Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Oncorhynchus mykiss
(rainbow trout)

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Datasheet

Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Threatened Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Oncorhynchus mykiss
  • Preferred Common Name
  • rainbow trout
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Oncorhynchus mykiss is a competitive trout species which can displace native trout species when introduced into new environments; the fisheries management literature is replete with papers that document this ph...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Rainbow trout
TitleRainbow trout
CaptionRainbow trout
CopyrightKen Hammond/USDA
Rainbow trout
Rainbow troutRainbow troutKen Hammond/USDA
Rainbow trout
TitleRainbow trout
CaptionRainbow trout
CopyrightStephen Ausmus/USDA
Rainbow trout
Rainbow troutRainbow troutStephen Ausmus/USDA
Rainbow trout research: Molecular biologist Caird Rexroad (left) is assisted by fish culturist James Everson while taking tissue samples to be used in developing a genetic map of rainbow trout.
TitleResearch
CaptionRainbow trout research: Molecular biologist Caird Rexroad (left) is assisted by fish culturist James Everson while taking tissue samples to be used in developing a genetic map of rainbow trout.
CopyrightStephen Ausmus/USDA
Rainbow trout research: Molecular biologist Caird Rexroad (left) is assisted by fish culturist James Everson while taking tissue samples to be used in developing a genetic map of rainbow trout.
ResearchRainbow trout research: Molecular biologist Caird Rexroad (left) is assisted by fish culturist James Everson while taking tissue samples to be used in developing a genetic map of rainbow trout. Stephen Ausmus/USDA

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792)

Preferred Common Name

  • rainbow trout

Other Scientific Names

  • Fario gairdneri (Richardson, 1836)
  • Onchorrhychus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792)
  • Onchorynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792)
  • Oncorhynchus kamloops Jordan, 1892
  • Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni Evermann, 1908
  • Oncorhynchus myskis (Walbaum, 1792)
  • Parasalmo mykiss Walbaum, 1792
  • Parasalmo penshinensis (Pallas, 1814)
  • Salmo gairdneri Richardson, 1836
  • Salmo gairdneri irideus Gibbons, 1855
  • Salmo gairdneri shasta Jordan, 1894
  • Salmo gairdnerii Richardson, 1836
  • Salmo gairdnerii gairdnerii Richardson, 1836
  • Salmo gairdnerii irideus Gibbons, 1855
  • Salmo gilberti Jordan, 1894
  • Salmo iridea Gibbons, 1855
  • Salmo irideus Gibbons, 1855
  • Salmo irideus argentatus Bajkov, 1927
  • Salmo kamloops (Jordan, 1892)
  • Salmo kamloops whitehousei Dymond, 1931
  • Salmo masoni Suckley, 1860
  • Salmo mykiss Walbaum, 1792
  • Salmo nelsoni Evermann, 1908
  • Salmo penshinensis Pallas, 1814
  • Salmo purpuratus Pallas, 1814
  • Salmo rivularis Ayres, 1855
  • Salmo rivularis kamloops (Jordan, 1892)
  • Salmo stellatus (Girard, 1856)
  • Salmo truncatus Suckley, 1859

International Common Names

  • English: ; baiser; baja California rainbow trout; brown trout; coast angel trout; coast rainbow trout; coast range trout; hardhead; kamchatka salmon; kamchatka steelhead; kamchatka trout; kamloops; kamloops trout; lord-fish; redband; salmon trout; silver trout; steelhead; steelhead trout; summer salmon; trout; trout, rainbow
  • Spanish: salmones del Pacífico; trucha; trucha arco iris; trucha arcoiris
  • French: truite arc en ciel; truite arc-en-ciel; truite-arc-en-ciel
  • Russian: forel raduzhnaya; kamchatskaya semga; mikizha

Local Common Names

  • Albania: trofta ylberi; trofte ylberi
  • Bulgaria: dagova pastarva
  • Canada: coast rainbow trout; silver trout
  • Canada/British Columbia: k'wsech; meliit; qiwah; sxew'k'em; taayingaa; taaynga; taiyung; t'ak'al
  • Canada/Newfoundland and Labrador: baiser; lord-fish
  • Czech Republic: pstruh duhový
  • Denmark: kamchatka-laks; regnbueørred; stålhovedørred
  • Finland: kirjolohi
  • Former USSR: kamchatka salmon
  • Germany: forelle; lachsforelle; regenbogenforelle; stahlkopfforelle
  • Greece: Amerikaniki pestrofa; pestropha
  • Iceland: regnbogasilungur; urriöi
  • Iran: ghezelalla-e-rangin kaman; mahi qezel ala; qezel ala; qezel Ala Ranginkaman
  • Italy: trota; trota iridea
  • Japan: masu; nijimasu
  • Mexico: Baja California rainbow trout; trucha arcoiris
  • Nepal: brown trout
  • Netherlands: regenboogforel
  • Norway: aure; orret; regnbueørret
  • Poland: pstrag teczowy
  • Portugal: truta; truta-arco-iris; truta-arco-íris
  • Romania: pastrav curcubeu
  • Russian Federation: kamchatka steelhead; kamchatka trout; mikizha
  • Slovakia: pstruh dúhový
  • Slovenia: sarenka
  • Spain: trucha
  • Sweden: regnbåge; regnbågslax
  • Turkey: alabalik; alabalik türü
  • UK: coast angel trout; summer salmon
  • Ukraine: foral rajduzna; forel rajduzhna
  • USA: coast range trout; hardhead; kamloops; redband; salmon trout
  • USA/Alaska: mayu'artaq
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): pastrva

Summary of Invasiveness

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Oncorhynchus mykiss is a competitive trout species which can displace native trout species when introduced into new environments; the fisheries management literature is replete with papers that document this phenomenon. The fact that O. mykiss has been widely distributed throughout the temperate regions of the world for 125 years virtually guarantees that they have had a negative impact on biodiversity in areas outside their original distribution. Even within their native range, the indiscriminate planting of trout derived from coastal stocks into areas containing inland stocks has had a profound effect on population abundance of native strains of redband trout, cutthroat trout, bull trout and other native salmonids (Behnke, 2002). Escapees from fish farms are an additional concern, but the most harm to biodiversity has resulted from fisheries management agencies planting O. mykiss over the past century.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Salmoniformes
  •                         Family: Salmonidae
  •                             Genus: Oncorhynchus
  •                                 Species: Oncorhynchus mykiss

Description

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Oncorhynchus mykiss was originally named Salmo mykiss by Walbalm in 1792 (Behnke, 1992), and was later named Salmo gairdneri by Richardson from fish taken from the Columbia River at Fort Vancouver in 1836 (McPhail and Lindsey, 1970). O. mykiss appear to have survived glaciation in two refuges, the Pacific coast south of ice-age glaciers and in the Bering area north of the Alaskan peninsula, and from there became reestablished in western North America and the western Pacific region when glaciers receded. For many years the O. mykiss native to North America (Salmo gairdneri) was thought to be a different species from the trout native to Kamchatka (Salmo mykiss), but they are now considered to be the same species. Prior to 1989, O. mykiss were classified as part of the trout genus, having the scientific name Salmo gairdneri, but they were reclassified as Oncorhynchus mykiss in 1989, and are thus more closely related to Pacific salmon than to other trout species (Smith and Stearley, 1989).

O. mykiss exhibit an astonishing range of external colour, patterns of spots, and size at maturity. Prior to the use of electrophoretic and molecular techniques, many taxonomic distinctions among populations of O. mykiss were devised, using scale counts, spot characteristics, pyloric caeca counts and other morphological measurements. These divisions have largely collapsed into three categories, each with many subspecies, listed from ancient to modern: southern trout (Gila and Apache trout, Mexican golden trout and others); redband trout from inland river drainages, e.g., Sacramento, Columbia, Fraser, etc., and former drainages (Great Basin); and coastal trout (generally west of coastal mountains, e.g., Cascade Mountains) from approximately Monterey, California, to the Kamchatka Penisula. Trout from eastern Russia are genetically similar to those of Alaska, suggesting common post-glacial origins. Anadromous coastal steelhead trout can reach 19 kg at maturity, whereas mature inland redband trout of 20 cm total length are not uncommon (Behnke, 2002). Anadromous coastal O. mykiss are silvery in colour, like Pacific salmon, whereas inland redband trout are usually yellow-brown, darker on dorsal than on the ventral surface, with a reddish band along the lateral line, slightly forked tail, adipose fin and a single, tapered dorsal fin. Farmed trout tend to be silvery rather than brownish with a highly variable pattern of spots, emphasizing their coastal trout origin.

Distribution

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O. mykiss is native to Armenia (Gabrielyan, 2001), Canada (Page and Burr, 1991), Mexico (De La Cruz-Agüero, 1999), Russia (Reshetnikov et al., 1997) and the USA (Page and Burr, 1991). It has been introduced throughout the world. Further information on introductions into US states is provided by Fuller (2011); some states have both native and introduced populations and those cases are indicated as 'native' in the Distribution Table.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Arctic SeaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
Atlantic, Eastern CentralPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
Atlantic, NortheastPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Atlantic, NorthwestPresentNativeBehnke, 2002; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Atlantic, SoutheastPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
Atlantic, SouthwestPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
Atlantic, Western CentralPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
Indian Ocean, EasternPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004
Indian Ocean, WesternPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004
Mediterranean and Black SeaPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
Pacific, Eastern CentralPresentNativeBehnke, 2002; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, NortheastPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, NorthwestPresentNativeBehnke, 2002; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, SouthwestPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, Western CentralPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ArmeniaPresentNativeGabrielyan, 2001; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ChinaPresentIntroducedXie et al., 2001; Froese and Pauly, 2004
IndiaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
IndonesiaNo information availableFroese and Pauly, 2011Not established
IranPresentIntroducedCoad, 1996; Froese and Pauly, 2004
IraqNo information availableFroese and Pauly, 2011Not established
IsraelPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011
JapanPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-HokkaidoPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
JordanPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
KazakhstanPresentIntroducedMitrofanov and Petr, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
KyrgyzstanPresentIntroducedSavvaitova and Petr, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
LebanonPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
NepalPresentIntroducedShrestha, 1994; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PakistanPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedPethiyagoda, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SyriaNo information availableFroese and Pauly, 2011Not established
TaiwanPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ThailandPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
TurkeyPresentIntroducedCoad, 1996; Froese and Pauly, 2004
UzbekistanPresentIntroducedKamilov and Urchinov, 1995; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Africa

EritreaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
KenyaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
LesothoPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MadagascarPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MalawiPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MauritiusPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MoroccoPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
RéunionPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
South AfricaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SudanPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SwazilandPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedEccles, 1992; Froese and Pauly, 2004
TunisiaNo information availableFroese and Pauly, 2011Not established
ZambiaNo information availableFroese and Pauly, 2011Not established
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedBell-Cross and Minshull, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004

North America

CanadaPresentNativePage and Burr, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-AlbertaPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
-British ColumbiaPresentNativeScott and Crossman, 1973; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-ManitobaPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
-New BrunswickPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
-NunavutPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
-OntarioPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
-Prince Edward IslandPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
-QuebecPresentNativeScott and Crossman, 1973; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-SaskatchewanPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
-Yukon TerritoryPresentNativeBehnke, 2002
MexicoPresentNativeDe La Cruz-Agüero J, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
USAPresentNativePage and Burr, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-AlaskaPresentNativeLamb and Edgell, 1986; Froese and Pauly, 2004; Fuller, 2011
-ArizonaPresentNativeBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-CaliforniaPresentNativeBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-ColoradoPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-DelawarePresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-FloridaPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedYamamoto, 1992; Froese and Pauly, 2004; Fuller, 2011
-IdahoPresentNativeBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-IndianaPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-IowaPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-KansasPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-MainePresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-MarylandPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-MichiganPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-MinnesotaPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-MississippiPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-MissouriPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-MontanaPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-NevadaPresentNativeBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-New YorkPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-North DakotaPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-OhioPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-OregonPresentNativeBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-South DakotaPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-TennesseePresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-TexasPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011
-UtahPresentNativeBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-VermontPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-WashingtonPresentNativeBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011
-WyomingPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; Fuller, 2011

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedBussing, 1998; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
HondurasPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PanamaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedFuller, 2011

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
BoliviaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Behnke, 2002; Froese and Pauly, 2004
BrazilPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ChilePresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ColombiaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
EcuadorPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
GuyanaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PeruPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
UruguayPresentIntroducedFAO, 1997; Froese and Pauly, 2004
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
AustriaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011; NOBANIS, 2011
BelgiumPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011
BulgariaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
CroatiaPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; DAISIE, 2011
CyprusPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedLever, 1996; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002
DenmarkPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011; NOBANIS, 2011
EstoniaPresentIntroducedThe University of Tartu, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011; NOBANIS, 2011
FinlandPresentIntroducedKoli, 1990; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011; NOBANIS, 2011
FrancePresentIntroducedKeith et al., 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
GermanyPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011; NOBANIS, 2011
GreecePresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011
HungaryPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
IcelandPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011; NOBANIS, 2011
IrelandPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011
ItalyPresentIntroducedGandolfi et al., 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011
LatviaPresentIntroducedBehnke, 2002; DAISIE, 2011; NOBANIS, 2011
LiechtensteinPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedWinkler et al., 2000; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011; NOBANIS, 2011
LuxembourgPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011
NorwayPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011; NOBANIS, 2011
PolandPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011; NOBANIS, 2011
PortugalPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-AzoresPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2011; Froese and Pauly, 2011
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2011; Froese and Pauly, 2011
RomaniaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011
Russian FederationPresentNativeReshetnikov et al., 1997; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011; NOBANIS, 2011
SlovakiaPresentIntroducedLever, 1996; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SloveniaPresentNativeMarceta, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011
SpainPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SwedenPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011; NOBANIS, 2011
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011
UKPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011
-Channel IslandsPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2011Established
-England and WalesPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2011Established
-ScotlandPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2011Established
UkrainePresentIntroducedPavlov, 1980; Froese and Pauly, 2004; DAISIE, 2011
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedKailola et al., 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
French PolynesiaNo information availableFroese and Pauly, 2011Not established
New ZealandPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedAllen, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Japan USA 1880 Aquaculture (pathway cause) ,
Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)
Government Yes No Behnke (1992)
New Zealand USA 1880 Aquaculture (pathway cause) ,
Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)
Government Yes No Behnke (1992)
Western Europe USA 1880 Aquaculture (pathway cause) ,
Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)
Government Yes Yes Behnke (1992)

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Estuaries Present, no further details
Freshwater
Lakes Present, no further details
Rivers / streams Present, no further details
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details
Marine
Marine Present, no further details

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Preferred Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0.02 0.03 Optimum Adult
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0.02 0.03 Optimum Broodstock
Cadmium (mg/l) <0.0004 Optimum Adult
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) <10 Optimum Adult
Chloride (mg/l) <5 Optimum Adult
Chlorine (mg/l) <0.03 Optimum Adult
Chromium (mg/l) <0.001 Optimum Adult
Copper (mg/l) <0.006 Optimum Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <5 Harmful Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <5 Harmful Broodstock
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >6 Optimum Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >6 Optimum Broodstock
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 10 400 Optimum Adult
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) <0.001 Optimum Adult
Iron (mg/l) <0.15 Optimum Adult
Lead (mg/l) <0.03 Optimum Adult
Manganese (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Adult
Mercury (mg/l) <0.002 Optimum Adult
Nickel (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Adult
Nitrate (mg/l) <3.0 Harmful Adult
Nitrite (mg/l) <0.2 Harmful Adult
Ozone (mg/l) <0.005 Optimum Adult
Polychlorinated biphenyls (mg/l) <0.002 Optimum Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) 32 Optimum Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) >35 Harmful Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Harmful Broodstock
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Optimum Broodstock
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Harmful Egg
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Optimum Egg
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Harmful Larval
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Optimum Larval
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Harmful Fry
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Optimum Fry
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) 12 Optimum Broodstock
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) 17 Harmful Broodstock
Total Nitrogen (mg/l) <110 Optimum Adult % of saturation
Total Phosphorus (mg/l) 0.01 0.03 Optimum Adult
Water pH (pH) 6.5 8.0 Optimum Adult
Water pH (pH) 6.5 8.0 Optimum Broodstock
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 10 Optimum Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 12 Optimum Broodstock
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 12 Optimum Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 12 Optimum Fry
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 15 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 17 Harmful Broodstock
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 17 Harmful Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 18 Harmful Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 18 Harmful Fry
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 25 Harmful Adult
Zinc (mg/l) <0.05 Optimum Adult

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Ardea All Stages

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes
Stocking Yes Fuller, 2011

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive

Environmental Impact

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See Fuller (2011) for information on the impacts of the introduction of this species.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Gila nigra (headwater chub)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened) NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)Arizona; New MexicoPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013c
Gila nigrescens (chihuahua chub)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesNew MexicoCompetition - monopolizing resources; PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010
Gila robusta (roundtail chub)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened) NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)Arizona; California; NevadaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013d
Glyphopsyche sequatchieNo DetailsTennesseePredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013e
Iotichthys phlegethontis (least chub)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)UtahPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013f
Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi (Lahontan cutthroat trout)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; Nevada; Oregon; UtahCompetition (unspecified); Hybridization; PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2000
Oncorhynchus clarkii seleniris (Paiute cutthroat trout)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaCompetition (unspecified); Hybridization; PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Oncorhynchus gilae (Gila trout)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesArizona; New MexicoHybridizationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003
Rana muscosa (mountain yellow-legged frog)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999
Rana pretiosa (Oregon spotted frog)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; Oregon; WashingtonPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998b
Rhinichthys osculus oligoporusNational list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesNevadaEcosystem change / habitat alteration; PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998a
Thymallus arcticus (arctic grayling)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern)MontanaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Hybridization
  • Predation

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Cured meat
  • Eggs (roe)
  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat

References

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Aquaculture Magazine Buyer’s Guide, 2004. Online at www.aquaculturemag.com/. Accessed 1 September 2004.

Barrows FT, Hardy RW, 2002. Nutrition and Feeding. In: Wedemeyer G, ed. Fish Hatchery Management, Second Edition. Bethesda, Maryland, USA: American Fisheries Society, 483-558.

Behnke RJ, 1992. Native Trout of Western North America. Bethesda, Maryland, USA: American Fisheries Society Monograph, 6, 275 pp.

Behnke RJ, 2002. Trout and Salmon of North America. New York, USA: The Free Press, 359 pp.

Bell-Cross G, Minshull JL, 1988. The fishes of Zimbabwe. National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe, Harare. 294 pp.

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Bussing WA, 1998. Peces de las aguas continentales de Costa Rica [Freshwater fishes of Costa Rica]. 2nd Ed. San José Costa Rica: Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica, 468 pp.

Coad BW, 1996. Exotic fish species in the Tigris-Euphrates basin. Zoology in the Middle East 13:71-83.

Colt JE, Tomasso JR, 2002. Hatchery Water Supply and Treatment. In: Wedemeyer G, ed. Fish Hatchery Management. Second Edition. Bethesda, Maryland, USA: American Fisheries Society, 91-186.

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Hardy RW, Barrows FT, 2002. Diet Formulation and Manufacturing. In: Halver JE, Hardy RW, eds. Fish Nutrition. Third Edition. New York, USA: Academic Press Inc., 505-600.

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Mitrofanov VP, Petr T, 1999. Fish and fisheries in the Altai, Northern Tien Shan and Lake Balkhash (Kazakhstan). In: Petr T, ed. Fish and fisheries at higher altitudes: Asia. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. No. 385. FAO, Rome, 149-167.

NOBANIS, 2011. North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species. http://www.nobanis.org/

NRC (National Research Council), 1993. Nutrient Requirements of Fish. Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press, 114 pp.

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Pavlov PI, 1980. Fauna of Ukraine. Fishes. Tunicata (Ascidian, appendicularian), Acrania (Cephalochordata), Vertebrata (Cyclostomata; cartilaginous fishes, bony fishes- sturgeons; clupeids; anchois; salmonides; ombres; brochets; umbres). Kiev, Naukova Dumka Publishing House, 8(1).

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Savvaitova KA, Petr T, 1999. Fish and fisheries in Lake Issyk-kul (Tien Shan), River Chu and Pamir lakes. In: T. Petr (ed.) Fish and fisheries at higher altitudes: Asia. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. No. 385. FAO, Rome, 168-186.

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US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. In: Recovery Plan for the Endangered Speckled Dace of Clover and Independence Valleys (Rhinichthys osculus lethoporus and Rhinichthys osculus oligoporus). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 50 pp..

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998. In: Recovery Plan for the Shasta Crayfish (Pacifastacus fortis). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 167 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/980828.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999. In: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Endangered Status for the Southern California Distinct Vertebrate Population Segment of the Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 9 pp..

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2000. In: Lahontan Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 199 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc2389.pdf

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US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Chihuahua Chub (Gila nigrescens). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 23 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4325.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. In: Paiute Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii seleniris). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 80 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4164.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. In: Species Assessment Form for the Thymallus arcticus (Upper Missouri River DPS). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 54 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2013/r6/E03Q_V01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Gila nigra. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 37 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2013/r2/E0AH_V01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Gila robusta. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 79 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2013/r2/E02Z_V01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Glyphopsyche sequatchie. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 11 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2013/r4/I0RI_I01.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Iotichthys phlegethontis. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 47 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2013/r6/E02U_V01.pdf

Welcomme RL, 1988. International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 294:x + 318 pp.

Winkler HM, Skora K, Repecka R, Ploks M, Neelov A, Urho L, Gushin A, Jespersen H, 2000. Checklist and status of fish species in the Baltic Sea. ICES CM 2000/Mini:11, 15 pp.

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Yamamoto MN, 1992. Occurrence, distribution and abundance of accidentally introduced freshwater aquatic organisms in Hawaii. State of Hawaii, Federal Aid in Sportfish Restoration, Dingell-Johnson JOR. Freshwater Fisheries Research and Surveys, Project No. F-14-R-16.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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Main Author
Ron Hardy
Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station, University of Idaho, 3059F National Fish Hatchery Road, Hagerman, ID 83332, USA

Distribution Maps

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