Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Oxyura jamaicensis
(ruddy duck)

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Datasheet

Oxyura jamaicensis (ruddy duck)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Oxyura jamaicensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • ruddy duck
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Aves
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) is common in the Americas, where it is native. However, it has become an invasive species in Europe where it mainly frequents freshwater lakes and man-made reservoirs. It is...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis); male. Sylvan Heights Waterfowl Park, Scotland Neck, North Carolina, USA. March, 2010.
TitleMale
CaptionRuddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis); male. Sylvan Heights Waterfowl Park, Scotland Neck, North Carolina, USA. March, 2010.
Copyright©Dick Daniels/carolinabirds.org - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis); male. Sylvan Heights Waterfowl Park, Scotland Neck, North Carolina, USA. March, 2010.
MaleRuddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis); male. Sylvan Heights Waterfowl Park, Scotland Neck, North Carolina, USA. March, 2010.©Dick Daniels/carolinabirds.org - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis); female. Monterey, California, USA. February, 2012.
TitleFemale
CaptionRuddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis); female. Monterey, California, USA. February, 2012.
Copyright©Dick Daniels/carolinabirds.org - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis); female. Monterey, California, USA. February, 2012.
FemaleRuddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis); female. Monterey, California, USA. February, 2012.©Dick Daniels/carolinabirds.org - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin, 1789)

Preferred Common Name

  • ruddy duck

Other Scientific Names

  • Anas jamaicensis Gmelin, 1789

International Common Names

  • English: northern ruddy duck
  • Spanish: malvasía cabeciblanca; malvasía canela; pato tepalcate
  • French: erismature rousse

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: Amerikansk skarveand
  • Germany: schwartzkopf ruderente
  • Iceland: hrókönd
  • Italy: gobbo della giamaica
  • Netherlands: rosse stekelstaarteend
  • Norway: stivhaleand
  • Sweden: Amerikansk kopparand

Summary of Invasiveness

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The ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) is common in the Americas, where it is native. However, it has become an invasive species in Europe where it mainly frequents freshwater lakes and man-made reservoirs. It is listed as an ‘invasive alien species of Union concern’ under EU Regulation No 1143/2014, and is regarded as the most serious threat to the survival of the globally endangered white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala) due to the ability of the two species to hybridize freely. Ruddy ducks were introduced into waterfowl collections in the UK in the late 1940s, and by the mid-1950s several individuals had escaped to form a free-flying population in southwest England. The UK population had risen to about 4000 birds by 1998 , by which time annual breeding attempts were also thought to take place in Belgium, France, Ireland, Germany, the Netherlands and Morocco. The first hybridization between the ruddy duck and the white-headed duck in the wild was recorded in 1991 in Spain, where at least 86 hybrids have been recorded despite a well-organized control programme to remove any ruddy ducks arriving in the country. Control programmes are also in place in France and Portugal, but not in The Netherlands where a viable population may still exist. In the UK, following regional control trials to find effective eradication methods, an eradication programme began in 2005, which has succeeded in reducing the UK population by 95% as of 2010.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Aves
  •                     Order: Anseriformes
  •                         Family: Anatidae
  •                             Genus: Oxyura
  •                                 Species: Oxyura jamaicensis

Description

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O. jamaicensis is a small diving duck with a long tail, often held erect. On average the females weigh 550 g and males around 600 g. During the breeding season males can be distinguished from other ducks by a white cheek patch, chestnut red body plumage and blue bill. Females are distinguished by their body structure and off-white cheek split by a horizontal brown stripe. Both sexes can be distinguished from the white-headed duck by their smaller size, shorter tail, thinner cheek stripe and concave bill profile.

Distribution

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In its native range, O. jamaicensis is common and widely distributed through North America, the Caribbean, and Andean regions of South America. The latest information on its distribution in Europe between winter 2010/11 and summer 2016 (Hall, 2016) shows that France, the Netherlands, Belgium and the UK held the largest numbers of O. jamaicensis during both the winter and summer months. The population in France is concentrated in the west of the country, with the main wintering site close to Nantes on the Atlantic coast. In the Netherlands the birds occur mainly in the west of the country, and in Belgium most birds occur in Flanders with breeding attempts usually restricted to the Antwerp area, close to the Dutch border. In the UK, an eradication programme, which began in 2005, has caused the distribution to become highly fragmented, with very small numbers occurring in isolated populations from central Scotland and Northern Ireland in the north, down to the south coast of England. The UK, France, the Netherlands and Belgium have all experienced regular breeding events for many years, although only one event has occurred annually in recent years in Belgium, and the number of successful breeding attempts in the UK had fallen to two or three in 2015 and 2016. Other European countries contain much smaller numbers with no evidence of breeding. Switzerland reports regular sightings of up to three birds, whilst the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia and Spain report irregular sightings of fewer than five birds (Hall, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MoroccoAbsent1986Hall (2016); Cranswick and Hall (2010)Not recorded since at least winter 2010/11

Asia

TurkeyAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Hall (2016); Cranswick and Hall (2010)Possible sighting of a single bird in May 2016. It was not certain whether the bird was a ruddy duck or a hybrid (x white-headed duck). Occasional unconfirmed reports since 1988

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroduced1991InvasiveCranswick and Hall (2010); Hall (2016)Four records between 1996 and 2009
BelgiumPresentIntroduced1979InvasiveCranswick and Hall (2010); Hall (2016)32 birds in 2016
CzechiaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced1985InvasiveCranswick and Hall (2010); Hall (2016)Irregular sightings of less than five birds, 2011-2015 data
DenmarkPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced1985InvasiveCranswick and Hall (2010)Largest observation (1996 to 2009) – four birds. No recent data
FinlandPresentIntroduced1989InvasiveCranswick and Hall (2010); Hall (2016)rregular sightings of less than five birds, 2011-2015
FrancePresent, LocalizedIntroduced1974InvasiveCranswick and Hall (2010); Hall (2016)Core area southern Brittany, Estimated peak wintering population in winter 2015/16 was 208 birds
GermanyPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced1982InvasiveCranswick and Hall (2010)Largest observation (1996 to 2009) – eight birds. No recent data
HungaryPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced1994InvasiveCranswick and Hall (2010); Hall (2016)Irregular sightings of less than five birds, 2011-2015
IcelandAbsent, Formerly present1976Cranswick and Hall (2010); Hall (2016)No records since winter 2010/11
IrelandPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced1973InvasiveCranswick and Hall (2010); Irish Birding (2017)At least two female/immature birds in eastern Ireland, January 2015
ItalyPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced1987InvasiveCranswick and Hall (2010)24 records between 1996 and 2009, no recent data
NetherlandsPresent, LocalizedIntroduced1973InvasiveCranswick and Hall (2010); Hall (2016)Estimated peak of 62 in winter 2015/16
NorwayPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced1984InvasiveCranswick and Hall (2010); Hall (2016)Irregular sightings of less than five birds, 2011-2015
PolandPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedInvasiveHall (2016)Irregular sightings of less than five birds, 2011-2015
PortugalPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced1989InvasiveCranswick and Hall (2010); Hall (2016)Irregular sightings of less than five birds, 2011-2015
-AzoresPresent, Few occurrencesRodebrand (2012)One individual recorded in 2009
SloveniaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced1999InvasiveCranswick and Hall (2010); Hall (2016)Irregular sightings of less than five birds, 2011-2015
SpainPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced1982InvasiveHall (2016)Irregular sightings of single birds, 2011-2015
-Balearic IslandsAbsent, Formerly presentMuntaner (2001)One record only, in 2001
SwedenAbsent, Formerly presentCranswick and Hall (2010); Hall (2016)No sightings since 2008
SwitzerlandPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedInvasiveHall (2016)Regular sightings of up to three birds, 2011-2015
United KingdomPresent, LocalizedIntroduced1960InvasiveHudson (1976); Henderson (2009); Hall (2016)Population peaked at almost 6000 birds in 2001. Now approximately 20 birds remaining in very small, well scattered populations throughout UK

North America

AnguillaPresent, Few occurrencesNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
Antigua and BarbudaPresent, Few occurrencesNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
BarbadosPresent, Few occurrencesNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
British Virgin IslandsPresent, Few occurrencesNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
CanadaPresent, WidespreadNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)Mainly western areas of Canada but locally in Great Lakes areas
CubaPresent, LocalizedNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
DominicaPresent, Few occurrencesNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
Dominican RepublicPresent, LocalizedNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
GrenadaPresent, Few occurrencesNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
GuadeloupePresent, Few occurrencesNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
HaitiPresent, LocalizedNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
JamaicaPresent, LocalizedNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
MartiniquePresent, Few occurrencesNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
MexicoPresent, LocalizedNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)Mainly wintering birds, but breeds locally in the central Mexican interior
MontserratPresent, Few occurrencesNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
Puerto RicoPresent, LocalizedNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent, Few occurrencesNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
Saint LuciaPresent, Few occurrencesNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, Few occurrencesNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent, Few occurrencesNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadNativeJohnsgard and Carbonell (1996)Main breeding area is from Minnesota to southern California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nebraska and Iowa. Sporadic breeding east to New York and south to Florida and coastal Texas. Winters along Pacific coast, Gulf coast, and Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to Florida, but principally between Maryland and North Carolina

South America

ArgentinaPresent, LocalizedNativeFjeldså and Krabbe (1990)Andean regions
BoliviaPresent, LocalizedNativeFjeldså and Krabbe (1990)Andean regions
ChilePresent, LocalizedNativeFjeldså and Krabbe (1990)Andean regions
ColombiaPresent, LocalizedNativeFjeldså and Krabbe (1990)Andean regions
EcuadorPresent, LocalizedFjeldså and Krabbe (1990)
PeruPresent, LocalizedNativeFjeldså and Krabbe (1990)Andean regions, and locally on coast

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
UK USA 1948 Botanical gardens and zoos (pathway cause) Yes No Hudson (1976) Three pairs brought to Wildfowl Trust, Slimbridge, UK to form part of collection. A number of escapes occurred from Slimbridge in the 1950s and 1960s, and the species first bred in the wild in the UK in 1960

Habitat

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The habitat of Oxyura jamaicensis (ruddy duck) includes marshes, lakes and coastal areas; and when not breeding, on sheltered brackish and marine coastal areas as well as lakes and rivers (temperate Zone). They nest on freshwater marshes, sloughs, lakes, and ponds, and in areas where open water is bordered by dense aquatic vegetation. The nest is a floating structure of marsh plants hidden by growing plants. Ruddy ducks lay eggs in nests of other waterfowl species. They may nest at potholes of less than an acre (InfoNatura, 2004).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Multiple
Freshwater/Rivers / streams Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural/Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Nutrition
Oxyura jamaicensis (ruddy ducks) feed on benthic invertebrates, especially chironomid larvae.

Reproduction
Sexual. Seasonal - from April to August. Timing of breeding is controlled by physiological readiness modified by food availability, stability of water levels and available nesting cover. Egg-laying season is aligned symmetrically either side of longest day. Ruddy ducks may dump eggs and forego breeding if conditions become unsuitable. Breeding strategy is a mixture of monogamy, polygyny and promiscuity. Ruddy ducks can relay up to 4 times per season if eggs are lost. There is usually only one brood per year, but there can be a double brood (2-3 young per female per year).

Lifecycle stages
Oxyura jamaicensis (ruddy ducks) produce large eggs to maximise survival of large nidifugous young. They breed first when one year old. They arrive on breeding grounds in April, nest building occurs mainly in May, incubation in June, and most broods hatch in July. Birds leave breeding areas in August/September. In the USA, age composition in autumn is estimated at 1:1 adults to juveniles. The sex ratio is male biased (c1.1-1.2 males per female in late winter). Survival rates are unknown. Maximum lifespan of wild ringed individuals in the USA is 13 years, but most were reported dead less than 2 years after ringing (US Dept. Interior unpubl. data); 18 captive birds had mean lifespan of 2.4 years.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
60 53

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Introduction pathways to new locations
Ignorant possession: Accidental releases from waterfowl collections.
Natural dispersal: Subsequent spread from the UK feral population to Europe.
Taken to botanical garden/zoo: Accidental releases from waterfowl collections.

Local dispersal methods
Escape from confinement:
Natural dispersal (local):

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoos Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Negative
Rare/protected species Negative

Impact

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Oxyura jamaicensis (ruddy duck) threatens the globally endangered white-headed duck (see Oxyura leucocephala in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) with extinction through introgressive hybridisation and competition. It is known that ‘ruddy duck x white-headed duck’ hybrids are fertile to the second generation in captivity, which poses an increased threat to the survival of the white-headed duck. Given that white-headed ducks in Spain are now protected from hunting and habitat loss, introgression with the ruddy duck may be the greatest long-term threat to the white-headed duck (Henderson, 2010).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Oxyura leucocephalaEN (IUCN red list: Endangered)SpainHybridizationGreen and Hughes, 1996 Potentially threatened in other Mediterranean countries

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Hybridization
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Pet/aquarium trade

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

In the UK, a four year research programme (1992-1996) evaluated the success of seven control techniques (winter rifle-shooting, winter shotgun-shooting, summer rifle-shooting, summer shotgun-shooting (all shooting land based), winter trapping using baited cage traps, nest trapping females, and egg-control). Population modelling suggested that shooting was the most efficient technique for ruddy duck control, particularly breeding season shooting and shooting of the large wintering flocks (Henderson, 2010). Shooting during the summer breeding season  was at least 2.5 times as efficient as nest-trapping, and at least 3.5 times as efficient as egg destruction (Hughes 1996). A regional trial of control methods (1999-2002), which controlled over 2,000 ruddy ducks, has shown shotgun-shooting from boats, throughout the year, to be even more cost effective. Following the research and trials, a programme aiming to eradicate ruddy ducks from the UK began in 2005. Since then over 6,800 ruddy ducks have been culled across England, Scotland and Wales, and as of March 2010 the UK population is thought to have been reduced by over 95% since the start of the eradication programme (Henderson, 2010).

National control programmes for ruddy ducks and hybrids are now in place in Spain (84 ruddy ducks and 57 hybrids shot to December 2000), France (43 ruddy ducks shot to October 2000) and Portugal (one ruddy duck and two hybrids shot), but not in other countries, such as The Netherlands, Belgium, and Morocco. In France and Spain where there are much smaller numbers of birds present, often only single birds in flocks of other ducks, a more selective shooting technique needs to be used, involving the use of rifles, hides (both floating and shore-based) and boats to move birds towards marksmen.

European countries aim for complete eradication by 2015, and the most recent data show that numbers continue to fall in Europe. In 2011, only two ruddy ducks were observed in Spain both of which were culled, and in France, 127 ruddy ducks were culled out of 239 recorded; in the UK, numbers have fallen to below 100 as of 2012. In the Netherlands, numbers remain low despite no current eradication programme (Fera, 2012).

Please follow this link to view BirdLife: White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala) for information on the population status of the white-headed and ruddy duck in Europe, legal protection, establishment of protected areas and planning conservation activities and the implementation of the recommendations of the Bern convention (Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats).

Please follow this link to read Hughes, B., Robinson, J.A., Green, A.J., Li, Z.W.D. & Mundkur, T. (Compilers). 2006. International Single Species Action Plan for the Conservation of the White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala.

Bibliography

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BirdLife International 2006. Marmaronetta angustirostris. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/141535/0

BirdLife International 2006. Oxyura leucocephala. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/141428/0

BirdLife International., 2012. White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala).  http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=359

Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. 1999. White-headed Duck Task Force: Recommendations for action within the UK to conserve the globally threatened White-headed duck.

The Food and Environment Agency (Fera), 2012. UK ruddy duck eradication programme project bulletin April 2012. 

Green, A.J. and Hughes, B. 2001. In: Parkin, D.B. (Ed.). BWP Update: The journal of birds of the Western Palearctic. In press. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Green, A.J. and Hughes, B.J. 1996. Action plan for the white-headed duck Oxyura leucocephala. In: Heredia, B., L. Rose and M. Painter (Eds.). Globally threatened birds in Europe. Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg. 119-146.

Henderson I.S. 2010. The Eradication of Ruddy Ducks in the United Kingdom. Aliens: The Invasive Species Bulletin, 29: 17-24.

Hughes, B. 1992. The ecology and behaviour of the Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis jamaicensis (Gmelin) in Great Britain. PhD Thesis, University of Bristol. 212 pp.

Hughes, B. 1996. The feasibility of control measures for North American Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) in the United Kingdom. Department of the Environement, UK. 153 pp.

Hughes, B. 1998. Ruddy Duck. In: Ogilvie, M.A. (Ed.). BWP Update: The journal of birds of the Western Palearctic. 2 (3): 159-171. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hughes, B., Criado, J., Delany, S., Gallo-Orsi, U., Green, A.J., Grussu, M., Perennou, C., and Torres, J.A. 1999. The status of the North American Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis in the Western Palearctic: towards an action plan for eradication. Council of Europe Publication T-PVS/Birds (99) 9. Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg.

Hughes, B., Robinson, J.A., Green, A.J., Li, Z.W.D. & Mundkur, T. (Compilers). 2006. International Single Species Action Plan for the Conservation of the White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala. CMS Technical Series No. 13 & AEWA Technical Series No.8. Bonn, Germany. http://www.unep-aewa.org/publications/technical_series/ts8_ssap_white-headed-duck_complete.pdf

InfoNatura: Birds, mammals, and amphibians of Latin America [web application]. 2004. Version 3.2 . Arlington, Virginia (USA): NatureServe. http://www.natureserve.org/infonatura

IUCN, SEO/Birdlife, and Haut Commissariat aux Eaux et Forets et a la lutte contre la desertification du Maroc. 2004. Plan d’action pour le controle de l'erismature rousse au Maroc. (Action plan for ruddy ducks in Morocco) 2003-2005.

Smith, G. C., Henderson, I. S. and Robertson, P. A., 2005. A model of ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis eradication for the UK. Journal of Applied Ecology 2005 42, 546–555

References

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Cranswick PA, Hall C, 2010. In: Eradication of the ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis in the Western Palaearctic: a review of progress and a revised Action Plan 2010–2015. WWT report to the Bern Convention . Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing .http://www.gt-ibma.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/pel-eradication-ruddy-duck.pdf

Fjeldså J, Krabbe N, 1990. Birds of the High Andes: A Manual to the Birds of the Temperate Zone of the Andes and Patagonia, South America, Apollo Books.880 pp.

Hall C, 2016. In: A review of the progress against the action plan for eradication of the ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis in the Western Palearctic, 2011 –2015. WWT report to the Bern Convention . Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing.https://rm.coe.int/16807461da

Henderson I, 2009. Progress of the UK ruddy duck eradication programme. British Birds, 102, 680-690.

Hudson R, 1976. Ruddy ducks in Britain. British Birds, 69, 132-143.

Irish Birding, 2017. In: IrishBirding.com, http://www.irishbirding.com/birds/web Irish Birding, 2017. http://www.irishbirding.com/birds/web

ISSG, 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

Johnsgard PA, Carbonell M, 1996. Ruddy ducks and other stifftails: their behaviour and biology, Oklahoma, USA: University of Oklahoma Press.291 pp.

Muntaner J, 2001. First record of the Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis in the Balearic Islands and conservation problems of the White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala. (Primera cita de malvasía canela Oxyura jamaicensis en Las Baleares y problemas de conservación de la malvasía cabeciblanca Oxyura leucocephala ). Anuari Ornitològic de Les Balears, 16, 41-46. https://www.raco.cat/index.php/AnuariOrnitologic/article/viewFile/138538/189515

Rodebrand S, 2012. Checklist of the birds of the Azores including 2012. http://sr-oland.se/onewebmedia/checklist.pdf

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cranswick PA, Hall C, 2010. Eradication of the ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis in the Western Palaearctic: a review of progress and a revised Action Plan 2010–2015. WWT report to the Bern Convention., Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing. http://www.gt-ibma.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/pel-eradication-ruddy-duck.pdf

Fjeldså J, Krabbe N, 1990. Birds of the High Andes: A Manual to the Birds of the Temperate Zone of the Andes and Patagonia, South America., Apollo Books. 880 pp.

Hall C, 2016. A review of the progress against the action plan for eradication of the ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis in the Western Palearctic, 2011 –2015. WWT report to the Bern Convention., Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing. https://rm.coe.int/16807461da

Henderson I, 2009. Progress of the UK ruddy duck eradication programme. In: British Birds, 102 680-690.

Hudson R, 1976. Ruddy ducks in Britain. In: British Birds, 69 132-143.

Irish Birding, 2017. IrishBirding.com., http://www.irishbirding.com/birds/web

Johnsgard PA, Carbonell M, 1996. Ruddy ducks and other stifftails: their behaviour and biology., Oklahoma, USA: University of Oklahoma Press. 291 pp.

Muntaner J, 2001. First record of the Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis in the Balearic Islands and conservation problems of the White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala. (Primera cita de malvasía canela Oxyura jamaicensis en Las Baleares y problemas de conservación de la malvasía cabeciblanca Oxyura leucocephala). In: Anuari Ornitològic de Les Balears, 16 41-46. https://www.raco.cat/index.php/AnuariOrnitologic/article/viewFile/138538/189515

Rodebrand S, 2012. Checklist of the birds of the Azores including 2012., http://sr-oland.se/onewebmedia/checklist.pdf

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GB Non-native Species Secretariatwww.nonnativespecies.org

Contributors

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09/022/17 Updated by:

Iain Henderson, Animal and Plant Health Agency, York, UK

Compiled by:

Dr Baz Hughes, The Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust, Slimbridge, UK

Distribution Maps

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