., 2015a).

On the Pacific coast of North America, research has primarily focused on habitat competition and hybridization of Mytilus galloprovincialis with its congener M. trossulus (Heath et al., 1995; Dutton and Hofmann, 2008; Shields et al., 2008, 2010). Historically, M. trossulus was abundant along much of this coast (Geller, 1999), but current distribution is now more restricted to central California and northwards. M. galloprovincialis hybridizes with M. trossulus forming multiple discrete hybrid zones along the entire coast from California up through Puget Sound in Washington (Wonham, 2004) and into Canada (Heath et al., 1995; Yanick et al., 2003; Shields et al., 2008, 2010). In southern California, M. galloprovincialis has become the dominant mussel (Dutton and Hofmann, 2008) and the transition between M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus appears to be near 40° or 41°N latitude (Suchanek et al., 1997). On Vancouver Island, Canada, hybrid (M. galloprovicialis x M. trossulus) mussels have a higher fitness than either parental species in certain environments (Shields et al., 2008).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Pollution indicator

General

  • Research model

Human food and beverage

  • Canned meat
  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat
  • Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)

References

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Apte S, Holland BS, Godwin LS, Gardner JPA, 2000. Jumping ship: a stepping stone event mediating transfer of a non-indigenous species via a potentially unsuitable environment. Biological Invasions, 2:75-79

Azpeitia, K., Ferrer, L., Revilla, M., Pagaldai, J., Mendiola, D., 2016. Growth, biochemical profile, and fatty acid composition of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk.) cultured in the open ocean of the Bay of Biscay (northern Spain). Aquaculture, 454, 95-108. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0044848615302921

Barsotti G, Meluzzi C, 1968. [English title not available]. (Osservazioni su Mytilus edulis L. e Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamark.) Conchiglie, 4:50-58

Beaumont AR, 2008. Genetic studies of laboratory reared mussels, Mytilus edulis: heterozygote deficiencies, heterozygosity and growth. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 44:273-285

Beaumont AR, Turner G, Wood AR, Skibinski DOF, 2004. Hybridisation between Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis and performance of pure species and hybrid veliger larvae at different temperatures. J. Ex. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 302(2):177-188

Bownes SJ, McQuaid CD, 2006. Will the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck replace the indigenous Perna perna L. on the south coast of South Africa? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 338(1):140-151. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00220981

Branch GM, Odendaal F, Robinson TB, 2010. Competition and facilitation between the alien mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and indigenous species: moderation by wave action. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 383(1):65-78. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T8F-4XRBH6M-1&_user=10&_coverDate=01%2F31%2F2010&_rdoc=10&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%235085%232010%23996169998%231577668%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5085&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=11&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=4dbeaa48a50b335602372d4b0b1e104b

Branch GM, Steffani CN, 2004. Can we predict the effects of alien species? A case history of the invasion of South Africa by Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck). J. Ex. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 300(1/2):189-215

Brannock PM, Wethey DS, Hilbish TJ, 2009. Extensive hybridization with minimal introgression in Mytilus galloprovincialis and M. trossulus in Hokkaido, Japan. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 383:161-171

Canyurt, M. A., 2005. The development of aquaculture in Turkey. In: Research for rural development: International scientific conference proceedings, Jelgava, Latvia, 19-22 May, 2005, [ed. by Gaile, Z., Špoģis, K., Ciproviča, I., Valters, J., Alsins, J., Bernhard, A.]. Jelgava, Latvia: Latvia University of Agriculture. 19-22.

Caroppo, C., Giordano, L., Palmieri, N., Bellio, G., Bisci, A. P., Portacci, G., Sclafani, P., Hopkins, T. S., 2012. Progress toward sustainable mussel aquaculture in Mar Piccolo, Italy. Ecology and Society, 17(3), Art. 10. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol17/iss3/art10/

Çelİk, M. Y., Karayücel, S., Karayücel, I., Eyüboğlu, B., Öztürk, R., 2016. Settlement and growth of the mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Lamarck, 1819) on different collectors suspended from an offshore submerged longline system in the Black Sea. Aquaculture Research, 47(12), 3765-3776. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2109 doi: 10.1111/are.12827

Comesana AS, Posada D, Sanjuan A, 1998. Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. in northern Africa. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol, 223:271-283

Craft JA, Gilbert JA, Temperton B, Dempsey KE, Ashelford K, Tiwari B, Hutchinson TH, Chipman JK, 2010. Pyrosequencing of mytilus galloprovincialis cDNAs: tissue-specific expression patterns. PLoS ONE, 5(1):e8875

Crego-Prieto, V., Ardura, A., Juanes, F., Roca, A., Taylor, J. S., Garcia-Vazquez, E., 2015. Aquaculture and the spread of introduced mussel genes in British Columbia. Biological Invasions, 17(7), 2011-2026. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10530-015-0853-z doi: 10.1007/s10530-015-0853-z

Daguin C, Borsa P, 2000. Genetic relationships of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck populations worldwide: evidence from nuclear-DNA markers. In: Harper EM, Taylor JD, Crane JA, eds. The evolutionary biology of the bivalvia. Geological Society of London Special Publications 111, 389-397

DIAS, 2005. Database on introduction of aquatic species. Database on introduction of aquatic species. unpaginated. http://www.fao.org/fi/figis/

Díaz-Puente, B., Miñambres, M., Rosón, G., Aghzar, A., Presa, P., 2016. Genetic decoupling of spat origin from hatchery to harvest of Mytilus galloprovincialis cultured in suspension. Aquaculture, 460, 124-135. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0044848616302010 doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.04.016

Dutton JM, Hofmann GE, 2008. Spatial and temporal variation in distribution and protein ubiquitination for Mytilus congeners in the California hybrid zone. Marine Biology, 154:1067-1075

Elliot J, Holmes K, Chambers R, Leon K, Wimberger P, 2008. Differences in morphology and habitat use among the native mussel Mytilus trossulus, the non-native M. galloprovincialis and their hybrids in Puget Sound, Washington. Marine Biology, 156:39-53

FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, 2019. Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819). Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.http://www.fao.org/fishery/species/3529/en

FAO, 2017. Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species (DIAS). In: Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species (DIAS) Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.http://www.fao.org/fishery/dias/en

FAO, 2019. FAO yearbook of fishery and aquaculture statistics, 2019. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.vii + 244 pp. http://www.fao.org/fishery/static/Yearbook/YB2017_USBcard/navigation/index_content_aquaculture_e.htm

FIGIS, 2005. Fisheries Global Information System. Online at www.fao.org. Accessed 25 July 2005

Fitridge, I., Keough, M. J., 2013. Ruinous resident: the hydroid Ectopleura crocea negatively affects suspended culture of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Biofouling, 29(2), 119-131. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gbif20 doi: 10.1080/08927014.2012.752465

Fly, E. K., Hilbish, T. J., Wethey, D. S., Rognstad, R. L., 2015. Physiology and biogeography: the response of European mussels (Mytilus spp.) to climate change. American Malacological Bulletin, 33(1), 136-149. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.4003/006.033.0111

Ford, J. R., Hamer, P., 2016. The forgotten shellfish reefs of coastal Victoria: documenting the loss of a marine ecosystem over 200 years since European settlement. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, 128(1), 87-105. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/308.htm

Fuentes J, Gregorio V, Giráldez R, Molares J, 2000. Within-raft variability of the growth rate of mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, cultivated in the Ría de Arousa (NW Spain). Aquaculture, 189(1/2):39-52

Gammoudi, M., Ben Ahmed, R., Bouriga, N., Ben Attia, M., Harrath, A. H., 2017. Predation by the polyclad flatworm Imogine mediterranea on the cultivated mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in Bizerta Lagoon (northern Tunisia). Aquaculture Research, 48(4), 1608-1617. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2109 doi: 10.1111/are.12995

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Geller JB, 1999. Decline of a native mussel masked by sibling species invasion. Conservation Biology, 13:661-664

Gérard K, Bierne N, Borsa P, Chenuil A, Féral JP, 2008. Pleistocene separation of mitochondrial lineages of Mytilus spp. mussels from Northern and Southern Hemispheres and strong genetic differentiation among southern populations. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol, 49:84-91

Gibble, C. M., Peacock, M. B., Kudela, R. M., 2016. Evidence of freshwater algal toxins in marine shellfish: implications for human and aquatic health. Harmful Algae, 59, 59-66. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568988316301639 doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2016.09.007

Glamuzina, B., Pešić, A., Joksimović, A., Glamuzina, L., Matić-Skoko, S., Conides, A., Klaoudatos, D., Zacharaki, P., 2014. Observations on the increase of wild gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata abundance, in the eastern Adriatic Sea: problems and opportunities. International Aquatic Research, 6(3), 127-134. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40071-014-0073-7 doi: 10.1007/s40071-014-0073-7

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Government of British Columbia, 2005. Species list. Online at www.agf.gov.bc.ca/fish_stats/species_list.htm. Accessed 22 July 2005

Grant WS, Cherry MI, 1985. Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. In southern Africa. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 90:179-191

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Wilkins N P, Fujino K, Gosling E M, 1983. The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk in Japan. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 365-374.

Wonham M, 1999. Predicting the spread of an invasive mussel: the changing roles of competition and predation. In: First National Conference on Marine Bioinvasions, 24-27 January 1999, Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT.

WoRMS Editorial Board, 2020. World Register of Marine Species. http://www.marinespecies.org/ DOI:10.14284/170

Contributors

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31/10/2017 Updated by:

Vicki Bonham, consultant, UK

30/03/2010 Updated by:

Jody Shields, The University of Queensland, Australia

Cynthia Riginos, The University of Queensland, Australia

29/05/2005: Original text by:

Vicki Bonham, consultant, UK

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