Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Oncorhynchus mykiss
(rainbow trout)

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Datasheet

Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 09 March 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Threatened Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Oncorhynchus mykiss
  • Preferred Common Name
  • rainbow trout
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Oncorhynchus mykiss is a salmonid fish, native to western North America, the extreme east of Russia and (for anadromous populations) the northern Pacific Ocean. It has been widely introduced around the word for fisheries and aquaculture....

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Rainbow trout
TitleRainbow trout
CaptionRainbow trout
CopyrightKen Hammond/USDA
Rainbow trout
Rainbow troutRainbow troutKen Hammond/USDA
Rainbow trout
TitleRainbow trout
CaptionRainbow trout
CopyrightStephen Ausmus/USDA
Rainbow trout
Rainbow troutRainbow troutStephen Ausmus/USDA
Rainbow trout research: Molecular biologist Caird Rexroad (left) is assisted by fish culturist James Everson while taking tissue samples to be used in developing a genetic map of rainbow trout.
TitleResearch
CaptionRainbow trout research: Molecular biologist Caird Rexroad (left) is assisted by fish culturist James Everson while taking tissue samples to be used in developing a genetic map of rainbow trout.
CopyrightStephen Ausmus/USDA
Rainbow trout research: Molecular biologist Caird Rexroad (left) is assisted by fish culturist James Everson while taking tissue samples to be used in developing a genetic map of rainbow trout.
ResearchRainbow trout research: Molecular biologist Caird Rexroad (left) is assisted by fish culturist James Everson while taking tissue samples to be used in developing a genetic map of rainbow trout. Stephen Ausmus/USDA

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792)

Preferred Common Name

  • rainbow trout

Other Scientific Names

  • Fario gairdneri (Richardson, 1836)
  • Onchorrhychus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792)
  • Onchorynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792)
  • Oncorhynchus kamloops Jordan, 1892
  • Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni Evermann, 1908
  • Oncorhynchus myskis (Walbaum, 1792)
  • Parasalmo mykiss Walbaum, 1792
  • Parasalmo penshinensis (Pallas, 1814)
  • Salmo gairdneri Richardson, 1836
  • Salmo gairdneri irideus Gibbons, 1855
  • Salmo gairdneri shasta Jordan, 1894
  • Salmo gairdnerii Richardson, 1836
  • Salmo gairdnerii gairdnerii Richardson, 1836
  • Salmo gairdnerii irideus Gibbons, 1855
  • Salmo gilberti Jordan, 1894
  • Salmo iridea Gibbons, 1855
  • Salmo irideus Gibbons, 1855
  • Salmo irideus argentatus Bajkov, 1927
  • Salmo kamloops (Jordan, 1892)
  • Salmo kamloops whitehousei Dymond, 1931
  • Salmo masoni Suckley, 1860
  • Salmo mykiss Walbaum, 1792
  • Salmo nelsoni Evermann, 1908
  • Salmo penshinensis Pallas, 1814
  • Salmo purpuratus Pallas, 1814
  • Salmo rivularis Ayres, 1855
  • Salmo rivularis kamloops (Jordan, 1892)
  • Salmo stellatus (Girard, 1856)
  • Salmo truncatus Suckley, 1859

International Common Names

  • English: baiser; baja California rainbow trout; brown trout; coast angel trout; coast rainbow trout; coast range trout; hardhead; kamchatka salmon; kamchatka steelhead; kamchatka trout; kamloops; kamloops trout; lord-fish; redband; salmon trout; silver trout; steelhead; steelhead trout; summer salmon; trout; trout, rainbow
  • Spanish: salmones del Pacífico; trucha; trucha arco iris; trucha arcoiris
  • French: truite arc en ciel; truite arc-en-ciel; truite-arc-en-ciel
  • Russian: forel raduzhnaya; kamchatskaya semga; mikizha

Local Common Names

  • Albania: trofta ylberi; trofte ylberi
  • Bulgaria: dagova pastarva
  • Canada: coast rainbow trout; silver trout
  • Canada/British Columbia: k'wsech; meliit; qiwah; sxew'k'em; taayingaa; taaynga; taiyung; t'ak'al
  • Canada/Newfoundland and Labrador: baiser; lord-fish
  • Czech Republic: pstruh duhový
  • Denmark: kamchatka-laks; regnbueørred; stålhovedørred
  • Finland: kirjolohi
  • Former USSR: kamchatka salmon
  • Germany: forelle; lachsforelle; regenbogenforelle; stahlkopfforelle
  • Greece: Amerikaniki pestrofa; pestropha
  • Iceland: regnbogasilungur; urriöi
  • Iran: ghezelalla-e-rangin kaman; mahi qezel ala; qezel ala; qezel Ala Ranginkaman
  • Italy: trota; trota iridea
  • Japan: masu; nijimasu
  • Mexico: Baja California rainbow trout; trucha arcoiris
  • Nepal: brown trout
  • Netherlands: regenboogforel
  • Norway: aure; orret; regnbueørret
  • Poland: pstrag teczowy
  • Portugal: truta; truta-arco-iris; truta-arco-íris
  • Romania: pastrav curcubeu
  • Russian Federation: kamchatka steelhead; kamchatka trout; mikizha
  • Slovakia: pstruh dúhový
  • Slovenia: sarenka
  • Spain: trucha
  • Sweden: regnbåge; regnbågslax
  • Turkey: alabalik; alabalik türü
  • UK: coast angel trout; summer salmon
  • Ukraine: foral rajduzna; forel rajduzhna
  • USA: coast range trout; hardhead; kamloops; redband; salmon trout
  • USA/Alaska: mayu'artaq
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): pastrva

Summary of Invasiveness

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Oncorhynchus mykiss is a salmonid fish, native to western North America, the extreme east of Russia and (for anadromous populations) the northern Pacific Ocean. It has been widely introduced around the word for fisheries and aquaculture. It is an effective competitor which can displace native trout species when introduced into new environments, and the fisheries management literature is replete with papers that document this phenomenon. The fact that O. mykiss has been widely distributed throughout the temperate regions of the world for 125 years virtually guarantees that it has had a negative impact on biodiversity in areas outside its original distribution. Even within the native range, the indiscriminate planting of trout derived from coastal stocks into areas containing inland stocks has had a profound effect on the abundance of native strains of redband trout, cutthroat trout, bull trout and other native salmonids (Behnke, 2002). Escapees from fish farms are an additional concern, but the most harm to biodiversity has resulted from fisheries management agencies introducing O. mykiss over the past century.

In the native range in the western USA some anadromous populations of O. mykiss, but not most freshwater populations, are threatened or endangered (Fishbio, 2015).

Oncorhynchus mykiss is listed as one of the world's 100 worst invasive species by the ISSG (2021).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Salmoniformes
  •                         Family: Salmonidae
  •                             Genus: Oncorhynchus
  •                                 Species: Oncorhynchus mykiss

Description

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Oncorhynchus mykiss is a species of ray-finned teleost fish in the family Salmonidae with a graceful fusiform body. It was originally named Salmo mykiss by Walbaum in 1792 (Behnke, 1992), and was later named Salmo gairdneri by Richardson from fish taken from the Columbia River at Fort Vancouver in 1836 (McPhail and Lindsey, 1970). The species was reclassified as Oncorhynchus mykiss in 1989, and is thus more closely related to Pacific salmon than to other trout species (Smith and Stearley, 1989). Taxonomic distinctions fall into three categories, each with many subspecies, listed from ancient to modern: southern trout (Gila and Apache trout, Mexican golden trout and others); redband trout from inland river drainages, e.g., Sacramento, Columbia, Fraser, etc., and former drainages (Great Basin); and coastal trout (generally west of coastal mountains, e.g., Cascade Mountains) from approximately Monterey, California, to the Kamchatka Peninsula. Trout from eastern Russia are genetically similar to those of Alaska, suggesting common post-glacial origins.

As described in Froese and Pauly (2018) (quoting Kottelat and Freyhof, 2007), Oncorhynchus mykiss has an elongate, laterally compressed body with a distinct caudal peduncle. Coloration varies with habitat, size, and sexual condition. Stream residents and spawners are darker, with colours more intense. Lake residents and anadromous forms are lighter, brighter, and more silvery. The species has the following unique characters to differentiate it from other trout species: a fleshy adipose fin is present between the dorsal and forked caudal fin: anal fin with 6-9½ (usually 8½ ) branched rays; 115-130 small cycloid scales in mid-lateral row; 16-17 gill rakers and between 60 to 66 vertebrae; breeding males lacking hump; wide pink to red stripe from head to caudal base, except in sea-run form; and juveniles with 5-10 parr marks. The largest anadromous individuals can grow to over 1.2 m in length and 25 kg in weight, but 60 cm is a more common length (Froese and Pauly, 2021; ISSG, 2021), and a weight of 10 kg a more common maximum. Adult freshwater stream rainbow trout average between 0.5 and 2.5kg; mature inland redband trout of less than 2kg are common (Behnke, 2002). Cultured O. mykiss are usually harvested at 0.6-0.7 kg in freshwater or 4-5 kg in marine cages.

Distribution

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Oncorhynchus mykiss is native to the western parts (primarily those draining into the Pacific) of Canada, the USA and Mexico, and also to Kamchatka in the far east of Siberia. It has been introduced very widely around the world.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 26 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EritreaPresentIntroduced
EswatiniPresentIntroduced
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced
KenyaPresentIntroduced
LesothoPresentIntroduced
MadagascarPresentIntroduced
MalawiPresentIntroduced
MauritiusPresentIntroduced
MoroccoPresentIntroduced
RéunionPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroduced
SudanPresentIntroduced
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroduced
ArmeniaPresent
ChinaPresentIntroduced
IndiaPresentIntroduced
IranPresentIntroduced
IsraelPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentIntroduced
-HokkaidoPresentIntroduced
JordanPresentIntroduced
KazakhstanPresentIntroduced
KyrgyzstanPresentIntroduced
LebanonPresentIntroduced
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced
NepalPresentIntroduced
PakistanPresentIntroduced
South KoreaPresentIntroduced
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
TaiwanPresentIntroduced
ThailandPresentIntroduced
TurkeyPresentIntroduced
UzbekistanPresentIntroduced

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroduced
AustriaPresentIntroduced
BelgiumPresentIntroduced
BulgariaPresentIntroduced
CroatiaPresentIntroduced
CyprusPresentIntroduced
CzechiaPresentIntroduced
CzechoslovakiaPresentIntroduced
DenmarkPresentIntroduced
EstoniaPresentIntroduced
FinlandPresentIntroduced
FrancePresentIntroduced
GermanyPresentIntroduced
GreecePresentIntroduced
HungaryPresentIntroduced
IcelandPresentIntroduced
IrelandPresentIntroduced
ItalyPresentIntroduced
LatviaPresentIntroduced
LiechtensteinPresentIntroduced
LithuaniaPresentIntroduced
LuxembourgPresentIntroduced
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced
NorwayPresentIntroduced
PolandPresentIntroduced
PortugalPresentIntroduced
-AzoresPresentIntroduced
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced
RomaniaPresentIntroduced
RussiaPresentNative and IntroducedNative in extreme east (Kamchatka); introduced elsewhere.
-Eastern SiberiaPresentNativeKamchatka
Serbia and MontenegroPresentIntroduced
SlovakiaPresentIntroduced
SloveniaPresentNative
SpainPresentIntroduced
SwedenPresentIntroduced
SwitzerlandPresentIntroduced
UkrainePresentIntroduced
United KingdomPresentIntroduced
-Channel IslandsPresentIntroducedEstablished
-ScotlandPresentIntroducedEstablished

North America

CanadaPresentNative and IntroducedNative in west, introduced in east
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresentNative
-ManitobaPresentIntroduced
-New BrunswickPresentIntroduced
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentIntroduced
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentIntroduced
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroduced
-NunavutPresentIntroduced
-OntarioPresentIntroduced
-Prince Edward IslandPresentIntroduced
-QuebecPresentIntroduced
-SaskatchewanPresentIntroduced
-YukonPresentNative
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentNative
PanamaPresentIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentNative and IntroducedNative in west, introduced in east
-AlabamaPresentIntroduced
-AlaskaPresentNative
-ArizonaPresentNative
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentNative
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced
-DelawarePresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced
-IdahoPresentNative and Introduced
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced
-IndianaPresentIntroduced
-IowaPresentIntroduced
-KansasPresentIntroduced
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MainePresentIntroduced
-MarylandPresentIntroduced
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced
-MichiganPresentIntroduced
-MinnesotaPresentIntroduced
-MississippiPresentIntroduced
-MissouriPresentIntroduced
-MontanaPresentNative and IntroducedLocally native in west; introduced elsewhere
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced
-NevadaPresentNative and IntroducedNative in north; introduced elsewhere
-New HampshirePresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-North DakotaPresentIntroduced
-OhioPresentIntroduced
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced
-OregonPresentNative
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-South DakotaPresentIntroduced
-TennesseePresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced
-UtahPresentNative
-VermontPresentIntroduced
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-WashingtonPresentNative
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced
-WyomingPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced
New ZealandPresentIntroduced
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced

Sea Areas

Arctic SeaPresentNative
Atlantic - Eastern CentralPresentIntroduced
Atlantic - NortheastPresentIntroduced
Atlantic - NorthwestPresent
Atlantic - SoutheastPresentIntroduced
Atlantic - SouthwestPresentIntroduced
Atlantic - Western CentralPresentIntroduced
Indian Ocean - EasternPresentIntroduced
Indian Ocean - WesternPresentIntroduced
Mediterranean and Black SeaPresentIntroduced
Pacific - Eastern CentralPresentNative
Pacific - NortheastPresentNative
Pacific - NorthwestPresentNative
Pacific - SouthwestPresentIntroduced
Pacific - Western CentralPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced
BoliviaPresentIntroduced
BrazilPresentIntroduced
ChilePresentIntroduced
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
EcuadorPresentIntroduced
GuyanaPresentIntroduced
PeruPresentIntroduced
UruguayPresentIntroduced
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Japan USA 1880 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Government Yes No Behnke (1992)
New Zealand USA 1880 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Government Yes No Behnke (1992)
Western Europe USA 1880 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Government Yes Yes Behnke (1992)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Multiple
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details
Freshwater
FreshwaterLakes Present, no further details
FreshwaterRivers / streams Present, no further details
Brackish
BrackishEstuaries Present, no further details
Marine Present, no further details

Biology and Ecology

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Freshwater life cycle 

Freshwater resident Oncorhynchus mykiss usually inhabit and spawn in small to moderately large, well-oxygenated, shallow rivers with gravel bottoms. Lake resident rainbow trout are usually found in moderately deep, cool lakes with adequate shallows, and generally require access to gravelly bottomed streams for spawning. Spawning sites are usually a bed of fine gravel in a riffle above a pool. A female trout clears a redd in the gravel by turning on her side and beating her tail up and down. Female rainbow trout usually produce 2000 to 3000 4-to-5-millimetre eggs per kilogram of weight (Tyler et al., 1996). As eggs are released by the female, a male moves alongside and deposits milt (sperm) over the eggs to fertilize them. The eggs hatch in four to seven weeks depending on temperature and the yolk sac fry or alevin commence feeding on zooplankton about two weeks after the yolk is consumed. The growth rate of O. mykiss is variable and affected by area, habitat, life history and quality and quantity of food. In freshwater habitats, rainbow trout eat invertebrates: crustaceans and insects, such as mayflies, caddis flies and black flies. Steelhead (the anadromous form) will also eat salmon eggs when available. Adult freshwater stream rainbow trout grow to between 0.5 and 2.5kg, while lake-dwelling and anadromous forms may reach up to 10 kg or more. According to Froese and Pauly (2018), the maximum reported weight is 25.4kg, the maximum reported length is 122cm (but most commonly up to 60cm), and the maximum reported age is 11 years.

Anadromous life cycle

The ocean going (anadromous) form, including those returning for spawning, are known as steelhead in Canada and the U.S. In Tasmania they are commercially propagated in sea cages and are known as ocean trout, although they are the same species. Like salmon, steelhead return to their original hatching grounds to spawn. Oncorhynchus mykiss are iteroparous and the anadromous form can make several spawning trips between fresh and salt water, although fewer than 10 percent of native spawning adults survive from one spawning to another. As with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), young steelhead undergo a process called "smoltification" where the trout undergoes physiological changes during the spring at an age of between 1 and 4 years, to allow it to survive in sea water. At sea, they feed primarily on fish, squid and amphipods. Individual steelhead populations leave the ocean after between 1 and 4 years and migrate into their freshwater spawning tributaries at different times of the year. Two general genotypic forms exist, namely; "summer-run steelhead" and "winter-run steelhead" (Busby et al. 1996, Hess et al. 2016). Summer-run fish leave the ocean between May and October, before their reproductive organs are fully mature, and generally spawn in longer, more inland rivers, maturing while en route to spawning grounds where they spawn in the spring. Winter-run fish are ready to spawn when they leave the ocean, typically between November and April, and spawn shortly after returning to fresh water, generally in shorter, coastal rivers. Once steelhead enter riverine systems and reach suitable spawning grounds, they spawn just like resident freshwater rainbow trout. Anadromous coastal steelhead trout can reach around 20kg at maturity, whereas mature inland redband trout of less than 2kg are common (Behnke, 2002).

Farming

The rearing of captive rainbow trout for fish farming and stock enhancement programmes mimics the life history of wild Oncorhynchus mykiss and utilises both freshwater and sea water environments as appropriate. Because of the efficiencies of farm husbandry practices, the farming process accelerates the life cycle to 1 year or less in freshwater (smolts typically 40g to 120g) and harvesting is done after 10 to 20 months of growth in sea cages at between 2 and 6kg in body weight.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Preferred Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0.02 0.03 Optimum Adult
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0.02 0.03 Optimum Broodstock
Cadmium (mg/l) <0.0004 Optimum Adult
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) <10 Optimum Adult
Chloride (mg/l) <5 Optimum Adult
Chlorine (mg/l) <0.03 Optimum Adult
Chromium (mg/l) <0.001 Optimum Adult
Copper (mg/l) <0.006 Optimum Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <5 Harmful Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <5 Harmful Broodstock
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >6 Optimum Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >6 Optimum Broodstock
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 10 400 Optimum Adult
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) <0.001 Optimum Adult
Iron (mg/l) <0.15 Optimum Adult
Lead (mg/l) <0.03 Optimum Adult
Manganese (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Adult
Mercury (mg/l) <0.002 Optimum Adult
Nickel (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Adult
Nitrate (mg/l) <3.0 Harmful Adult
Nitrite (mg/l) <0.2 Harmful Adult
Ozone (mg/l) <0.005 Optimum Adult
Polychlorinated biphenyls (mg/l) <0.002 Optimum Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) 32 Optimum Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) >35 Harmful Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Optimum Broodstock
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Optimum Egg
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Optimum Larval
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 Optimum Fry
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) 12 Optimum Broodstock
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) 17 Harmful Broodstock
Total Nitrogen (mg/l) <110 Optimum Adult % of saturation
Total Phosphorus (mg/l) 0.01 0.03 Optimum Adult
Water pH (pH) 6.5 8.0 Optimum Adult
Water pH (pH) 6.5 8.0 Optimum Broodstock
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 10 Optimum Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 12 Optimum Broodstock
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 12 Optimum Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 12 Optimum Fry
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 15 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 17 Harmful Broodstock
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 17 Harmful Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 18 Harmful Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 18 Harmful Fry
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 25 Harmful Adult
Zinc (mg/l) <0.05 Optimum Adult

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Ardea All Stages

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture Yes Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes
Fisheries Yes Yes
Intentional release Yes Yes
Stocking Yes Fuller (2011)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive
Native fauna Negative
Rare/protected species Negative

Environmental Impact

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See Fuller (2011) for information on the impacts of the introduction of this species on native fish; the main issues raised can be summarised as follows:

  1. Oncorhynchus mykiss hybridizes with other, more rare trout species, thereby affecting their genetic integrity.
  2. O. mykiss have been found to negatively affect indigenous fish species through predation, competition for food and habitat, and displacement.
  3. Stocking of hatchery O. mykiss in rivers has led to introduction of whirling disease (Myxobolus cerebralis) into open waters, to the severe detriment of indigenous species.

Wild populations of Oncorhynchus mykiss can also be adversely affected by releases of hatchery-reared fish of the same species (McMichael et al., 1999).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Gila nigra (headwater chub)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)Arizona; New MexicoPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013c)
Gila nigrescens (chihuahua chub)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as threatened speciesNew MexicoCompetition - monopolizing resources; PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010)
Gila robusta (roundtail chub)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)Arizona; California; NevadaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013d)
Glyphopsyche sequatchieNo DetailsTennesseePredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013e)
Iotichthys phlegethontis (least chub)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)UtahPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013f)
Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi (Lahontan cutthroat trout)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; Nevada; Oregon; UtahCompetition (unspecified); Hybridization; PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2000)
Oncorhynchus clarkii seleniris (Paiute cutthroat trout)USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaCompetition (unspecified); Hybridization; PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013a)
Oncorhynchus gilae (Gila trout)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened speciesArizona; New MexicoHybridizationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2003)
Rana muscosa (mountain yellow-legged frog)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1999)
Rana pretiosa (Oregon spotted frog)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; Oregon; WashingtonPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998b)
Rhinichthys osculus oligoporusNational list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesNevadaEcosystem change / habitat alteration; PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (1998a)
Thymallus arcticus (arctic grayling)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern)MontanaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2013b)

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Hybridization
  • Predation

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Cured meat
  • Eggs (roe)
  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat

References

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Alabaster JS, Lloyd R, 1982. Water quality criteria for freshwater fish, (Second edition) . London, UK: Butterworths.349 pp.

Allen GR, 1991. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of New Guinea. Madang, Papua New Guinea: Christensen Research Institute, 180 pp

Austin B, 2012. Infectious Disease in Aquaculture: Prevention and Control, Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing.560 pp.

Barrows FT, Hardy RW, 2002. Nutrition and Feeding. In: Wedemeyer G, ed. Fish Hatchery Management, Second Edition. Bethesda, Maryland, USA: American Fisheries Society, 483-558

Behnke RJ, 1992. Native Trout of Western North America. Bethesda, Maryland, USA: American Fisheries Society Monograph, 6, 275 pp

Behnke RJ, 2002. Trout and Salmon of North America. New York, USA: The Free Press, 359 pp

Bell-Cross G, Minshull JL, 1988. The fishes of Zimbabwe. National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe, Harare. 294 pp

Berge, G. M., Baeverfjord, G., Skrede, A., Storebakken, T., 2005. Bacterial protein grown on natural gas as protein source in diets for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in saltwater. Aquaculture, 244(1/4), 233-240. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2004.11.017

Brannon EL, Klontz G, 1989. The Idaho aquaculture industry. The Northwest Environmental Journal, 5:23-35

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Distribution References

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CABI, 2021. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

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Cruz-Agüero J de la, 1999. A first Mexican record of the chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. California Fish and Game. 85 (2), 77-78.

DAISIE, 2011. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. In: European Invasive Alien Species Gateway, http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Eccles DH, 1992. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. In: Field guide to the freshwater fishes of Tanzania, Rome, FAO. 145 pp.

FAO, 1997. FAO Database on Introduced Aquatic Species., Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Froese R, Pauly D, 2004. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Froese R, Pauly D, 2011. FishBase. In: FishBase, http://www.fishbase.org

Fuller P, 2011. Oncorhynchus mykiss (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database)., Gainesville, Florida, USA: USGS. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=910

Gabrielyan B K, 2001. An annotated checklist of freshwater fishes of Armenia. Naga. 24 (3/4), 23-29.

Kailola PJ, Williams MJ, Stewart PC, Reichelt RE, McNee A, Grieve C, 1993. Australian Fisheries Resources., Canberra, Australia: Bureau of Resource Science, Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy, and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. 422 pp.

Kamilov G, Urchinov ZhU, 1995. Fish and fisheries in Uzbekistan under the impact of irrigated agriculture. In: Inland fisheries under the impact of irrigated agriculture: Central Asia, [ed. by Petr T]. 10-41.

Keith P, Vigneux E, Bosc P, 1999. Atlas of freshwater fish and crustacea of Réunion. (Atlas des poissons et des crustacés d'eau douce de La Réunion.). Patrimoines Naturels. 136.

Koli L, 1990. Fishes of Finland. (Suomen kalat)., Helsinki, Werner Soderstrom Osakeyhtio. 357 pp.

Lamb A, Edgell P, 1986. Coastal fishes of the Pacific northwest., BC, Canada: Harbour Publishing Co. Ltd. 224 pp.

Lever C, 1996. Naturalized fishes of the world. California, USA: Academic Press. 408 pp.

Marceta B, 1999. Check-list of the fishes of the Gulf of Trieste (North Adriatic Sea). In: Provided on spreadsheet to FishBase (19 Jan 1999), http://www.fishbase.org

Mitrofanov VP, Petr T, 1999. Fish and fisheries in the Altai, Northern Tien Shan and Lake Balkhash (Kazakhstan). In: Fish and fisheries at higher altitudes: Asia. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. No. 385, [ed. by Petr T]. Rome, FAO. 149-167.

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Page LM, Burr BM, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico., Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company. 432 pp.

Pavlov PI, 1980. Fauna of Ukraine. Fishes. Tunicata (Ascidian, appendicularian), Acrania (Cephalochordata), Vertebrata (Cyclostomata; cartilaginous fishes, bony fishes- sturgeons; clupeids; anchois; salmonides; ombres; brochets; umbres)., 8 (1) Kiev, Kiev Naukova Dumka Publishing House.

Pethiyagoda R, 1991. Freshwater fishes of Sri Lanka. Colombo, Sri Lanka: The Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka.

Reshetnikov YS, Bogutskaya NG, Vasil'eva ED, Dorofeeva EA, Naseka AM, Popova OA, Savvaitova KA, Sideleva VG, Sokolov LI, 1997. An annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of Russia. In: Journal of Ichthyology, 37 687-736.

Savvaitova KA, Petr T, 1999. Fish and fisheries in Lake Issyk-kul (Tien Shan), River Chu and Pamir lakes. In: Fish and fisheries at higher altitudes: Asia. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. No. 385, [ed. by Petr T]. Rome, FAO. 168-186.

Scott WB, Crossman EJ, 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. In: Bull. Fish. Res. Board Can. 184 1-966.

Shrestha J, 1994. Fishes, fishing implements and methods of Nepal., Lashkar (Gwalior), India: Lalitpur Colony. 150.

The University of Tartu, 1999. Systematic list of Estonian fishes., http://sunsite.eenet.ee/animals/Kalad/kalalist2.htm

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Winkler H M, Skora K, Repecka R, Ploks M, Neelov A, Urho L, Gushin A, Jespersen H, 2000. Checklist and status of fish species in the Baltic Sea. In: Checklist and status of fish species in the Baltic Sea. 15 pp.

Xie Yan, Li Zhenyu, Gregg W P, Li Dianmo, 2001. Invasive species in China - an overview. Biodiversity and Conservation. 10 (8), 1317-1341. DOI:10.1023/A:1016695609745

Yamamoto MN, 1992. Occurrence, distribution and abundance of accidentally introduced freshwater aquatic organisms in Hawaii. In: State of Hawaii, Federal Aid in Sportfish Restoration, Dingell-Johnson JOR, Freshwater Fisheries Research and Surveys, Project No F-14-R-16.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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11/04/18: Updated for Aquaculture Compendium by:

Clive Talbot, consultant, UK

Main Author
Ron Hardy
Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station, University of Idaho, 3059F National Fish Hatchery Road, Hagerman, ID 83332, USA

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