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Paralithodes camtschaticus
(red king crab)

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Datasheet

Paralithodes camtschaticus (red king crab)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Paralithodes camtschaticus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • red king crab
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Crustacea
  •         Class: Malacostraca
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The red king crab, P. camtschaticus, is native to the Okhotsk and Japan seas, the Bering Sea and the northern Pacific Ocean. In the 1960s it was intentionally released by Russian scientists into the Barents S...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
General view of the carapace and other regions of the red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus.
TitleGeneral view
CaptionGeneral view of the carapace and other regions of the red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus.
CopyrightLis Lindal Jørgensen
General view of the carapace and other regions of the red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus.
General viewGeneral view of the carapace and other regions of the red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus.Lis Lindal Jørgensen

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815)

Preferred Common Name

  • red king crab

Other Scientific Names

  • Maja camtschatica Tilesius, 1815
  • Paralithodes camtschatica

International Common Names

  • English: Alaska king crab
  • Russian: Kamtschatca crab

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Königskrabbe
  • Netherlands: rode koningskrab
  • Norway: kongekrabbe

Summary of Invasiveness

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The red king crab, P. camtschaticus, is native to the Okhotsk and Japan seas, the Bering Sea and the northern Pacific Ocean. In the 1960s it was intentionally released by Russian scientists into the Barents Sea to create a new fishing resource.

P. camtschaticus is a generalist predator and may impact native biodiversity and exploit commercial scallop beds. Its carapace is a favoured substrate for the leech Johanssonia arctica to deposit its eggs; the leech is a vector for a trypanosome blood parasite of marine fish, including cod. Research suggests red king crabs are indirectly responsible for increased transmission of trypanosomes to cod by promoting an increase in the populations of the leech vector (Hemmingsen et al., 2005).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Crustacea
  •                 Class: Malacostraca
  •                     Subclass: Eumalacostraca
  •                         Order: Decapoda
  •                             Suborder: Reptantia
  •                                 Unknown: Paguroidea
  •                                     Family: Lithodidae
  •                                         Genus: Paralithodes
  •                                             Species: Paralithodes camtschaticus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The king crabs were originally described by Tilesius (1815) as a member of the genus Maja, family Majidae. Latreille (1829) recognized that king crabs were not brachyurans but rather anomurans, and consequently transferred king crabs to the genus Lithodes. Bouvier (1896) split the genus Lithodes primarily on the basis of the different pattern of calcification of the plates of the second abdominal segment of the abdomen, and erected the genus Paralithodes for those forms with five distinct plates separated by well defined sutures (Bright, 1967).

Description

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P. camtschaticus, which is among the world’s largest arthropods (weighing over 10 kg and 22 cm in carapace length) (Powell and Nickerson, 1965) has a crab-like morphology and a strong calcified exoskeleton with spines (Cunningham et al., 1992). It has a fused head and thorax, a fan shaped tail, 5 sets of appendages, the first two are pincers, the right is usually larger than the left, and three pairs of walking legs. In the front, the crab has an array of antennae and mouth parts (mandibles, maxillae and maxillipeds). The body is red/brownish although blue forms are also found.

One distinguishing characteristic of the red king crab is the number of spines; the carapace is split into four regions: two lateral regions with 9 spines each, the front area with 9 spines, and the upper posterior region with 6 spines.

Settlement of larvae in shallow waters <20 m) usually takes place on sponges, bryozoans and macroalgae (Marukawa, 1933). Red king crabs smaller than 20 mm carapace length (CL) have no podding behaviour and remain solitary the first year living cryptically beneath rocks and stones and in crevices. In the second year (20-25 mm CL) podding behaviours are seen (Dew, 1990). After the first two years they migrate to deeper water (20-50 m depth) where they congregate in large, tightly packed groups, often referred to as pods (Powell, 1974).

Adults occur on sand and mud substrata (Vinogradov, 1969; Fukuhara, 1985) and aggregate according to size, life history group or sex. Extensive aggregations, where both sexes occur, are made during the spring spawning season. After this period, the sexes form separate aggregations for the remainder of the year (Fukuhara, 1985). The regions where these spawning aggregations occur can also be found in shallow water where kelp occurs (Powel and Nickerson, 1965). The kelp may provide them with some protection for the females following moulting ecdysis and make them less vulnerable during mating (Jewett and Onuf, 1988). Red king crabs may live for 20 years (Kurata, 1961) and can reach a carapace length of ~220 mm and a weight of ~10 kg (Wallace et al., 1949).

 

Distribution

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P. camtschaticus is native to the Okhotsk and Japan seas, the Bering Sea and the northern Pacific Ocean. On the Asian side of the Pacific, crabs are found from Korea, along the eastern coast of Siberia and the coasts of the Kamchatka Peninsula. In the northeast Pacific and Bering Sea the red king crab is distributed throughout the Aleutian Island chain, north to Norton Sound, Alaska, and southeast to Great Bay in Vancouver Island, Canada.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Atlantic, NortheastPresentIntroduced1961 Not invasive Orlov and Ivanov, 1978Barents Sea: Kolafjord, spread to Kanin/Goose Bank and from Kolafjord into the Norwegian zone

Europe

NorwayPresentIntroduced1992 Invasive Hjelset et al., 2009First recorded in are 27 in 1992 (Varanger Fjord)
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Northern RussiaPresentIntroduced1961 Not invasive Orlov and Ivanov, 1978First recorded in area 27 in 1978 (Coast of Kola)

History of Introduction and Spread

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During the period from 1961 to 1969, 1.5 million zoea I larvae, 10,000 1-3 year old juveniles (50% females and 50% males) and 2,609 5-15 year old adult (1,655=females, 954=males) P. camtschaticus from West Kamchatka, were intentionally released by Russian scientists in the Kolafjord in the east Barents Sea (Russia) to create a new and valuable fishing resource in the region (Orlov and Karpevich, 1965; Orlov and Ivanov, 1978). Since then, the crab has spread both east along the Kola Peninsula, and westwards into the Norwegian zone.

In the Russian part of the Barents Sea the highest densities were observed on both sides of the Rybachi Island during late 1980s and early 1990s. During the late 1990s, crabs became abundant on the eastern part of the Peninsula. The range up to 2002 included Cape Kanin and the entrance of the White Sea to the east. Further northwards the crab was found on the Kanin Bank and on the Goose Bank. Russian scientists believe that the red king crab in the Barents Sea has reached the limits of its eastern distribution (probably due to salinity and temperature).
 
It was not until 1992 that the crab became abundant in Norwegian waters, first occurring in the southern areas of Varangerfjord. The general rate of spread of the distribution along the coast of northern Norway (see Pictures). By 1994 P. camtschaticus had spread to the northern side of the fjord, and it was caught in Tanafjord for the first time in 1995. At that time it had almost certainly established breeding populations in the coastal waters between Vardø and Tana. Further range extensions were noted in Laksefjord and Porsangerfjord in 2000, and by 2001 fishermen had caught several adult crabs west of Sørøya, west of the North Cape (see Pictures). In 2002 crabs were captured close to Hammerfest and three crabs were caught by a longliner at about 120 nautical miles off the North Cape.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Northern Russia Russian Far East 1961 Live food or feed trade (pathway cause) Yes Orlov and Ivanov (1978); Orlov and Karpevich (1965)

Risk of Introduction

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Results from tag-recapture experiments carried out in the Varangerfjord, Northern Norway, reveal that adult crabs here move only short distances (2-15 nautical miles) over a three-year period. The experiments also indicate that when local stocks reach a certain density, significant migration over longer distances is observed (Sundet et al., 2000a). Tagged individuals have been found to move over significant distances over short periods of time. Further knowledge about seasonal migration patterns and density dependent emigration is necessary to understand the crab's dispersal potential to new areas (JH Sundet, Institute of Marine Research, Norway, personal communication, 2009).

Norwegian laboratory studies have shown indications of better larval survival at 6ºC compared to at 1-3ºC (Larsen, 1996). This counts in favour for P. camtschaticus being a successful invader of Norwegian waters. In Norway immature and mature crabs migrate generally westward. Large egg-carrying females are often the first individuals to be caught in new areas (JH Sundet, Institute of Marine Research, Norway, personal communication, 2009). The release of brood by these females may greatly enhance their rate of spread.
 
It has been questioned how far south along the east Atlantic coast the crab will spread. In the Okhotsk Sea, the bottom temperature at 100-300 m is ~0ºC. In the Barents Sea and northern part of the Norwegian Sea at 100 m depth the temperature varies from 0 to ~+6ºC in winter. The temperature increases with a southward progression along the coast of Norway. However, temperatures remain low around Svalbard and in the Northern Barents Sea. Laboratory studies have shown a temperature preference in immature P. camtschaticus of below 4-6ºC (Hansen, 2002). Hansen (2002) speculated that the crab will spread to elsewhere in northern Norway and may extend further south as the uppermost temperatures are likely to be limiting but remain unknown. He also indicated a northward spread to Svalbard.
 
The availability of food for the crab would likely appear to be the most important factor in limiting its distribution in its new environment (Gerasimova, 1997).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Marine
Benthic zone Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

The adult crab has two migrations, a mating-moulting and a feeding migration (see Pictures). It is known from the crab's native area that the adult migrates to shallow waters in spring in connection with hatching, mating and spawning. During summer and autumn it moves to deeper waters, and over-wintering takes place at depths below 200 m. Observations in Norwegian waters show approximately the same pattern, but findings of a few adult crabs in shallow waters during the whole year indicate differences from the area of origin (Sundet et al., 2000a).

Female P. camtschaticus brood eggs underneath their tail flap for about 11 months. Fecundity varies between 15,000 to nearly 500,000 eggs, depending on area (Jewett and Onuf, 1988). The crab larvae develop in the coastal zone. After hatching into a brief (couple of minutes) prozoea stage, the larvae pass through four pelagic stages, followed by a settling stage (megalopa), in about two months (Rodin, 1989). The larvae may be transported considerable distances by currents. For survival of the young, the larvae must be transported to favourable habitats.
 
Physiology and Phenology
 
Microsatellite loci, based on the development of species-specific primers, showed that the number of alleles per locus was similar, and no reduction in genetic variation, including gene diversity and allelic richness, was detected between king crabs from the native areas of the Pacific Ocean compared with crabs from the invaded areas in the Barents Sea (Jørstad et al., 2007). The level of genetic differentiation among these samples, measured as overall FSTacross all loci, was relatively low (0.0238) with a range of 0.0035–0.1000 for the various loci investigated. The largest pairwise FSTvalues were found between the Bering Sea and Varangerfjord/Barents Sea samples, with a value of 0.0194 across all loci tested. The lowest value (0.0101) was found between the Varangerfjord and Kamchatka samples. Genetic differentiation based on exact tests on allele frequencies revealed highly significant differences between all pairwise comparisons. The high level of genetic variation found in the Varangerfjord/Barents Sea sample could be of significance with respect to further spreading of the species to other regions in the North Atlantic Ocean.
 
Environmental Requirements

Little is known of the salinity tolerances of the red king crab. In its most northern range (Nome, Norton Sound in Alaska) the crabs occur in the shallow coastal water when ice is present although are absent during the ice-free period (Jewett and Onuf, 1988). Bottom salinity and temperature beneath the ice was 34 ppt and –1.8ºC (Hood et al., 1974); but during the ice-free period ranged from 22-24.5 ppt and 8.8-11ºC (Rusanowski et al., 1987). This suggests that salinity may be a factor for their absence during ice-free periods.

The red king crab is known to tolerate temperatures of –1.7 to +11ºC (Rodin, 1989) and this varies according to the life history stages. The West Kamchatka sub-population overwinters on the continental slope where the warmer Pacific Ocean water mixes with the colder waters of the shallow shelf. The migration period from the over-wintering area to shallow water depends on increases of the bottom water temperatures, as well as the physiological conditioning prior to spawning and moulting (Rodin, 1989). The geographical extent of the subzero temperatures influences the time of their shoreward migration. In spring, normally May-June, high densities of adults accumulate at 10-15 m where temperatures are approximately 2ºC. Following reproduction in June and July adults forage at around 50 m depth at roughly 2ºC. In cold years, where the females are unable to penetrate through the cold-water layer (-1 to –1.7ºC) and into the coastal zone, the release of larvae takes place at depths of 80 to 120 m. In these cases the larvae are transported to unfavourable areas and larval mortality is high (Rodin and Lavrentev, 1974). Red king crab populations at the West Kamchatka shelf have strong year classes appearing at approximately 5-7 years intervals (Rodin, 1989). Once temperatures decrease the crabs disperse to deeper water where they overwinter (Rodin, 1989).
 
Fecundity, size and age of maturity, average annual growth varies throughout its native range. In the northern areas of the Pacific, the red king crab undertakes a spring spawning migration from 200-300 m depths to shallow water (10-50 m). Here little moulting takes place over the winter, and the hatching of the larvae occurs when the majority of crabs reach the coastal zone in June. Whereas in southern areas with higher temperatures, the spring spawning is widely distributed from the shore to 100-120 m in depth, winter moulting of males is normal and hatching take place in May where females aggregate.

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Salinity (part per thousand) Optimum Marine water, little is known (is found to tolerate low saline water for short time)
Water temperature (ºC temperature) Optimum –1.7 to +11 tolerated (Rodin, 1989). Varies according to life history stage

Notes on Natural Enemies

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There are no important enemies although there have been few observations of juvenile king crab in the stomachs of large cod (Gadus morhua), wolf fish (Anarchichus minor and A. lupus) and seals.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Watercurrents carry larvae.
 
Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Active walking by the crabs.
 
Intentional Introduction

Ballast water may be a source of species spread.

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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Red king crabs caught in by-catch cause concern to fishermen as they damage fishing gear (DAISIE, 2006).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Biodiversity

Introduced predators are hypothesized to have the largest impact on native communities (Lodge, 1993; Ross et al., 2003). The red king crab is a large generalist predator (Logvinovich, 1945; Tarverdieva, 1976; Pavlova et al., 2007), so its potential impact on native bottom communities is expected to be high. Adult red king crabs are opportunistic omnivores (Cunningham, 1969) feeding on the most abundant benthic organisms. At least one food or species group tend to dominate their diet, and diet composition is usually area-specific (Jewett and Feder, 1982). Red king crabs have two distinct ways of feeding: 1) grasping and tearing apart larger invertebrates and 2) filtering organisms with the third maxillipeds from substrate scooped up by the lesser chela. Scooping of sand was often observed by Cunningham (1969) during periods when no evident food material was immediately available, although the significance of this behaviour was obscure, he suggests this as an alternative method of feeding when larger prey was unavailable.
 
Red king crabs feed most intensively in late spring, probably to replace energy recently expended during molting and mating (Jewett and Feder, 1982). However, laboratory studies shows that the crab completely stopped feeding during ecdysis and feed at lower rate before and after ecdysis with no sign of compensatory feeding (Zhou et al., 1998). The crab might eliminate up to 15% of the coastal population of sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus) (Gudimov et al., 2003). The potential impact of the invader on commercial scallop Chlamys islandica beds showed that all size classes of crab preferred scallops, but juveniles and medium size crabs demonstrated selection of starfish (Jørgensen, 2005) but scallop beds with a rich associated fauna are less vulnerable to crab predation than beds with few associated species (Jørgensen and Primicerio, 2007). Crabs also feed on the wastes of scallops damaged by dredging in exploited scallop beds (Anisimova et al., 2005). Studies by Anisimova et al. (2005) on king crab-invaded Russian bays revealed steady decrease in biomass of sipunculids, echinoderms and bivalves, which are all preferred foods of the red king crab though the result might also have been affected by commercial bottom trawling in the area.  
 
It is documented that the red king crab feeds on fish eggs in the period of their spring mass spawning. However, long-term Russian observations on invaded area showed that, on average, frequency of occurrence of fish eggs in the crab stomachs in spring was not higher than 6% and its percentage in the crab diet accounted for not more than 2%. In 2001, an investigation on king crab consumption of capelin egg showed that the crab consumed 0.03% of the capelin egg spawning mass in the Russian economical zone (Anisimova et al., 2005).
 
The diet of both haddock and the red king crab in the Barents Sea is composed of echinoderms, molluscs and worms. Haddock catches, mean individual length in catches, feeding intensity, frequency of occurrence of plankton, worms, molluscs and echinoderms were analyzed in a period (1971-1977) with low abundance and in a period (1995-2002) of increased king crab abundance. However the analysis did not reveal any trophic competition between the red king crab on haddock feeding in the Russian part of the Barents Sea (Anisimova et al., 2005).
 
The carapace of P. camtschaticus is a favoured substrate for the leech Johanssonia arctica to deposit its eggs, and the leech is a vector for a trypanosome blood parasite of marine fish, including cod. Investigations showed that the level of trypanosome infection in cod was significantly higher in the area with the greatest density of king crabs and it is hypothesized that the burgeoning population of red king crabs in native areas is indirectly responsible for increased transmission of trypanosomes to cod by promoting an increase in the population of the leech vector (Hemmingsen et al., 2005).
 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition
  • Predation
  • Rapid growth
  • Trampling
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally

Detection and Inspection

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For information see the Sea Grant publication ‘Biological Field Techniques for Lithodid Crabs’ http://seagrant.uaf.edu/bookstore/pdfs/ak-sg-05-03a.pdf.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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King crabs have a crab-like morphology and a strongly calcified exoskeleton (Cunningham et al., 1992). Furthermore, they have a fused head and thorax, an asymmetrical abdominal flap, one pair of chelipeds, three pairs of walking legs and an array of antennae and mouth parts (mandibles, maxillae and maxillipeds). P. camtschaticus is one of several species of the genus present in the subarctic areas of North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea.

Characteristics distinguishing the three species P. camtschaticus (red king crab), P. platypus (blue king crab) and P. brevipes (Hanasaki crab) include the shape and number of spines on the posterior and postero-lateral margins, the cardiac and branchial regions of the carapace (see Pictures). Lithodes maja is morphologically similar to the king crab group, but is distinguished from adult Paralithodes by the comparatively smaller body size and the bi-fid rostrum. It ranges from the Barents Sea southwards along the coast of Norway and Greenland and to the south coast of Ireland and England.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Control

Control by utilization

Fishing.

References

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Anisimova N; Berenboim B; Gerasimova O; Manushin I; Pinchukov M, 2005. On the effect of red king crab on some components of the Barents Sea ecosystem/Ecosystem dynamics and optimal long-term harvest in the Barents Sea Fisheries. In: Proceedings of the 11th Russian-Norwegian Symposium, Murmansk, 15-17 August 2005. IMR/PINRO Joint Report Series, 298-306.

Bouvier E, 1896. [English title not available]. (Sur la classification des Lithodines et sur leur distribution dans les oceans) Annls. Sci. Nat. Zool, 8(1):1-46.

Bright DB, 1967. Life histories of the king crab, Paralithodes camtschatica, and the Tanner crab, Chionoecetes bairdi, in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Los Angeles, : University of Southern California, 265 pp.

Cunningham CW; Blackstone NW; Buss LW, 1992. Evolution of king crab from hermit crab ancestors. Nature, 355:539-542.

Cunningham DT, 1969. A study of the food and feeding relationships of the Alaskan king crab Paralithodes camtschatica. California, San Diego, : State College, 84 pp.

DAISIE, 2006. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Dew CB, 1990. Behavioural ecology of podding red king crab, Paralithodes camtschatica. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci, 47(10):1944-1958.

Fukuhara FM, 1985. Biology and fishery of south-eastern Bering Sea red king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica, Tilesius). NOAA Processed Rep., 801-982.

Gerasimova OV, 1997. Analysis of king crab (Paralithodes camtscahtica) trophic links in the Barents Sea. ICES CM 1977/GG:03., 21 pp.

Gudimov AV; Gudimova EN; Pavlova LV, 2003. Effect of the Red King Crab Paralithodes camtschaticus on the Murmansk Coastal Macrobenthos: The First Estimates Using Sea Urchins of the Genus Strongylocentrotus as an Example. Doclady Biological Sciences, 393(1-6):539-541.

Hansen T, 2002. Temparature preferences of the Red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus). University of Tromsø, Norway: Norwegian College of Fishery Science, 86 pp.

Hemmingsen W; Jansen PA; MacKenzie K, 2005. Crabs, leeches and trypanosomes: an unholy trinity? Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50(3):336-339. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0025326x

Hjelset AM; Sundet JH; Nilssen EM, 2009. Size at Sexual Maturity in the female red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) in a newly settled population in the Barents Sea, Norway. J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci, 41:173-182.

Hood DW; Fisher V; Nebert D; Feder H; Mueller GL; Burrell D; Boisseau D; Goering JJ; Sharma GD; Kresge DT; Fison SR, 1974. Environmental study of the marine environment near Nome, Alaska. University of Alaska, Institute of Marine Science, 265 pp.

Jewett SC; Feder HM, 1982. Food and feeding habits of the king crab Paralithodes camtschatica near Kodiak Island, Alaska. Marine Biology, 66(3):243-250.

Jewett SC; Gardner LA; Rusanowski PM, 1982. Food and feeding habits of red king crab from north-western Norton Sound Alaska. In: Proc. Intern. Symp. King Tanner crabs, Univ. Alaska Sea Grant Rep, 219-232.

Jewett SC; Onuf CP, 1988. Habitat suitability index models: Red king crab. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Ser. Biol. Rep., National Wetlands Research Center, Slidell. Louisiana., 34 pp.

Jørgensen LL, 2005. Impact scenario for an introduced decapod on Arctic epibenthic communities. Biological Invasions, 7(6):949-957. http://www.springerlink.com/content/lx14208l0jr52hh1/fulltext.pdf

Jørgensen LL, 2006. NOBANIS - Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet - Paralithodes camtschaticus. Online Database of the North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species - NOBANIS. http://www.nobanis.org

Jørgensen LL; Manushin I; Sundet JH; Birkely SR, 2005. The introduction of the marine red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus into the southern Barents Sea. ICES Cooperative Research Report.

Jørgensen LL; Primicerio R, 2007. Impact scenario for an introduced decapod on Arctic epibenthic communities. Biological Invasions, 7:949-957.

Jørstad KE; Smith C; Grauvogel Z; Seeb L, 2007. The genetic variability of the red king crab, Paralithodes camtschatica (Tilesius, 1815) (Anomura, Lithodidae) introduced into the Barents Sea compared with samples from the Bering Sea and Kamchatka region using eleven microsatellite loci. Hydrobiologia, 590:115-121. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/1573-5117/

Kurata H, 1961. On the age and growth of king crab, Paralithodes camtschatica. Hokkaido Fish. Exp. Sta., Monthly Rep., 10-22.

Larsen L, 1996. Temperature depended development, growth and mortality of Red king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica Tilesius) larvae in experimental conditions. Norway: Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø, 86 pp.

Latreille PA, 1829. [English title not available]. (Les Crustacés, les Arachnides et les Insectes, distribués en familles naturelles) In: Le Règne Animal, distribué d'après son organisation, pour servir de base à l'histoire naturelle des animaux et d'introduction à l'anatomie comparée [ed. by Cuvier G], i-xxvii,1-584.

Lodge DM, 1993. Biological invasions: lessons for ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 8:133-137.

Logvinovich DN, 1945. Aquarium observations on the feeding of the Kamchatka crab. (Akvarial'nya nablyudeniya nad pitaniem Kamchatskogo kraba) Materialy po biologii promyslu o obrabotke Kamchatskogo kraba [Materials on biology, fishery and refinement of the Kamchatka crab]. Izvestiya Tikhookeanskogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Istituta Rybnogo Khozyaistva i Okeanografii [TINRO]., 79-97.

Marukawa H, 1933. Taraba-gani chosa [Biological and fishery research on the Japanese king crab Paralithodes camtschatica (Tilesius)]. J. Imp. Fish. Exp. Sta., Tokyo, 4(37):152 pp.

Orlov YI; Ivanov BG, 1978. On the introduction of the Kamchatka king crab Paralithodes camtschatica (Decapoda: Anomura: Lithodidae) into the Barents Sea. Mar. Biol, 48(4):373-375.

Orlov YI; Karpevich AF, 1965. On the introduction of the commercial crab Paralithodes camtschatica (Tilesius) into the Barents Sea. In: ICES Spec. Meeting 1962 to consider problems in the exploitation and regulation of fisheries for Crustacea. Rapp. P.-v. Réun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer [ed. by Cole HA], 59-61.

Pavlova LV; Britayev TA; Rzhavsky AV, 2007. Benthos elimination by juvenile red king crabs Paralithodes camtschaticus (Tilesius, 1815) in the Barents Sea coastal zone: Experimental data. Doklady Biological Sciences, 414:231-234.

Powell GC, 1974. Gregarious king crabs. Sea Frontiers, 20(4):206-211.

Powell GC; Nickerson RB, 1965. Reproduction of king crabs Paralithodes camtschatica (Tilesius). J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can, 22(1):101-111.

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Organizations

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Norway: Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Sykehusveien 23. P.O.Box 6404. V-9294 Tromso, http://www.imr.no/en

Russian Federation: Knipovich Polar Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (PINRO), 183763, Knipovich Street, 6, Murmansk, http://www.ipy-care.org/index.php?s=1&rs=2&lg=en

Contributors

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24/07/09 Original text by:

Lis Lindal Jørgensen, Havforskningsinstituttet/Institute of marine Research, Sykehusveien 23, P.O.Box 6404, N-9294 Tromsø, Norway

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