Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
(chinook salmon)

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Datasheet

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
  • Preferred Common Name
  • chinook salmon
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) are the largest of the Pacific salmon group and are found throughout the northern Pacific area from latitudes of 35°N to approximately 70°N. Native areas...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
King salmons (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) swimming upstream. These images (originally from video) were taken in a by-pass channel, which was specifically constructed for salmon enabling them to swim by sluice systems.
TitleSalmon using a by-pass channel
CaptionKing salmons (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) swimming upstream. These images (originally from video) were taken in a by-pass channel, which was specifically constructed for salmon enabling them to swim by sluice systems.
CopyrightAdriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
King salmons (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) swimming upstream. These images (originally from video) were taken in a by-pass channel, which was specifically constructed for salmon enabling them to swim by sluice systems.
Salmon using a by-pass channelKing salmons (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) swimming upstream. These images (originally from video) were taken in a by-pass channel, which was specifically constructed for salmon enabling them to swim by sluice systems.Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
King salmons (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) swimming upstream. These images (originally from video) were taken in a by-pass channel, which was specifically constructed for salmon enabling them to swim by sluice systems.
TitleSalmon using a by-pass channel
CaptionKing salmons (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) swimming upstream. These images (originally from video) were taken in a by-pass channel, which was specifically constructed for salmon enabling them to swim by sluice systems.
CopyrightAdriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS
King salmons (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) swimming upstream. These images (originally from video) were taken in a by-pass channel, which was specifically constructed for salmon enabling them to swim by sluice systems.
Salmon using a by-pass channelKing salmons (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) swimming upstream. These images (originally from video) were taken in a by-pass channel, which was specifically constructed for salmon enabling them to swim by sluice systems.Adriaan Gittenberger/GiMaRIS

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum, 1792)

Preferred Common Name

  • chinook salmon

Other Scientific Names

  • Oncorhynchus chouicha Bean, 1894
  • Oncorhynchus cooperi Suckley, 1862
  • Oncorhynchus tschawytscha (Walbaum, 1792)
  • Oncorhynchus tshawytsha (Walbaum, 1792)
  • Salmo cooperi Suckley, 1862
  • Salmo orientalis Pallas, 1814
  • Salmo quinnat Richardson, 1836
  • Salmo richardi Suckley, 1861
  • Salmo tschawytscha Bloch and Schneider, 1801
  • Salmo tshawytscha Walbaum, 1792
  • Salmo warreni Suckley, 1862

International Common Names

  • English: blackmouth; blackmouth salmon; chinook; king; king salmon; kippered salmon; locks; lox; Pacific salmon; pickled salmon; quinnat; quinnat salmon; salmon; salmon, chinook; smilie; spring; spring salmon; tyee; tyee salmon
  • Spanish: salmon chinook; salmon real; salmón real
  • French: saumon chinook; saumon royal
  • Russian: chavycha

Local Common Names

  • Canada/British Columbia: k'with'thet; k'wolexw; saæup; sa-cin; schaanexw; shamet skelex; shmexwalsh; sináech; sk'wel'eng's schaanexw; slhop' schaanexw; spak'ws schaanexw; st'thokwi; su-ha; taagun; taagun gaaw gaada; taagun gaaw sg'iida; taagwun; t'aown; yee
  • Denmark: kongelaks
  • Finland: kuningaslohi
  • Germany: konigslachs; Königslachs; Quinnat
  • Italy: salmone reale
  • Japan: masunosuke
  • Netherlands: chinook zalm
  • Norway: chinook
  • Poland: czawycza
  • Portugal: salmao-real; salmão-real
  • Sweden: kungslax
  • USA/Alaska: iqallugpak; tarjaxfaq
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): vrsta lososa

Summary of Invasiveness

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Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) are the largest of the Pacific salmon group and are found throughout the northern Pacific area from latitudes of 35°N to approximately 70°N. Native areas include Alaska, Canada, northwestern USA, Russia, and Japan. These salmon have been introduced throughout the world but have established breeding populations only a few select places. Introduced populations have established themselves in New Zealand, Chile, Argentina, and the Great Lakes along the USA-Canada border. All other attempts at introduction have failed. 

This species is not considered invasive. It has been deliberately introduced to provide sport fisheries, to provide a commercial species, and, in the Great Lakes, as a predator to control a population explosion of alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) that resulted from decimation of the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). The extent to which the spread of O. tshawytscha throughout southern South America has damaged galaxiid fish populations is not known.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Salmoniformes
  •                         Family: Salmonidae
  •                             Genus: Oncorhynchus
  •                                 Species: Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

Description

Top of page Morphology

O. tshawytscha are the largest of the Pacific coastal salmon, reaching as much as 125 lbs (56.7 kg). Bodies of the adults are fusiform and laterally compressed, especially in males near spawning. The head is approximately 20% of the total length, although it is longer in mature males. At breeding time, the head of the male is transformed into a ‘kype’, with a deformed, upturned jaw and a hooked nose. The mouth is unable to close after the kype has developed. Both males and females have well-developed, moderately large, sharp teeth in both jaws. Gill rakers are rough and widely spaced with 10-16 rakers on the lower limb and 6-10 on the upper limb.

O. tshawytscha have a long, narrow adipose fin and a centrally located dorsal fin that is soft rayed, has square edges, and contains 10-14 principal rays. The caudal fin is broad, emarginate to shallowly forked. Pectoral fins are low, somewhat pointed and contain 14-17 rays. Anal fins contain 14-19 rays, a characteristic that distinguishes members of the genus Oncorhynchus from other trout.

At spawning, males and females are easily distinguished by their head and body shape. Females have a small, somewhat pointed head and are more rounded laterally. Males have a prolonged, hooked snout, gaping mouth, enlarged teeth and a body which is strongly compressed laterally.

Coloration

Adult O. tshawytscha are identified by fishermen by the black gum tissue next to the lower teeth. Adults captured in the ocean are dark greenish or bluish on top and silver underneath. As they enter freshwater, they take on a golden colour and slowly become darker as they approach spawning time.

Juvenile O. tshawytscha are brownish in colour with 6-12 parr marks, long transverse dark marks on the sides of the fish. Parr marks in O. tshawytscha are longer and wider than those of other salmon juveniles. The first ray of the anal fin is elongate but not as long as that in coho salmon juveniles. As the fish undergo parr-smolt transformation, the parr-marks become obscured by a layer of purines, causing the fish to appear uniformly silver. The caudal fin at this time develops a black band.

Distribution

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Oncorhynchus tshawytscha inhabit streams and rivers along the eastern Pacific Ocean from Point Hope, Alaska to the Ventura River, California, USA, with occasional strays as far south as San Diego, California. In the western Pacific Ocean, they are found in the Bering Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk south to Honshu, Japan, and the Sea of Japan.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Arctic SeaPresentNativeHealey , 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, Eastern CentralPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, NortheastPresentNative Not invasive Scott and Crossman , 1998; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, NorthwestPresentNative Not invasive Scott and Crossman , 1998; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, SoutheastPresentIntroduced Not invasive Heen and et al. , 1993
Pacific, SouthwestPresentIntroduced Not invasive Waugh , 1980

Asia

JapanPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2004
-HokkaidoPresentNative Not invasive Dore , 1990

North America

CanadaPresentNativeHealey , 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-British ColumbiaPresentNativeDore , 1990; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-Yukon TerritoryPresentNative Not invasive Dore , 1990
MexicoPresentIntroduced Not invasive De La Cruz-Agüero J, 1999
USAPresentNative Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2004
-AlaskaPresentNative Not invasive Dore , 1990; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-CaliforniaPresentNative Not invasive Dore , 1990
-IdahoPresentNative Not invasive Dore , 1990
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced Not invasive Eschenrode et al., 1995
-MichiganPresentIntroduced Not invasive Scott and Crossman , 1998
-MinnesotaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Close and et al. , 1984
-New YorkPresentIntroduced Not invasive Johnson et al., 2010
-OregonPresentNative Not invasive Healey , 1991
-WashingtonPresentNative Not invasive Healey , 1991
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced Not invasive Close and et al. , 1984

Central America and Caribbean

NicaraguaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2004

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2004
ChilePresentIntroduced Not invasive Healey , 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Europe

FrancePresentIntroduced Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2004
IrelandPresentIntroduced Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2004
ItalyPresentIntroduced Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2004
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2004
Russian FederationPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
-Eastern SiberiaPresentNative Not invasive Scott and Crossman , 1998
UKPresentIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2004
-TasmaniaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Waugh , 1980
New ZealandPresentIntroduced Not invasive Waugh , 1980; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Argentina USA 1900-1929 UnknownFishBase (2004)
Australia New Zealand 1877 UnknownFishBase (2004)
Australia USA 1877 UnknownFishBase (2004)
Brazil California 1958 International organisationJoyner (1980)
Chile USA 1900 UnknownFishBase (2004)
Denmark Germany 1897 UnknownFishBase (2004)
Finland USA 1930 UnknownFishBase (2004)
France USA 1877 UnknownFishBase (2004)
Germany 1890-1899 UnknownFishBase (2004)
Hawaii California 1876 UnknownFishBase (2004)
Japan USA 1881 UnknownFishBase (2004)
Madagascar 1955 UnknownFishBase (2004)
Netherlands USA 1877 UnknownFishBase (2004)
New Zealand USA 1875-1910 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)IndividualMcDowall (1994); Waugh (1980)
UK USA Aquaculture (pathway cause)UnknownFishBase (2004)

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Estuaries Principal habitat Natural
Freshwater
Lakes Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Reservoirs Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural
Mud flats Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Salt marshes Principal habitat Natural
Marine
Pelagic zone (offshore) Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial-managed
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Preferred Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)
E - Polar climate Preferred Polar climate (Average temp. of warmest month < 10°C)

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) >0.0125 Harmful Egg
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0 Optimum Egg
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0-0.005 Optimum 0.005-0.0125 tolerated
Ammonium [ionised] (mg/l) 0 (not toxic) Optimum Tolerance depends on temperature and pH
Cadmium (mg/l) <0.004 Optimum Egg
Cadmium (mg/l) >0.003 Harmful Egg
Chlorine (mg/l) 0 Optimum Egg
Chlorine (mg/l) 0.05 Harmful Egg
Copper (mg/l) 0 Optimum Egg
Copper (mg/l) 0.006 Harmful Egg
Cyanide (mg/l) >0.02 Harmful Egg
Cyanide (mg/l) 0 Optimum Egg
Depth (m b.s.l.) 20-50 Optimum 0.03-110 tolerated
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <3.0 Harmful Egg
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 6 saturated Optimum 3-6 tolerated
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) Optimum Tolerance depends on temperature, pH and ammonia
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) 0 Optimum Egg
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) 0.002 Harmful Egg
Lead (mg/l) 0 Optimum Egg
Lead (mg/l) 0.03 Harmful Egg
Mercury (mg/l) <0.00005 Optimum Egg
Mercury (mg/l) >0.002 Harmful Egg
Phenols (mg/l) >5.0 Harmful Egg
Phenols (mg/l) 0 Optimum Egg
Polychlorinated biphenyls (mg/l) >0.002 Harmful Egg
Polychlorinated biphenyls (mg/l) 0 Optimum Egg
Salinity (part per thousand) 30 Optimum Egg
Salinity (part per thousand) 35 Harmful Egg
Salinity (part per thousand) 0-30 Optimum Tolerance depends on state of development, 30-37 tolerated
Total Nitrogen (mg/l) >110 Harmful Egg nitrogen supersaturation
Total Nitrogen (mg/l) 0 Optimum Egg nitrogen supersaturation
Turbidity (JTU turbidity) Optimum At highest levels water is opaque. 0-4000 mg/L preferred; 4000-11,000 mg/L tolerated
Water pH (pH) >9.0 Harmful Egg
Water pH (pH) 6.5 9 Optimum Egg
Water pH (pH) 6.5-8.0 Optimum 6.0-8.5 tolerated
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <6 >14 Harmful Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 6 14 Optimum Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 6-14 Optimum Cannot withstand freezing, <6 and 14-22 tolerated
Zinc (mg/l) 0 Optimum Egg
Zinc (mg/l) 0.03 Harmful Egg

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acipenser transmontanus Predator Larval Merrell , 1961
Ardea herodias Predator Fry/Larval Myers , 1980
Brachyramphus marmoratus Predator Larval Mace , 1983
Cepphus columba Predator Larval Bayer , 1986
Cerorhinca monocerata Predator Larval Simenstad and et al. , 1979
Cottus Predator Fry Patten , 1971
Enophrys bison Predator Larval Macdonald and et al. , 1988
Eumetopias jubatus Predator Adult/Broodstock/Larval Mate , 1981
Gavia pacifica Predator Larval Mace , 1983
Histrionicus histrionicus Predator Larval Mace , 1983
Homo sapiens Predator Adult/Broodstock/Larval Bayer , 1989
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens Predator Larval Mitchell , 1975
Lampetra ayresii Predator Adult/Larval Roos and et al. , 1973
Lampetra tridentata Predator Adult/Larval Roos and et al. , 1973
Larus delawarensis Predator Larval Bayer , 1989
Larus glaucescens Predator Larval Mace , 1983
Larus heermanni Predator Larval Bayer , 1989
Larus occidentalis Predator Larval Bayer , 1986
Larus philadelphia Predator Larval Mace , 1983
Lutra canadensis Predator Adult/Broodstock/Larval Alexander , 1979
Megaceryle alcyon Predator Fry/Larval Cottam and Uhler , 1936
Melanitta fusca Predator Larval Mace , 1983
Melanitta nigra Predator Larval Mace , 1983
Melanitta perspicillata Predator Larval Mace , 1983
Mergus merganser Predator Larval Wood , 1987
Merluccius productus Predator Larval Bayer , 1986
Micropterus dolomieu Predator Larval Vigg and et al. , 1988
Mirounga angustirostris Predator Larval Morejohn and et al. , 1978
Morone saxatilis Predator Larval Stevens , 1966
Oncorhynchus kisutch Predator Fry/Larval Fresh and et al. , 1981
Oncorhynchus mykiss Predator Egg/Fry/Larval Fresh and et al. , 1981
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Predator Fry/Larval McCabe and et al. , 1983
Ophiodon elongatus Predator Larval Olla and Davis , 1989
Pelecanus occidentalis Predator Larval Bayer , 1986
Phalacrocorax auritus Predator Larval Bayer , 1989
Phalacrocorax pelagicus Predator Larval Bayer , 1986
Phalacrocorax penicillatus Predator Larval Bayer , 1986
Phoca vitulina Predator Larval Graybill , 1981
Phocoena phocoena Predator Adult/Broodstock/Larval Smith and Gaskin , 1974
Ptychocheilus oregonensis Predator Larval Thompson , 1959
Sander vitreus Predator Larval Vigg and et al. , 1988
Sebastes Predator Larval Bayer , 1986
Sebastes melanops Predator Larval Bayer , 1986
Sterna caspia Predator Larval Bayer , 1986
Synthliboramphus antiquus Predator Larval Mace , 1983
Theragra chalcogramma Predator Larval Hart , 1973
Uria aalge Predator Larval Bayer , 1989
Zalophus californianus Predator Adult/Broodstock/Larval Morejohn and et al. , 1978

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal productionUsed for supplementation in rivers in USA and Canada Yes Yes Heen and et al. , 1993; Leitritz and Lewis , 1976; Thorpe , 1989
AquacultureReared for production in USA, Canada, New Zeland and Chile Yes Yes Heen and et al. , 1993; Leitritz and Lewis , 1976; Thorpe , 1989
Biological controlIntroduced to control alewife populations in the Great Lakes, US Yes Carl , 1982; Close and et al. , 1984
FisheriesUsed for supplementation in rivers in USA, Canada, New Zealand and Chile Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftStocked in rivers yearly as juveniles Yes Yes Leitritz and Lewis , 1976; Piper and et al. , 1982
Aquaculture stockStocked in rivers yearly as juveniles Yes Yes Leitritz and Lewis , 1976; Piper and et al. , 1982
Containers and packaging - woodStocked in rivers yearly as juveniles Yes Leitritz and Lewis , 1976; Piper and et al. , 1982

Environmental Impact

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O. tshawytscha have been widely imported to countries outside their natural range but the introductions have failed to produce viable breeding populations, with a few exceptions. An effort to introduce O. tshawytscha to New Zealand was initiated in 1875 and lasted until 1910. By 1907, a few adults were being caught, although they may have been returning as early as 1898 (Waugh, 1980). A sustainable run of O. tshawytscha, known as quinnat salmon, has developed in the South Island of New Zealand (McDowell, 1994).

In 1958, William Ellis Ripley, a fisheries advisor to the United Nations Development Programme, arranged for 400,000 eggs from Nimbus Hatchery on the American River, California, to be planted in the Rio Grande de Sul in Brazil (Joyner, 1980). Four years later, fish unknown to the residents were seen trying to leap the unnavigable falls at Salto on the Rio Uruguay. The fish were seen for 2 to 3 weeks, then were never seen again. A local fish biologist tentatively identified them as O. tshawytscha.

Sustainable runs of O. tshawytscha have been mentioned from time to time that have resulted from escapees from pen culture in Chile. Returns have been reported from sea-ranching operations there (Lindbergh, 1982). In recent years, a number of papers have reported the spread of feral O. tshawytscha throughout <_st13a_country-region _w3a_st="on">Chile and through the Straits of Magellan to <_st13a_place _w3a_st="on"><_st13a_country-region _w3a_st="on">Argentina (Becker et al., 2007; Correa and Gross, 2007; Soto et al., 2007). There is insufficient information to determine whether these fish will compete with native galaxiid fishes. The authors are confident, however, that these runs will cause substantial disruption of ecosystems.

Various efforts have been made to introduce O. tshawytscha into the Great Lakes, North America. Some of the latest introductions have resulted in naturally spawning populations (Carl, 1982). Naturally produced and cultured O. tshawytscha are valuable components of the sport fishery in the Great Lakes at present [2004].

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Eggs cured for bait
  • Meat and bonemeal

General

  • Laboratory use
  • Ritual uses
  • Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)

Human food and beverage

  • Canned meat
  • Cured meat
  • Eggs (roe)
  • Fish meal
  • Fish oil
  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat
  • Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)
  • Whole

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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The spread of O. tshawytscha populations throughout the southern part of South America may be threatening indigenous species, especially the threatened galaxiid fishes. Immediate research needs include the following:

  • A survey of the extent to which O. tshawytscha have utilized southern river systems.
  • Interaction of juvenile salmon with the native fishes.
  • Competition of juvenile salmon with native fishes for food and territory.
  • Utilization of the salmon for sport or food sources.
  • Determination of the extent to which O. tshawytscha present a problem for native fishes.

References

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Alexander GR, 1979. Predators of fish in coldwater streams. In: Stroud RH, Clepper H, eds. Predator-prey Systems in Fisheries Management. Washington DC: Sport Fishing Institute, 153-170.

Bayer RD, 1986. Seabirds near an Oregon estuarine salmon hatchery in 1982 and during the 1983 El Nino. Fisheries Bulletin, 84:279-286.

Bayer RD, 1989. The Cormorant/Fisherman Conflict, Tillamook County, Oregon. Studies in Oregon Ornithology No. 6. Newport: Oregon: Gahmken Press, 99 pp.

Beacham TD; Murray CB; Withler RE, 1989. Age, morphology, and biochemical genetic variation of Yukon River chinook salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 118:46-63.

Bean TH, 1894. Life history of the salmon. Bulletin of the US Fish Commission, 12:21-38.

Becker CD, 1973. Food and growth parameters of juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in central Columbia River. Fishery Bulletin, 71:387-400.

Becker LA; Pascual MA; Basso NG, 2007. Colonization of the Southern Patagonia ocean by exotic Chinook salmon. Conservation Biology, 21(5):1347-1352. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/cbi

Birtwell IK, 1978. Studies on the relationship between juvenile chinook salmon and water quality in the industrialized estuary of the Somass River. In: Shepherd BG, Ginetz RMJ, eds. Proceedings of the 1977 Northeast Pacific Chinook and Coho Salmon Workshop. Fisheries and Marine Service, Canada, Technical Report 759, 58-78.

Boerson G; Westers H, 1986. Waste solids control in hatchery raceways. Progressive Fish-Culturist, 48:151-154.

Burrows RE; Chenoweth HH, 1970. The rectangular circulating rearing pond. Progressive Fish-Culturist, 32:67-80.

Carl LM, 1982. Natural reproduction of coho salmon and chinook salmon in some Michigan streams. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 2:375-380.

Close TL; Colvin SE; Hassinger RL, 1984. Chinook salmon in the Minnesota sport fishery of Lake Superior. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Fisheries Section Investigational Report No. 380, 31 pp.

Combs BD; Burrows RE, 1957. Threshold temperatures for the normal development of chinook salmon eggs. Progressive Fish-Culturist, 19:3-6.

Correa C; Gross MR, 2007. Chinook salmon invade southern South America. Biological Invasions. http://www.biodiversity.cl/subidos/salmones

Cottam C; Uhler FM, 1936. The role of fish-eating birds. Progressive Fish-Culturist No. 14, Memorandum I-131, 1-14 pp.

Crawford DL; Law DK; McKee TB; Westgate JW, 1974. Nutritional characteristics of Oregon pellet rations containing meals of different fish species. Progressive Fish-Culturist, 36:3-7.

De La Cruz-Agüero J, 1999. A first mexican record of the chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Calif. Fish Game, 85(2):77-78.

Dore I, 1990. Salmon. The Illustrated Handbook for Commercial Users. New York, USA: Van Nostrand Reinholdt, 287 pp.

Eschenrode RL; Holey ME; Gorenflo TK; Clark RD, 1995. Fish community objectives for Lake Michigan. Great Lakes Fisheries Commission Special Publication, 95(3):56 pp.

Ewing RD, 1994. Willamette oxygen supplementation studies. Ammonia analysis and adult returns, Annual Report. Portland, Oregon, USA: Bonneville Power Administration, 206 pp.

Ewing RD; Ewing GS, 2002. Bimodal length distributions of cultured chinook salmon and the relationship of length modes to adult survival. Aquaculture, 209(1/4):139-155.

Ewing RD; Lewis MA; Sheahan JE; Ewing SK, 1998. Evaluation of inventory procedures for hatchery fish. III. Nonrandom distributions of chinook salmon in raceways. Progressive Fish-Culturist, 60:159-166.

FAO, 2004. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy. Online at www.fao.org.

FishBase, 2004. Entry for Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Main ref. Page LM, Burr BM, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 52. Online at www.fishbase.org. Accessed 3 November 2004.

Fowler LG, 1980. Starting diets for chinook salmon fry. Progressive Fish-Culturist, 42(3):165-166.

Fowler LG; McCormick JH Jr; Thomas AE, 1966. Studies of caloric and vitamin levels of salmon diets. Technical Papers of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Number 6, 12 pp.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Alaska Department of Fish and Gamehttp://www.adfg.state.ak.us/geninfo/enhance/enhance.php
California Department of Fish and Gamehttp://www.dfg.ca.gov/about/wildlife.html
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nationshttp://www.fao.org/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Idaho Department of Fish and Gamehttp://www.fishandgame.idaho.gov/apps/stocking
Illinois Department of Natural Resourceshttp://www.dnr.state.il.us/fish
J D Hodgeshttp://www.jdhodges.com
Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlifehttp://www.dfw.state.or.us/fish/nfcp
Seamarkets - University of Alaskahttp://seamarkets.alaska.edu
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlifehttp://wdfw.wa.gov
Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources: Invasive Specieshttp://dnr.wi.gov/invasives/
Wisconsin Sea Granthttp://www.seagrant.wisc.edu

Contributors

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04/12/2007 Updated by:

Richard Ewing, Biotech Research & Consulting, Inc., 2340 SE Ryan Street, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA

Main Author
Richard Ewing
Biotech Research & Consulting, Inc., 2340 SE Ryan Street, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA

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