Nyctereutes procyonoides (raccoon dog)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray, 1834
Preferred Common Name
- raccoon dog
Other Scientific Names
- Nuctereutes procyonoides
International Common Names
- French: chien viverrin
Local Common Names
- China: háo; háo-zi; li
- Croatia: kunopas
- Czech Republic: psiik mývalovitý
- Denmark: márhund
- Estonia: kährikkoer
- Finland: supikoira
- Germany: Marderhund
- Hungary: nyestkutya
- Indonesia: anjing rakun; tjerpelai
- Italy: cane procione
- Japan: tanuki
- Korea, Republic of: nurgoori
- Latvia: jenotsuns
- Lithuania: usurinis šuo
- Mongolia: zagal elbinkh
- Netherlands: wasbeerhond
- Norway: márhund
- Poland: jenot
- Portugal: câo-mapache
- Romania: câinele enot
- Russian Federation: enotovidnaâ sobaka
- Slovakia: psik medviedikovitý
- Slovenia: rakunasti pes
- Spain: perro mapache
- Sweden: mårdhund
- USA/Georgia: entiseburi dzagli
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
N. procyonoides is considered invasive in its introduced range in Europe, because it has spread fast (about 40 km, and up to 120 km, per year) from the places of introduction (Lavrov, 1971), and is still spreading towards the west and south (Kauhala and Kowalczyk, 2011). It may also spread further north to Finnish and Swedish Lapland due to global warming. It is suspected to be harmful (due to predation) to native birds and frogs, but firm evidence of this is lacking. It is also an important vector of rabies and some parasites, such as Echinococcus multilocularis (Holmala and Kauhala, 2006; Romig, 2006; Kauhala and Kowalczyk, 2011).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Chordata
- Subphylum: Vertebrata
- Class: Mammalia
- Order: Carnivora
- Suborder: Fissipeda
- Family: Canidae
- Genus: Nyctereutes
- Species: Nyctereutes procyonoides
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
N. procyonoides ussuriensis: Originally in southeastern Siberia (Amur, Sungari and Ussuri river valleys) and eastern China (Manchuria). This subspecies was introduced to other parts of the former Soviet Union between 1929 and 1955 (Lavrov, 1971) and is now widespread in Europe.
DescriptionTop of page
N. procyonoides has a black facial mask, small rounded ears, a pointed muzzle and long hair on the cheeks. The body colour varies from yellow to grey or reddish. There are black hairs on the back and shoulders and also dorsally on the tail. The legs, feet and chest are dark. Small pups are almost black. Underhair is usually grey. 'Samson' individuals have no guard-hairs and their underfur is reddish. The tail is fairly short and is covered with thick hair. In summer the fur is thin and fat reserves are small, so the animal looks much slimmer than in autumn. In autumn and winter, the animal is very fat and has thick fur, giving an impression of a round animal with short thin legs. The dental formula is 3/3-1/1-4/4-2/3, with lower m3 sometimes missing (Kauhala and Saeki, 2004a).
DistributionTop of page
The introduced range of N. procyonoides covers north-western Russia, Finland, Sweden (Norbotten province), the Baltic States, Poland, Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria and Serbia. The species is occasionally seen in Norway, Denmark, Austria, Italy, the Netherlands, France, Switzerland, Slovenia and Bosnia (Mitchell-Jones et al., 1999; Kauhala and Kowalczyk, 2011); there have been media reports of small numbers being present in the wild in the UK (Butler, 2017; Sawer, 2017) but as yet there do not appear to be any official or peer-reviewed reports, apart from the mention of one confirmed sighting in 2005 by Marchant (2012).
The northern limit of distribution lies in areas where the mean temperature over the year is just above 0°C, the thickness of snow cover is about 80 cm, the snow cover lasts about 175 days and the length of the growing season for plants is 135 days. When the climate warms and winters are milder and shorter, N. procyonoides will most probably widen its distribution area northwards. Now the northern limit of permanent distribution lies at the Arctic Circle (in Finland). In the south, the species has managed to cross the Alps – two specimens were photographed in northern Italy in 2005 (P. Genovesi, INFS - Italian Wildlife Institute, Ozzano Emilia, Italy, personal communication, 2005).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present||Native||Ward and Wurster-Hill (1990)||Native in large parts of China|
|-Anhui||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Beijing||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Chongqing||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Fujian||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Gansu||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Guangdong||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Guangxi||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Guizhou||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Hainan||Present||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Hebei||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Heilongjiang||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Henan||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Hubei||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Hunan||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Inner Mongolia||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Jiangsu||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Jiangxi||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Jilin||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Liaoning||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Ningxia||Present||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Qinghai||Present||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Shaanxi||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Shandong||Present||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Shanghai||Present||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Shanxi||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Sichuan||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Tibet||Present||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Xinjiang||Present||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Yunnan||Present||Native||Ognev (1962); China Species Information Service (2009)|
|-Zhejiang||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|Hong Kong||Present||Marshall (1968)||Has never been recorded, but important during winter for food|
|Japan||Present, Widespread||Native||Kauhala and Saeki (2004); Kauhala and Saeki (2004a)||Subspecies N. p. viverrinus and N. p. albus (in Hokkaido)|
|-Hokkaido||Present, Widespread||Native||Biodiversity Center of Japan (2002)|
|-Honshu||Present, Widespread||Native||Biodiversity Center of Japan (2002)||Introduced to Chiburi-jima Island in 1941|
|-Kyushu||Present, Widespread||Native||Biodiversity Center of Japan (2002)||Introduced to Yaku-shima Island in 1980s|
|-Ryukyu Islands||Present||Biodiversity Center of Japan (2002)|
|-Shikoku||Present, Widespread||Native||Biodiversity Center of Japan (2002)|
|Macau||Present||Native||China Species Information Service (2009)|
|Mongolia||Present||Native||Lever (1985); Clark and Munkhbat (2006)|
|North Korea||Present||Native||Ward and Wurster-Hill (1990)||The raccoon dog is found in Korea; the paper does not give the locaility|
|South Korea||Present||Native||Ward and Wurster-Hill (1990)||The raccoon dog is found in Korea; the paper does not give the locality|
|Vietnam||Present||Native||Ward and Wurster-Hill (1990); Vo Hung et al. (2006)|
|Austria||Present||Introduced||Lever (1985); Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)||First report in 1962|
|Belarus||Present, Widespread||Introduced||1963||Invasive||Sidorovich et al. (2000)|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)|
|Bulgaria||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Lever (1985); Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)||First report in 1967|
|Czechia||Present||Introduced||Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)|
|Czechoslovakia||Present||Introduced||Nowak and Pielowski (1964); Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)||First report in 1959|
|Denmark||Present, Localized||Introduced||Baagøe and Jensen (2007)||In Jutland and in Fyn, 25 reports between 1995 and 2003. First report in Denmark in 1980|
|Estonia||Present, Widespread||Introduced||1950||Lavrov (1971); Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)||Widespread as early as 1954|
|Finland||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Helle and Kauhala (1991)||Spread to Finland and other European countries from introductions in northwest Russia; first report in Finland in 1935|
|France||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Artois and Duchêne (1982); Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)||First verified report in 1979|
|Germany||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Nowak and Pielowski (1964); Schwarz et al. (2002); Weber et al. (2004)||Numbers have increased rapidly during the last decade. 398 raccoon dogs were killed in 1995 and 4325 were killed in 2001/2002 in Brandenburg. First report in east Germany 1961|
|Hungary||Present||Introduced||Nowak and Pielowski (1964); Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)||First report in 1962|
|Latvia||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)|
|Lithuania||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Nowak and Pielowski (1964); Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)||First report in 1948|
|Moldova||Present||Introduced||1949||Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)|
|Netherlands||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)|
|North Macedonia||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Ciairovicia (2006)||A raccoon dog was run over by a car in 2002|
|Norway||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Wikan (1983); Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)||First report in 1983|
|Poland||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Nowak and Pielowski (1964); Jedrzejewska and Jedrzejewski (1998)||Common in Bialowieza Forest. First report in 1955|
|Romania||Present||Introduced||Nowak and Pielowski (1964); Barbu (1969); Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)||Present at least in Danube Delta. First report in 1951|
|Russia||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)||Widespread as introduced species in European parts of Russia; native in Russian Far East|
|-Central Russia||Present, Widespread||Introduced||1934||Novikov (1962)||e.g. Kalinin, Moscow, Novograd, Tatar, Leningrad, Kaliningrad|
|-Northern Russia||Present||Introduced||1935||Novikov (1962); Lavrov (1971)||e.g. Arkhangel, Karelo-Finnish province. Arkhangel, first observation in 1942|
|-Russian Far East||Present, Widespread||Native||Novikov (1962)||Amur and Ussuri river valleys, Khankai lowland, Komsomol'sk, along Japan sea coast, also near Shilka and Argun rivers|
|-Southern Russia||Present||Introduced||Novikov (1962)||e.g. Astrakhan, Veronezh|
|-Western Siberia||Present||Introduced||RIA Novosti (2008)||Altai Mountains|
|Serbia||Present||Introduced||Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)|
|Serbia and Montenegro||Present||Introduced||Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)|
|Slovakia||Present||Introduced||Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)|
|Slovenia||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)|
|Sweden||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Niethammer (1963)||First report in 1945|
|Switzerland||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999); Weber et al. (2004)||First report in 1997. Between 1997 and 2004 four verified observations, one 1570 m above sea level|
|Ukraine||Present||Introduced||1936||Mitchell-Jones et al. (1999)|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Russians introduced N. procyonoides from southeastern Siberia to several places, first in the Asian part, and later mainly in the European part, of the former Soviet Union, between 1929 and 1955 (Lavrov, 1971). Altogether they introduced about 9100 individuals. They first bred the animals in farms and then released them into the wild in order to get a new valuable fur animal. In many areas the population remained small, especially in Asia, because most released individuals died. The first introduction was made to Transcaucasia, Abkhazia, southern Ossetia and Karatalinia (Lever, 1985).
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|Former USSR||Russian Far East||Yes||No||Novikov (1962)|
|Kazakhstan||Russian Far East||Yes||No||Stroganov (1969)|
|Russia (Europe)||Russian Far East||1929-1955||Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)||Yes||No||Lavrov (1971)|
|Russia (Europe)||Russian Far East||Yes||No||Stroganov (1969)|
|Siberia||Russian Far East||Yes||No||Stroganov (1969)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
N. procyonoides is very adaptable, it is omnivorous, it has a high reproductive potential, and it has a tendency to wander long distances, so it can easily spread to new areas. It seems that it has found a vacant niche at least in northern Europe (there is no proof that native carnivore populations have decreased after it colonised the area, with the possible exception of Belarus – see ‘Impact on biodiversity’ section). It has probably benefited from bait vaccinations against rabies in Europe, and it will also benefit from global warming, because severe winters set a limit to its distribution area.
HabitatTop of page
N. procyonoides favours open landscape, especially damp meadows with abundant undergrowth, marshes and river shores, but avoids large coniferous forests and other woodlands with a thick canopy (Novikov, 1962; Stroganov, 1969; Yudin, 1977; Nasimovich, 1985; K Kauhala, Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Turku, Finland, and M Auttila, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland, unpublished data). It also favours small deciduous and mixed forests and deforested areas (Barbu, 1972; Nasimovich, 1985; Woloch and Roženko, 2007). It needs dense undergrowth, which provides shelter and food. It does not thrive in barren areas with scarce undergrowth.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Natural grasslands||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Scrub / shrublands||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
ClimateTop of page
|BS - Steppe climate||Tolerated||> 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Tolerated||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Preferred||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
|Df - Continental climate, wet all year||Preferred||Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)|
|Ds - Continental climate with dry summer||Preferred||Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)|
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||0||10.5|
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Canis lupus||Predator||Adult Female/Adult Male||not specific||Kowalczyk et al., 2008; Lavrov, 1971|
|Canis lupus familiaris||Predator||not specific||Kowalczyk et al., 2008; Saeki, 1995|
|Lynx lynx||Predator||not specific||Lavrov, 1971|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Large carnivores are natural enemies for N. procyonoides. Wolves (Canis lupus) and lynxes (Lynx lynx) are known to kill them (Lavrov, 1971; Kowalczyk et al., 2008), and stray dogs also often kill them (Saeki, 1995; Kowalczyk et al., 2008).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
N. procyonoides juveniles usually disperse during their first autumn. The mean dispersal distances were 14 km for females and 19 km for males in south-east Finland, the mean maximum distances being 48 km and 71 km, respectively (Kauhala et al., 2006). Twenty-one percent of juveniles dispersed farther than 20 km. In a stable population, adults do not usually disperse (Kauhala et al., 1993). However, they too may disperse in a colonising population (Sutor, 2008; Drygala et al., 2010).
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Botanical gardens and zoos||Yes|
|Escape from confinement or garden escape||Some were brought to fur farms and escaped||Yes|
|Food||Within China||Yes||Marshall, 1968|
|Harvesting fur, wool or hair||Introduced as a new fur animal in the wild||Yes||Lavrov, 1971|
|Hunting, angling, sport or racing||Yes||Lavrov, 1971|
Impact SummaryTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
Because the species is an important vector of rabies in northeastern Europe (Holmala and Kauhala, 2006), bait vaccinations are carried out, e.g. in Finland twice each year. The cost of this is considerable. The species is also a vector of Echinococcus multilocularis (Romig et al., 2006), Trichinella spp. (Oivanen et al., 2002), and sarcoptic mange (Shibata and Kawamichi, 1999). Preventive measures against these parasites may become costly.
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Biodiversity
This is a controversial question. Many people consider N. procyonoides harmful for bird populations, but there is no firm evidence of this. Birds occur in its diet but usually they constitute only a minority of the diet (e.g. Nasimovich, 1985). The species is an omnivorous gatherer rather than a skilful predator. It has short legs, small teeth, and a long intestine, and it is fairly clumsy and slow. Its morphology reveals that it is an omnivore (Lavrov, 1971; Kauhala et al., 1998c). It may eat eggs or catch chicks, but it is unlikely that it can catch many adult birds. When the diets of N. procyonoides, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and badgers in early summer were compared in southern Finland, the diet of N. procyonoides was the most diverse, and they consumed game animals less frequently than foxes.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Negatively impacts human health
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Competition (unspecified)
- Pest and disease transmission
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
Uses ListTop of page
- Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)
Human food and beverage
- Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
The facial mask resembles that of the raccoon (Procyon lotor). Carcasses seen along the roads can be confused with those of badgers (Meles meles), if one does not stop and look at the carcass carefully. For instance, many people in Sweden have reported N. procyonoides carcasses on the roads, but when these were checked, they were usually badgers (P-A Åhlen, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden, personal communicaiton, 2009).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
More information about the dispersal distances and dispersal routes of juveniles is needed, because dispersing juveniles pose the greatest risk regarding the spread of rabies and dangerous parasites, such as Echinococcus multilocularis.
ReferencesTop of page
Ansorge H, Ranyuk M, Kauhala K, Kowalczyk R, Stier N, 2009. Raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides populations in the area of origin and in colonised regions - the epigenetic variability of an immigrant. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 46:51-62.
Ansorge H, Stiebling U, 2001. The population biology of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in eastern Germany - immigration strategy of a new citizen? (Die Populationsbiologie des Mardeshundes (Nyctereutes procyonoides) im östlichen Deutschland - Einwanderungsstrategie eines Neubürgers?.) Beiträge zur Jagd- und Wildforschung, 26:247-254.
Artois M, Duchêne MJ, 1982. First identification of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray, 1834) in France. (Premiere identification du chien viverrin (Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray, 1834) en France.) Mammalia, 46:265-266.
Barbu P, 1969. [English title not available]. (Noi contributii la cunoasterea ecologiei cîinelui enot Nyctereutes procyonoides ussuriensis Matschie, 1907 din delta Dunaarii.) Studii si cercetari de Biologie Seria Zoologie, 21(1):103-115.
Barbu P, 1970. On the reproduction of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides ussuriensis Matschie 1907) in the Danube delta. (Sur la reproduction du Nyctéreute (Nyctereutes procyonoides ussuriensis Matschie 1907) dans le delta du Danube.) Travaux du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle "Grigore Antipa", 10:331-345.
Barbu P, 1972. Contributions to the study of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides ussuriensis Matschie, 1907, from the Danube delta. (Beitrage zum Studium des Marderhundes, Nyctereutes procyonoides ussuriensis Matschie, 1907, aus dem Donaudelta.) Saugetierkundliche Mitteilungen, 20(4):375-405.
Butler, R., 2017. Raccoon dog rescued after getting caught in trap in Derbyshire., RSPCA News https://news.rspca.org.uk/2017/01/11/raccoon-dog-rescued-after-getting-caught-in-trap-in-derbyshire/
Clark EL, Munkhbat J, 2006. Mongolian Red List of Mammals [ed. by Dulamtseren, S. \Baillie, J. E. M. \Batsaikhan, N. \Samiya, R. \Stubbe, M.]. London, UK: Zoological Society of London, 159 pp. [ Regional Red List Series Vol. 1.] http://www.nationalredlist.org/App_Files_Uploaded/Mongolia%20Mammals%20RL%20English.pdf
Drygala F, Zoller H, Stier N, Mix HM, Roth M, 2008. Ranging and parental care of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides during pup rearing. Acta Theriologica, 53:111-119.
Drygala F, Zoller H, Stier N, Roth M, 2010. Dispersal of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides into a newly invaded area in Central Europe. Wildlife Biology, 16(2):150-161. http://www.wildlifebiology.com
Guan Y, Zheng BJ, He YQ, Liu XL, Zhuang ZX, Cheung CL, Luo SW, Li PH, Zhang LJ, Guan YJ, Butt KM, Wong KL, Chan KW, Lim W, Shortridge KF, Yuen KY, Peiris JSM, Poon LLM, 2003. Isolation and characterization of viruses related to the SARS coronavirus from animals in Southern China. Science, 302(5643):276-278.
Ivanova GI, 1962. [English title not available]. (Sravnitel'naja harakteristika pitanija lisicy, barsuka i enotovidnoj sobaki v Voronezkom zapovednike.) Uch. Zap. Mosk. Gos. Pedagog. Inst. Lenina, 186:210-256.
Kaneshiro Y, Ochiai K, Asada M, Matsumoto N, 2000. Habitat use by the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, in an urban park in Chiba city, central Japan. Journal of Natural History Museum Institute, Chiba, 6:77-86.
Kauhala K, Holmala K, Lammers W, Schregel J, 2006. Home ranges and densities of medium-sized carnivores in south-east Finland, with special reference to rabies spread. Acta Theriologica, 51(1):1-13. http://www.zbs.bialowieza.pl/acta/contents/index.php?art=2006-051-1-0001
Kauhala K, Holmala K, Schregel J, 2007. Seasonal activity patterns and movements of the raccoon dog, a vector of diseases and parasites, in southern Finland. Mammalian Biology, 72(6):342-353. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7GX2-4MMP2K9-5&_user=10&_coverDate=11%2F21%2F2007&_rdoc=4&_fmt=summary&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%2320474%232007%23999279993%23671834%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=20474&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=8&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=ac3bc5f0728e04f3cd36ecc6ce0072ef
Kauhala K, Kowalczyk R, 2011. Invasion of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides in Europe: history of colonization, features behind its success, and threats to native fauna. Current Zoology, 57(5):584-598. http://www.actazool.org/temp/%7B95BCCAFB-6419-4560-A598-4FBCE853AB5C%7D.pdf
Kauhala K, Saeki M, 2004. Nyctereutes procyonoides. In: Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan [ed. by Sillero-Zubiri, C. \Hoffmann, M. \Macdonald, D. W.]. Cambridge, UK: IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group, 136-142.
Kauhala K, Saeki M, 2004. Raccoon dogs. Finnish and Japanese raccoon dogs – on the road to speciation? In: Biology and conservation of wild canids [ed. by Macdonald DW, Sillero-Zubiri C]. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 217-226.
Kitao N, Fukui D, Hashimoto M, Osborne P, 2009. Overwintering strategy of wild free-ranging and enclosure-housed Japanese raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides albus). International Journal of Biometeorology, 53:159-165.
Kowalczyk R, Jedrzejewska B, Zalewski A, Jedrzejewski W, 2008. Facilitative interactions between the Eurasian badger (Meles meles), the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), and the invasive raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Bia
Kowalczyk R, Zalewski A, 2011. Adaptation to cold and predation - shelter use by invasive raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides in Bialowieza Primeval Forest (Poland). European Journal of Wildlife Research, 57(1):133-142. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g407q87077vur433/fulltext.html
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Lavrov N P, 1971. Results of raccoon dog introductions in different parts of the Soviet Union. (Itogi introdukcii enotovidnoj sobaki (Nyctereutes procyonoides Gray) v otdel'nye oblasti SSSR.). Trudy kafedry biologii MGZPI. 101-160.
Mitchell-Jones A J, Amori G, Bogdanowicz W, Kryštufek B, Reijnders P J H, Spitzenberger F, Stubbe M, Thissen J B M, Vohralík V, Zima J, 1999. The Atlas of European Mammals. London, UK: Poyser Natural History. 484 pp.
Nowak E, Pielowski Z, 1964. The distribution of the raccoon dog in Poland with regard to it's introduction and spread in Europe. (Die Verbreitung des Mardeshundes in Polen im Zusammenhang mit seiner Einburgerung und Ausbreitung in Europa). Acta Theriologica. 81-110.
Schwarz S, Sutor A, Litzbarski H, 2002. Confirmation of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in the european bird sanctuary Havelländisches Luch. (Nachweise des Marderhundes (Nyctereutes procyonoides) im Europäischen Vogelschutzgebiet (SPA) Havelländisches Luch). Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege in Brandenburg. 198-199.
Sidorovich V A, Polozov A G, Lauzhel G O, Krasko D A, 2000. Dietary overlap among generalist carnivores in relation to the impact of the introduced raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides on native predators in northern Belarus. Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 271-285.
Vo Hung, Tuyet Hoa Niekdam, Nguyen Tien, Pham Tan Ha, Nguyen Minh Anh, 2006. The Southern Krong Ana Watershed, Dak Lak Province, Vietnam: A Baseline Survey. [ed. by Schindele W]. Buon Ma Thuat, Vietnam: MRC-GTZ Cooperation Programme, Agriculture, Irrigation and Forestry Programme, Watershed Management Project (WSMP). xi + 151 pp.
OrganizationsTop of page
Finland: Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute (FGFRI), Viikinkaari 4, P.O.Box 2, 00790 HELSINKI, http://www.rktl.fi/english/
ContributorsTop of page
03/07/09 Original text by:
Kaarina Kauhala, Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Turku Game and Fisheries Research, Itäinen Pitkäkatu 3 A, FI-20520 Turku, Finland
Distribution MapsTop of page
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