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Oncorhynchus masou virus disease

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Datasheet

Oncorhynchus masou virus disease

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 09 November 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Oncorhynchus masou virus disease
  • Overview
  • Oncorhynchus masou virus disease (OMVD) is an oncogenic and skin ulcerative condition among salmonid fish in Japan, and probably in the coastal rivers of eastern Asia that harbor Pacific salmon. Oncorhynchus m...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Oncorhynchus masou virus disease

Other Scientific Names

  • Coho salmon herpesvirus
  • Coho salmon tumour virus
  • Nerka virus Towada lake, Akita and Amori prefecture
  • Oncorhynchus kisutch virus
  • Rainbow trout herpesvirus
  • Rainbow trout kidney virus
  • Salmonid herpesvirus 2
  • Yamame tumour virus

Local Common Names

  • Japan: Basal cell carcinoma; Herpesviral disease of salmonid

English acronym

  • COTV
  • CSTV
  • NeVTA
  • OKV
  • OMVD
  • RHV
  • RKV
  • SalHV-2
  • YTV

Overview

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Oncorhynchus masou virus disease (OMVD) is an oncogenic and skin ulcerative condition among salmonid fish in Japan, and probably in the coastal rivers of eastern Asia that harbor Pacific salmon. Oncorhynchus masou virus (OMV), the causative virus, is also known as Nerka virus Towada Lake, Akita and Amori prefecture (NeVTA), yamame tumor virus (YTV), Oncorhynchus kisutch virus (OKV), coho salmon tumor virus (COTV), coho salmon herpesvirus (CSHV), rainbow trout kidney virus (RKV), or rainbow trout herpesvirus (RHV). For other reviews of the condition, see Kimura and Yoshimizu (1989), Wolf (1988) and Yoshimizu et al. (1995).

[Based upon material originally published in Woo PTK, Bruno DW, eds., 1999. Fish diseases and disorders, Vol. 3 Viral, bacterial and fungal infections. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.]

Hosts/Species Affected

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Fish species that are susceptible to OMV include: kokanee (sockeye) salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), masou salmon (O. masou), chum salmon (O. keta), coho salmon (O. kisutch) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss) (Kimura et al., 1983).

Salmonids are the only fish species susceptible to OMV infection; the order of the fish species from the most to the least susceptible is: kokanee salmon, chum salmon, masou salmon, coho salmon and rainbow trout. The age of the fish is critical and 1-month-old alevins are the most susceptible target for virus infection (Kimura et al., 1983). The main environmental factor favoring OMV infection is low water temperature (below 14°C) (Suzuki et al., 1986).

Distribution

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OMV has only been identified in Japan, especially on Hokkaido and Honshu Island (Yoshimizu and Nomura, 2001).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanNo information availableOIE, 2003; OIE Handistatus, 2005
-Hokkaido Invasive Kimura and et al. , 1981a
-Honshu Invasive Yoshimizu and et al. , 1995
JordanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Kuwait1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
USADisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathology

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OMV is pathogenic and more significantly oncogenic for cherry salmon and several other salmonid fish (Kimura et al., 1981b). One month old kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were shown to exhibit the greatest sensitivity. Cherry salmon and chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) also exhibited high susceptibility. Coho salmon and rainbow trout were shown to be less susceptible to OMV infection (Tanaka et al., 1984). Recently, epizootics occurred in cultured rainbow trout weighing between 10 and 1,500 g at a fish farm in Hokkaido, Japan and several prefectures in Honshu Island, Japan. Highly infected titers were recorded in the internal organs and multiple necrotic foci were observed in the liver (Furihata et al., 2003).

In an experiment by Yoshimizu et al. (1987) where salmonid species were experimentally infected, the incidence of tumour-bearing fish approached more than 60%. Epithelial tumours were found on 12-100% of the surviving chum, coho and cherry salmon, and rainbow trout beginning at about 4 months and persisting for at least 1 year post-infection.

Diagnosis

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The screening and diagnostic procedures for OMV are based on direct methods. These are the isolation of the virus in cell culture and co-culture of neoplastic tissues with salmonid cell lines followed by its immunological identification (conventional approach) (Lannan et al., 1984; Yoshimizu, 1996), or the immunological demonstration of OMV antigen in infected fish tissues (Hayashi et al., 1993; Kimura et al., 1983).

Confirmatory testing is by immunological identification using neutralization, immuno-fluorescence tests, or ELISA, and virus-specific gene detection using polymerase chain reaction (Aso et al., 2001).

Due to insufficient knowledge of the serological responses of fish to virus infections, the detection of fish antibodies to viruses has not thus far been recognized as a valuable diagnostic method for assessing the viral status of fish populations. However, the validation of some serological techniques for diagnosis of certain fish virus infections could arise in the near future, rendering the use of fish serology more widely acceptable for diagnostic purposes.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Finfish / Darkened coloration - Skin and Fins Aquatic:Adult Sign
Finfish / Haemorrhagic lesions - Skin and Fins Aquatic:Adult Sign
Finfish / Haemorrhagic lesions - Skin and Fins Aquatic:Adult Sign
Finfish / Haemorrhagic lesions - Skin and Fins Aquatic:Adult Sign
Finfish / Haemorrhagic lesions - Skin and Fins Aquatic:Adult Sign
Finfish / Intestines white-grey patches (haemorrhage / necrosis / tissue damage) - Organs Aquatic:Adult Sign
Finfish / Liver - white / grey patches (haemorrhage / necrosis / tissue damage) - Organs Aquatic:Adult Sign
Finfish / Pop-eye - Eyes Aquatic:Adult Sign
Finfish / Skin erosion - Skin and Fins Aquatic:Adult Sign
Finfish / Swelling - Organs Aquatic:Adult Sign

Disease Course

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Clinically, the initial infection by OMV (taxonomically known as Salmonid Herpesvirus 2; SalHV-2) appears as a systemic and frequently lethal infection that is associated with edema and hemorrhages. Virus multiplication in endothelial cells of blood capillaries, hematopoietic tissue and hepatocytes underlies the clinical signs (Kimura et al., 1981a; Tanaka et al., 1984). Four months after this first clinical condition, a varying number of surviving fish exhibit epithelioma occurring mainly around the mouth (upper and lower jaw, see photo), and to a lesser extent, on the caudal fin, operculum and body surface. This neoplasia may persist for up to 1 year post-infection. In the case of coho salmon, 1-year-old infected fish in particular show ulcers on the skin, white spots on the liver and neoplastic tissues around the mouthparts or body surface. In rainbow trout, the diseased fish exhibit almost no external signs, although some fish manifest ulcerative lesions on the skin. Internally, intestinal hemorrhage and white spots on the liver are observed (Kimura et al., 1981a; Yoshimizu et al., 1987; Yoshimizu et al., 1988).

Following the septicemia phase of OMV infection, an immune response takes place that results in the synthesis of neutralizing antibodies to OMV. A carrier state frequently occurs that leads to virus shedding via the sexual products at the time of spawning.

Epidemiology

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The reservoirs of OMV are clinically infected fish and covert carriers among groups of cultured, feral or wild fish. Infectious virus is shed via faces, urine, sexual products and probably skin mucus, while the kidney, spleen, liver and tumors are the sites where virus is the most abundant during the course of overt infection. The transmission of OMV is horizontal and possibly ‘egg-surface associated’. Horizontal transmission may be direct or vectorial, water being the major abiotic factor. Animate vectors and inanimate objects also act in OMV transmission. Disinfection of the eggs just after fertilization and eyed stage is effective in preventing OMV infection. OMV disease was not reported in alevins originating from disinfected eggs that had been incubated and hatched in virus-free water (Yoshimizu et al., 1993).

Between 1978 and 1999, 27937 females of 6 species of mature salmonid fish were collected to survey the incidence of this virus in Hokkaido, Japan and the northern part of Japan. OMV was isolated from Oncorhynchus masou (cherry salmon) at all the investigated sites with the exception of one hatchery (Yoshimizu et al., 1993; Kasai et al., 2004). Based on our epizootiological study, the roots of OMV in Japan were assumed to be along the coast of Hokkaido, Japan and the presumed original host species was Oncorhynchus masou. In the 1960's, eggs of O. masou were transported to the mainland of Japan. Through the movement of fish, the virus spread to several places in Honshu, Japan, where the first cancer causing disease of O. masou was observed (Kimura, 1976). Subsequently, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were cultured in the same water systems where cherry salmon were cultured (Yoshimizu and Nomura, 2001).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Fisheries / aquaculture Negative

Impact: Economic

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Diseased fish that show tumours around the mouth and ulcers on the skin (See photos) are not marketable to consumers (Yoshimizu, 1996). Economic loss was reported in pen culture of coho salmon and pond culture of rainbow trout (Furihata et al., 2003).

References

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Aso Y; Wani J; Klenner DAS; Yoshimizu M, 2001. Detection and identification of Oncorhynchus masou virus (OMV) disease by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bull. Fish. Sci. Hokkaido University, 52, 111-116.

Eaton WD; Wingfield WH; Hedrick RP, 1991. Comparison of the DNA homologies of five salmonid herpesvirus. Fish Pathology, 26:183-187.

Furihata M; Hosoe A; Takei K; Kohara M; Nakamura J; Motonishi A; Yoshimizu M, 2003. Outbreak of salmonid herpesviral disease in cultured rainbow trout. Gyobyo Kenkyu = Fish Pathology, 38(1):23-25.

Gou DF; Kodama H; Onuma M; Kimura T; Yoshimizu M, 1991. Comparison of different Oncorhynchus masou virus (OMV) strains by DNA restriction endonuclease cleavage analysis. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research, 39:27-37.

Hayashi Y; Izawa H; Mikami T; Kodama H, 1993. A monoclonal antibody cross-reactive with three salmonid herpesviruses. Journal of Fish Diseases, 16(5):479-486.

Hedrick RP; McDowell T; Eaton WD; Kimura T; Sano T, 1987. Serological relationships of five herpesviruses isolated from salmonid fishes. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 3(2):87-92.

Horiuchi M; Miyazawa M; Nakata M; Iida K; Nishimura S, 1989. A case of herpesvirus infection of fresh water-reared coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in Japan. Suisan-Zoushoku, 36:297-305.

Igari T; Fukuda H; Sano T, 1991. Restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of the DNA of salmonid herpesvirus strains. Gyobyo Kenkyu = Fish Pathology, 26(1):45-46.

Kasai H; Nomura T; Yoshimizu M, 2004. Surveillance and control of salmonid viruses of wild salmonid fish returning to the northern part of Japan, from 1976 to 2002. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Japan-Korea Joint Seminar on Fisheries Sciences, 142-147. 15-16 December, 2003. Jinju-Tongyeong, Korea.

Kimura I, 1976. Tumor of lower vertebrates. In: Sugiyama T, Yamamoto Y, eds. Cancer. Tokyo: Iwanami-shoten, 270-283.

Kimura T; Suzuki S; Yoshimizu M, 1983. [I] In vitro antiviral effect of 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl) guanine on the fish herpesvirus, Oncorhynchus masou virus (OMV). [II] In vivo antiviral effect of 9-(2-hydroxymethyl) guanine on experimental infection of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) fry with Oncorhynchus masou virus (OMV). Antiviral Research, 3(2):93-101, 103-108.

Kimura T; Yoshimisu M, 1989. Salmon herpesvirus: OMV, Oncorhynchus masou virus. In: Ahne W, Kurstak E, eds. Viruses of Lower Vertebrates. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 171-183.

Kimura T; Yoshimizu M; Tanaka M, 1981. Studies on a new virus (OMV) from Oncorhynchus masou. II. Oncogenic nature. Fish Pathology, 15(3/4):149-153.

Kimura T; Yoshimizu M; Tanaka M, 1983. Susceptibility of different fry stages of representative salmonid species to Oncorhynchus masou virus (OMV). Fish Pathology, 17(4):251-258.

Kimura T; Yoshimizu M; Tanaka M; Sannohe H, 1981. Studies on a new virus (OMV) from Oncorhynchus masou. I. Characteristics and pathogenicity. Fish Pathology, 15(3/4):143-147.

Kumagai A; Takahashi K; Fukuda H, 1994. Epizootics caused by salmonid herpesvirus type 2 infection in maricultured coho salmon. Gyobyo Kenkyu = Fish Pathology, 29(2):127-134.

Lannan CN; Winton JR; Fryer JL, 1984. Fish cell lines: establishment and characterization of nine cell lines from salmonids. In Vitro, 20(9):671-676.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2003. Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals, 4th Edition. Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties, 358 pp.

Roizman B, 1991. Family Herpesviridae. In: Francki RI, Fauque CM, Knudson DL, Brown F, eds. Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. Archives of Virology, (Supplement 2). New York, USA and Vienna, Austria: Springer, 103-110.

Sano T, 1976. Viral diseases of cultured fishes in Japan. Fish Pathology, 10(2):221-226; [1 pl.].

Sano T; Fukuda H; Okamoto N; Kaneko F, 1983. Yamame tumor virus: lethality and oncogenicity. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 49(8):1159-1163.

Suzuki K, 1993. A new viral disease on rainbow trout. Shikenkenkyuwa-Ima, 165:1-2.

Suzuki S; Kimura T; Saneyoshi M, 1986. Characterization of DNA polymerase induced by salmon herpesvirus, Oncorhynchus masou virus. Journal of General Virology, 67:405-408.

Tanaka M; Yoshimizu M; Kimura T, 1984. Oncorhynchus masou virus: pathological changes in masu salmon (Orcorhynchus masou), chum salmon (O. keta) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) fry infected with OMV by immersion method. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 50(4):431-437.

Wolf K, 1988. Fish viruses and fish viral diseases. Fish viruses and fish viral diseases., xii + 476 pp.

Yoshimisu M; Nomura T; Ezura Y; Kimura T, 1993. Surveillance and control of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and Oncorhynchus masou virus (OMV) of wild salmonid fish retruning to the northern part of Japan 1976-1991. Fisheries Research, 17:163-173.

Yoshimizu M, 1996. Salmonid herpesvirus. Virus, 46:53-59.

Yoshimizu M; Fukuda H; Sano T; Kimura T, 1995. Salmonid herpesvirus 2. Epizootiology and serological relationship. Veterinary Research, 26(5/6):486-492.

Yoshimizu M; Nomura T, 2001. Oncorhynchus masou virus (OMV). Epidemiology and its control strategy. Bulletin of the National Research Institute of Aquaculture, Supplement, 5:11-14.

Yoshimizu M; Tanaka M; Kimura T, 1987. Oncorhynchus masou virus (OMV): incidence of tumor development among experimentally infected representative salmonid species. Fish Pathology, 22(1):7-10.

Yoshimizu M; Tanaka M; Kimura T, 1988. Histopathological study of tumors induced by Oncorhynchus masou virus (OMV) infection. Fish Pathology, 23(2):133-138.

Contributors

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Main Author
M Yoshimizu
Hokkaido University, Japan

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