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Epiphyllum oxypetalum
(dutchman's-pipe cactus)

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Datasheet

Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 February 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Epiphyllum oxypetalum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dutchman's-pipe cactus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Epiphyllum oxypetalum is a widely cultivated cactus native to Central America. It has long been a popular ornamental due to its easy cultivation and the abundance of large flowers it produces. This species is described as ‘escaped from cu...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flowering habit. June 2013.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flowering habit. June 2013.
Copyright©Ajeesh Kumar (Ajeeshkumar4u)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flowering habit. June 2013.
Flowering habitEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flowering habit. June 2013.©Ajeesh Kumar (Ajeeshkumar4u)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flowers blooming at night. January 2012.
TitleFlowers
CaptionEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flowers blooming at night. January 2012.
Copyright©Leonardo Dasilva/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flowers blooming at night. January 2012.
FlowersEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flowers blooming at night. January 2012.©Leonardo Dasilva/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower in bloom at night. September 2012.
TitleFlower
CaptionEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower in bloom at night. September 2012.
Copyright©Freedom II Andres/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower in bloom at night. September 2012.
FlowerEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower in bloom at night. September 2012.©Freedom II Andres/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower in bloom at night. September 2012.
TitleFlower
CaptionEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower in bloom at night. September 2012.
Copyright©Freedom II Andres/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower in bloom at night. September 2012.
FlowerEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower in bloom at night. September 2012.©Freedom II Andres/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower in bloom at night. July 2013.
TitleFlower
CaptionEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower in bloom at night. July 2013.
Copyright©DeltaDweller/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower in bloom at night. July 2013.
FlowerEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower in bloom at night. July 2013.©DeltaDweller/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Whole flower. July 2012.
TitlePlant
CaptionEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Whole flower. July 2012.
Copyright©Laineema/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Whole flower. July 2012.
PlantEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Whole flower. July 2012.©Laineema/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Unopened and opened flower. Hong Kong. July 2005.
TitleFlowers
CaptionEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Unopened and opened flower. Hong Kong. July 2005.
Copyright©MAK, Wing Kuen (WingkLEE)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Unopened and opened flower. Hong Kong. July 2005.
FlowersEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Unopened and opened flower. Hong Kong. July 2005.©MAK, Wing Kuen (WingkLEE)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower starting to open. July 2014.
TitleFlower
CaptionEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower starting to open. July 2014.
Copyright©Shijan Kaakkara (കാക്കര)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower starting to open. July 2014.
FlowerEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower starting to open. July 2014.©Shijan Kaakkara (കാക്കര)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower. September 2017.
TitleFlower
CaptionEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower. September 2017.
Copyright©Truong Phuoc Han/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower. September 2017.
FlowerEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower. September 2017.©Truong Phuoc Han/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower in bloom. October 2019.
TitleFlower
CaptionEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower in bloom. October 2019.
Copyright©AvishekNaskar/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower in bloom. October 2019.
FlowerEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower in bloom. October 2019.©AvishekNaskar/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); This photo shows the flower several hours before blooming. April 2014.
TitleFlowers before blooming
CaptionEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); This photo shows the flower several hours before blooming. April 2014.
Copyright©Mokkie/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); This photo shows the flower several hours before blooming. April 2014.
Flowers before bloomingEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); This photo shows the flower several hours before blooming. April 2014.©Mokkie/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Habit. August 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Habit. August 2012.
Copyright©Shijan Kaakkara (കാക്കര)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Habit. August 2012.
HabitEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Habit. August 2012.©Shijan Kaakkara (കാക്കര)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower bud. April 2014.
TitleFlower bud
CaptionEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower bud. April 2014.
Copyright©Mokkie/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower bud. April 2014.
Flower budEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower bud. April 2014.©Mokkie/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower buds, longer bud about 4 cm long. Hong Kong. May 2007.
TitleFlower buds
CaptionEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower buds, longer bud about 4 cm long. Hong Kong. May 2007.
Copyright©WingkLEE/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Epiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower buds, longer bud about 4 cm long. Hong Kong. May 2007.
Flower budsEpiphyllum oxypetalum (dutchman's-pipe cactus); Flower buds, longer bud about 4 cm long. Hong Kong. May 2007.©WingkLEE/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Epiphyllum oxypetalum (DC.) Haw.

Preferred Common Name

  • dutchman's-pipe cactus

Other Scientific Names

  • Cactus oxypetalus Moc. & Sessé ex DC.
  • Cereus latifrons Zucc.
  • Cereus oxypetalus DC.
  • Epiphyllum acuminatum K.Schum.
  • Epiphyllum grande (Lem.) Britton & Rose
  • Epiphyllum latifrons (Zucc.) Pfeiff.
  • Epiphyllum purpusii (Weing.) F.M.Knuth
  • Phyllocactus acuminatus (K. Schum.) K. Schum.
  • Phyllocactus grandis Lem.
  • Phyllocactus latifrons (Zucc.) Link ex Walp.
  • Phyllocactus oxypetalus (DC.) Link
  • Phyllocactus purpusii Weing.

International Common Names

  • English: jungle cactus; night blooming cereus; night queen; orchid cactus; queen of the night
  • Spanish: reina de la noche
  • Chinese: tan hua

Local Common Names

  • Dominican Republic: cachimbo
  • India: bakavali; brahma kamal; gul-e-bakawali; nishagandhi
  • Puerto Rico: flor de retreta roja
  • Venezuela: flor de baile

Summary of Invasiveness

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Epiphyllum oxypetalum is a widely cultivated cactus native to Central America. It has long been a popular ornamental due to its easy cultivation and the abundance of large flowers it produces. This species is described as ‘escaped from cultivation’ in many regions, and can become naturalized following escape. Currently it is listed as invasive in Anguilla, but there is no information available about its ecological or economic impacts.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Cactaceae
  •                             Genus: Epiphyllum
  •                                 Species: Epiphyllum oxypetalum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Cactaceae comprises about 139 genera and 1866 species (Stevens, 2019). Many species within this family are native to dry, arid and semi-arid environments in the Americas and have evolved extraordinary adaptations to low water availability and other stressful conditions (Bravo-Hollis and Sánchez-Mejorada, 1991). The genus Epiphyllum includes approximately 15 species occurring from Mexico to Argentina (Bravo and Arias, 2011).

Description

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The following description is from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2020):

Shrubs epiphytic, freely branched, 2-6 m tall, with aerial roots. Old stems and basal extension shoot terete, to 2 m or more, woody; branches numerous, dark green, laterally flattened, leaflike, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 15-100 × 5-12 cm, glabrous, base cuneate, attenuate, or stalked, margin undulate to deeply crenate, apex acute to acuminate; midrib 2-6 mm wide, stout. Areoles small, spineless. Flowers nocturnal, fragrant, funnelform, 25-30 × 10-27 cm. Receptacle tube 13-18 cm, base green, 4-9 mm in diameter, slightly angled, with triangular to lanceolate scales 3-10 mm. Sepaloids often recurved, pale green or pinkish red, linear to oblanceolate. Petaloids white, oblanceolate to obovate, 7-10 × 3-4.5 cm. Filaments white, 2.5-5 mm; anthers cream, 3-3.5 mm. Style white, 20-22 cm; stigmas 15-20, cream, narrowly linear, 1.6-1.8 mm. Fruit purplish red, oblong, 16 × 5.7 cm. Seed 2-2.5 × 1.5 mm.

Plant Type

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Biennial
Seed / spore propagated
Succulent
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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Epiphyllum oxypetalum is native to Mexico and Central America. It can be found cultivated and naturalized in Venezuela, Brazil, Galapagos Islands, the Caribbean, India and China. However, it is highly likely that the current distribution of E. oxypetalum extends beyond these countries as this species is widely cultivated elsewhere in tropical and subtropical areas and has escaped from cultivation and naturalized in many places (Bravo and Arias, 2011; Lim, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2020).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 16 Mar 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroduced1645NaturalizedCultivated. First reported as naturalized in 1936 in Yunnan
-YunnanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated. First reported as naturalized in 1936 in Yunnan
IndiaPresentIntroducedCultivated
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroducedCultivated
-AssamPresentIntroducedCultivated
-KarnatakaPresentIntroducedCultivated
-ManipurPresentIntroducedCultivated
-MeghalayaPresentIntroducedCultivated

North America

AnguillaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
El SalvadorPresentNative
GuatemalaPresentNative
HondurasPresentNative
MexicoPresentNative
NicaraguaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
United StatesPresentIntroducedCultivated

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-AcrePresentIntroducedNaturalized
-BahiaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-SergipePresentIntroducedNaturalized
EcuadorPresentIntroducedGalapagos Islands only
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedMargarita Island

History of Introduction and Spread

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Epiphyllum oxypetalum is by far the most popular and widely cultivated ornamental species from this genus of cacti and has a long history of repeated introductions outside its natural range (Lim, 2014). In China, E. oxypetalum was introduced in 1645 and first reported as naturalized in 1936 in Jinghong, Yunnan (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of new introductions of E. oxypetalum is high. This species is extensively cultivated and commercialized as an ornamental across tropical and subtropical regions (Lim, 2014). Therefore, it is highly likely that further introductions and naturalizations of this species will occur.

Habitat

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Epiphyllum oxypetalum is an epiphytic cactus that can be found growing on rocks or trees in dry thickets, seasonal forests, evergreen forests, moist forests and coastal areas. In cultivation, this species is commonly grown on walls, fences and yard trees (Standley and Williams, 1962; Bravo and Arias, 2011; Lim, 2014).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The base chromosome number in Cactaceae is x = 11. E. oxypetalum has been reported as a diploid 2x = 22 (Tel-Zur et al., 2011)

Reproductive biology

Epiphyllum oxypetalum has large, fragrant, bisexual flowers that open at night and wilt before dawn. Characteristics of the flower of E.oxypetalum, such as an elongate hypanthium, white perianth and nocturnal anthesis with sweet odour, suggest that these flowers are pollinated by moths, according to Barthlott and Hunt (1993).

Physiology and phenology

Epiphyllum oxypetalum is a species with CAM metabolism and thus characteristic nocturnal stomatal opening and tissue succulence. CAM metabolism is an adaptation to increase the efficiency in the use of water and so is typically found in plants growing in arid conditions such as cacti species. In Mexico and Central America, this species produces flowers throughout the year (Bravo and Arias, 2011). In China, E. oxypetalum has been reported flowering from June to October (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020).

Environmental requirements

Epiphyllum oxypetalum prefers to grow in warm climates at elevations ranging from 75 m to 2000 m. It grows well in full sun or light afternoon shade and well-drained soil with pH in the range 5.1 to 6.5 (Lim, 2014).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 15

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural dispersal (non-biotic)

Epiphyllum oxypetalum spreads by seeds and vegetatively via stem fragments (Lim, 2014).

Intentional introduction

Epiphyllum oxypetalum has been dispersed intentionally by people to be used as an ornamental. E. oxypetalum is by far the most popular and widely cultivated ornamental species from this genus of cacti. In cultivation, it is easily propagated by stem cuttings and dividing roots (Lim, 2014).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from cultivation Yes Yes Lim (2014)
Garden waste disposalStem fragments, seeds Yes Yes Lim (2014)
HorticultureWidely cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Lim (2014)
Internet salesCuttings and plants sold online Yes Yes
Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine and homeopathy Yes Yes Lim (2014)
Nursery tradeWidely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes Lim (2014)
Ornamental purposesWidely cultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes Lim (2014)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Floating vegetation and debrisStem fragments, seeds Yes Yes Lim (2014)
MailCuttings and plants sold online Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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Even when E. oxypetalum has been listed as invasive in Anguilla (Connor, 2008), there is no information available about its ecological or economic impacts. This species is also included in the Global Compendium of Weeds and listed for the Galapagos Islands, China and the United States (Randall, 2017).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact mechanisms
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Epiphyllum oxypetalum is cultivated as an ornamental for its attractive and fragrant flowers. It is commonly planted in gardens and yards and also grown in hanging baskets. It is also used in traditional medicine and in homeopathy. In China, the mucilaginous flowers are often eaten in a vegetable soup (Hu, 2005; Lim, 2014).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant
  • Potted plant

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Barthlott W, Hunt DR, 1993. Cactaceae. In: Flowering plants Dicotyledons, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany: Springer. 161-197.

Bravo H, Arias S, 2011. Cactaceae. Descripción de la familia y clave genérica. In: Flora Mesoamericana, Volume 2, [ed. by Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F]. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.

Bravo-Hollis H, Sánchez-Mejorada H, 1991. Utilidad de las cactáceas. In: Las Cactáceas de México Vol. III, Mexico City, Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. 501-535.

Connor, RA, 2008. Anguilla Invasive Species Strategy. http://www.gov.ai/documents/Anguilla%20Invasive%20Species%20Strategy%202008%20%282%29.pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Guézou, A., Trueman, M., Buddenhagen, C. E., Chamorro, S., Mireya Guerrero, A., Pozo, P., Atkinson, R., 2010. An extensive alien plant inventory from the inhabited areas of Galapagos. PLoS ONE, (No.April), e10276. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010276

Hu SY, 2005. Food plants of China, Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.844 pp.

India Biodiversity Portal, 2020. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Lim TK, 2014. Epiphyllum oxypetalum. In: Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. 638-640.

Randall, R. P., 2017. A global compendium of weeds, (Ed.3) [ed. by Randall, R. P.]. Perth, Australia: R. P. Randall.iii + 3653 pp.

Standley PC, Williams LO, 1962. Flora of Guatemala: Cactaceae to Combretaceae. Fieldiana, Botany, 24(7), 187–281.

Stevens, P. F., 2019. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Tel-Zur, N., Mizrahi, Y., Cisneros, A., Mouyal, J., Schneider, B., Doyle, J. J., 2011. Phenotypic and genomic characterization of vine cactus collection (Cactaceae). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 58(7), 1075-1085. doi: 10.1007/s10722-010-9643-8

USDA-ARS, 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2020. Galapagos Species Checklist. In: Galapagos Species Checklist, Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundatio. http://darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/#plants

Connor RA, 2008. Anguilla Invasive Species Strategy., http://www.gov.ai/documents/Anguilla%20Invasive%20Species%20Strategy%202008%20%282%29.pdf

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China, St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

India Biodiversity Portal, 2020. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity, http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

USDA-ARS, 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Zappi D, Taylor N, Santos MR, Larocca J, 2015. Epiphyllum oxypetalum. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB1511

Contributors

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19/04/20 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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