Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ostrea edulis
(European oyster)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Ostrea edulis (European oyster)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 February 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Vector of Animal Disease
  • Threatened Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ostrea edulis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • European oyster
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Mollusca
  •       Class: Bivalvia
  •         Subclass: Pteriomorphia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Ostrea edulis is an oyster species native to Europe, and formerly much cultivated before populations were reduced by overharvesting and disease; it has been introduced to a number of regions around the world for aquaculture or fisheries,...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Habit. June 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionOstrea edulis (European oyster); Habit. June 2007.
Copyright©Museos Científicos Coruñeses/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Habit. June 2007.
HabitOstrea edulis (European oyster); Habit. June 2007.©Museos Científicos Coruñeses/via Flickr - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Opened Oyster. Loch Ryan, Scotland. October 2017.
TitleAdult
CaptionOstrea edulis (European oyster); Opened Oyster. Loch Ryan, Scotland. October 2017.
Copyright©Taishonambu/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Opened Oyster. Loch Ryan, Scotland. October 2017.
AdultOstrea edulis (European oyster); Opened Oyster. Loch Ryan, Scotland. October 2017.©Taishonambu/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Preserved specimen.
TitlePreserved specimen
CaptionOstrea edulis (European oyster); Preserved specimen.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Relased by Naturalis Biodiversity Center/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Preserved specimen.
Preserved specimenOstrea edulis (European oyster); Preserved specimen.Public Domain - Relased by Naturalis Biodiversity Center/via Wikimedia Commons - CC0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Longitudinal section to show the shell structure. Near Avranches, Normandy, France. Collected August 1971. Photographed December 2009.
TitleShell
CaptionOstrea edulis (European oyster); Longitudinal section to show the shell structure. Near Avranches, Normandy, France. Collected August 1971. Photographed December 2009.
Copyright©H. Zell/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Longitudinal section to show the shell structure. Near Avranches, Normandy, France. Collected August 1971. Photographed December 2009.
ShellOstrea edulis (European oyster); Longitudinal section to show the shell structure. Near Avranches, Normandy, France. Collected August 1971. Photographed December 2009.©H. Zell/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Oyster shells from oysters prepared for food. Whitstable, England. May 2016.
TitleShells
CaptionOstrea edulis (European oyster); Oyster shells from oysters prepared for food. Whitstable, England. May 2016.
Copyright©Emőke Dénes/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Oyster shells from oysters prepared for food. Whitstable, England. May 2016.
ShellsOstrea edulis (European oyster); Oyster shells from oysters prepared for food. Whitstable, England. May 2016.©Emőke Dénes/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Oysters prepared as food.  Whitstable, England. May 2016.
TitleMarketed for sale
CaptionOstrea edulis (European oyster); Oysters prepared as food. Whitstable, England. May 2016.
Copyright©Emőke Dénes/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.5
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Oysters prepared as food.  Whitstable, England. May 2016.
Marketed for saleOstrea edulis (European oyster); Oysters prepared as food. Whitstable, England. May 2016.©Emőke Dénes/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 2.5
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); O. edulis served in a restaurant. Yerseke, Zeeland, the Netherlands. April 2013.
TitleServed as food
CaptionOstrea edulis (European oyster); O. edulis served in a restaurant. Yerseke, Zeeland, the Netherlands. April 2013.
Copyright©Takeaway/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); O. edulis served in a restaurant. Yerseke, Zeeland, the Netherlands. April 2013.
Served as foodOstrea edulis (European oyster); O. edulis served in a restaurant. Yerseke, Zeeland, the Netherlands. April 2013.©Takeaway/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Native oyster beds, now rare due to overfishing, epidemic disease, predation, competition for space and food, habitat degradation, chemical pollution, eutrophication and other human pressures. Brittany, France. March 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionOstrea edulis (European oyster); Native oyster beds, now rare due to overfishing, epidemic disease, predation, competition for space and food, habitat degradation, chemical pollution, eutrophication and other human pressures. Brittany, France. March 2017.
Copyright©Pouvreau Stephane (2017). Underwater images of the last native oysters beds in Brittany (France). Ifremer. https://doi.org/10.24351/48842 - CC BY 4.0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Native oyster beds, now rare due to overfishing, epidemic disease, predation, competition for space and food, habitat degradation, chemical pollution, eutrophication and other human pressures. Brittany, France. March 2017.
HabitOstrea edulis (European oyster); Native oyster beds, now rare due to overfishing, epidemic disease, predation, competition for space and food, habitat degradation, chemical pollution, eutrophication and other human pressures. Brittany, France. March 2017.©Pouvreau Stephane (2017). Underwater images of the last native oysters beds in Brittany (France). Ifremer. https://doi.org/10.24351/48842 - CC BY 4.0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Native oyster beds, now rare due to overfishing, epidemic disease, predation, competition for space and food, habitat degradation, chemical pollution, eutrophication and other human pressures. Brittany, France. March 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionOstrea edulis (European oyster); Native oyster beds, now rare due to overfishing, epidemic disease, predation, competition for space and food, habitat degradation, chemical pollution, eutrophication and other human pressures. Brittany, France. March 2017.
Copyright©Pouvreau Stephane (2017). Underwater images of the last native oysters beds in Brittany (France). Ifremer. https://doi.org/10.24351/48842 - CC BY 4.0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Native oyster beds, now rare due to overfishing, epidemic disease, predation, competition for space and food, habitat degradation, chemical pollution, eutrophication and other human pressures. Brittany, France. March 2017.
HabitOstrea edulis (European oyster); Native oyster beds, now rare due to overfishing, epidemic disease, predation, competition for space and food, habitat degradation, chemical pollution, eutrophication and other human pressures. Brittany, France. March 2017.©Pouvreau Stephane (2017). Underwater images of the last native oysters beds in Brittany (France). Ifremer. https://doi.org/10.24351/48842 - CC BY 4.0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Native oyster beds, now rare due to overfishing, epidemic disease, predation, competition for space and food, habitat degradation, chemical pollution, eutrophication and other human pressures. Brittany, France. March 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionOstrea edulis (European oyster); Native oyster beds, now rare due to overfishing, epidemic disease, predation, competition for space and food, habitat degradation, chemical pollution, eutrophication and other human pressures. Brittany, France. March 2017.
Copyright©Pouvreau Stephane (2017). Underwater images of the last native oysters beds in Brittany (France). Ifremer. https://doi.org/10.24351/48842 - CC BY 4.0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Native oyster beds, now rare due to overfishing, epidemic disease, predation, competition for space and food, habitat degradation, chemical pollution, eutrophication and other human pressures. Brittany, France. March 2017.
HabitOstrea edulis (European oyster); Native oyster beds, now rare due to overfishing, epidemic disease, predation, competition for space and food, habitat degradation, chemical pollution, eutrophication and other human pressures. Brittany, France. March 2017.©Pouvreau Stephane (2017). Underwater images of the last native oysters beds in Brittany (France). Ifremer. https://doi.org/10.24351/48842 - CC BY 4.0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Native oyster beds, now rare due to overfishing, epidemic disease, predation, competition for space and food, habitat degradation, chemical pollution, eutrophication and other human pressures. Brittany, France. March 2017.
TitleHabit
CaptionOstrea edulis (European oyster); Native oyster beds, now rare due to overfishing, epidemic disease, predation, competition for space and food, habitat degradation, chemical pollution, eutrophication and other human pressures. Brittany, France. March 2017.
Copyright©Pouvreau Stephane (2017). Underwater images of the last native oysters beds in Brittany (France). Ifremer. https://doi.org/10.24351/48842 - CC BY 4.0
Ostrea edulis (European oyster); Native oyster beds, now rare due to overfishing, epidemic disease, predation, competition for space and food, habitat degradation, chemical pollution, eutrophication and other human pressures. Brittany, France. March 2017.
HabitOstrea edulis (European oyster); Native oyster beds, now rare due to overfishing, epidemic disease, predation, competition for space and food, habitat degradation, chemical pollution, eutrophication and other human pressures. Brittany, France. March 2017.©Pouvreau Stephane (2017). Underwater images of the last native oysters beds in Brittany (France). Ifremer. https://doi.org/10.24351/48842 - CC BY 4.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ostrea edulis Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • European oyster

Other Scientific Names

  • Ostrea adriatica Lam.-Middendorff, 1848
  • Ostrea crynusii Payraudeau, 1826
  • Ostrea taurica Krynicki, 1837

International Common Names

  • English: European flat oyster; native oyster
  • Spanish: ostra plana
  • French: huître plate

Local Common Names

  • Bulgaria: stridia
  • Germany: auster
  • Italy: ostrica
  • Romania: stridie
  • Russian Federation: ustritsa
  • Turkey: istiride

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Ostrea edulis is an oyster species native to Europe, and formerly much cultivated before populations were reduced by overharvesting and disease; it has been introduced to a number of regions around the world for aquaculture or fisheries, and established wild populations in some of these regions. Benson (2005) reported that impacts of its introduction were unknown, but translocated oysters are known to act as vectors of marine alien species (Haupt et al., 2010), and it is reported that translocation of this species from North America back to Europe brought with it the protozoan parasite Bonamia ostreae, which has caused significant mortality in European populations of O. edulis (ISSG, 2021).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Mollusca
  •             Class: Bivalvia
  •                 Subclass: Pteriomorphia
  •                     Order: Ostreoida
  •                         Unknown: Ostreoidea
  •                             Family: Ostreidae
  •                                 Genus: Ostrea
  •                                     Species: Ostrea edulis

Description

Top of page

Morphology

The shell of Ostrea edulis is rounded and has external grooves and ridges radiating from the hinge; the left valve is saucer-shaped with pink or purple markings, and the right valve is flat and generally brown in colour (Yonge, 1960). Left-valve convexity is less marked than in cupped oysters of the genus Crassostrea.

Distribution

Top of page

The natural range of Ostrea edulis is in the northeast Atlantic extending from Scandinavia to North Africa and into the Mediterranean Sea as far as the Black Sea (Yonge, 1960; Walne, 1965; Alvarez et al., 1989). The history of the introduction of the species to the Atlantic coast of North America, where it now has established self-sustaining populations, is well documented (Hidu and Lavoie, 1991). It has also become established in Western Australia (Morton et al., 2003), and is cultivated in California and Washington State, USA (Benson, 2005). Its presence is also recorded in places as far apart as Israel, Namibia/South Africa, Mauritius, New Zealand and Japan (ISSG, 2017).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 29 Jan 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MauritiusPresentIntroduced
MoroccoPresentNative
NamibiaPresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentIntroduced1946Originally introduced in 1946; thought to be extinct, but recorded again more recently.

Asia

IsraelPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentIntroduced
TurkeyPresent

Europe

BelgiumPresentNative
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentCultured in Mali Ston Bay
CroatiaPresentNative
DenmarkPresentNative
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentNative
FrancePresentNative
GermanyPresentNative
GreecePresentNative
IrelandPresentNative
ItalyPresentNative
MaltaPresent
MontenegroPresentIncluding culture in Boka Kotorska bay
NetherlandsPresentNative
NorwayPresentNative
PortugalPresentNative
SpainPresentNative
SwedenPresentNative
UkrainePresentNative
United KingdomPresentNative
-Channel IslandsPresentNative

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New BrunswickPresentIntroducedOccurrence of population has led to some commercial consideration of this species for aquaculture
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresent, LocalizedIntroducedBaja California
United StatesPresent, LocalizedIntroducedCultivated on east and west coasts; wild from Maine to Rhode Island
-AlaskaPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced
-MainePresentIntroduced
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroduced
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Western AustraliaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
FijiAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
New ZealandPresentIntroduced
TongaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)

Sea Areas

Atlantic - NortheastPresentNative
Atlantic - NorthwestPresentIntroduced
Atlantic - SoutheastPresentIntroduced
Indian Ocean - EasternPresent, LocalizedIntroducedWestern Australia
Indian Ocean - WesternPresentIntroduced
Mediterranean and Black SeaPresentNative
Pacific - Eastern CentralPresentIntroduced
Pacific - NortheastPresentIntroduced
Pacific - NorthwestPresentIntroduced
Pacific - SouthwestPresentIntroduced
Pacific - Western CentralAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
USA 1940s Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Yes Benson (2005)
Fiji Japan 1977 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sector No No FAO (2017)
Tonga Japan 1975 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FAO (2017)
Tonga USA 1975 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FAO (2017)
Namibia USA 1990 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No FAO (2017)
USA Netherlands 1949 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FAO (2017)
France USA 1970s Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FAO (2017)
Canada UK 1957 Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause)Unknown No No FAO (2017)
Japan USA 1948 Unknown Yes No FAO (2017)
Japan France 1952 Unknown Yes No FAO (2017)
UK 1966 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2017)

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Tolerated Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive and negative

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Human food and beverage

  • Canned meat
  • Cured meat
  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat
  • Live product for human consumption
  • Whole

Materials

  • Shell

References

Top of page

Agius C, Jaccarini V, Ritz DA, 1978. Growth trials of Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea edulis in inshore waters of Malta (Central Mediterranean). Aquaculture, 15(3):195-218

Aguado-Giménez, F., Hernández, M. D., Cerezo-Valverde, J., Piedecausa, M. A., García-García, B., 2014. Does flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) rearing improve under open-sea integrated multi-trophic conditions?. Aquaculture International, 22(2), 447-467. doi: 10.1007/s10499-013-9653-6

Alderman DJ, Jones EBG, 1971. Physiological requirements of two marine phycomycetes, Althornia crouchii and Ostracoblabe implexa . Transaction of the British Mycological Society, 57:213-225

Alderman DJ, Jones EBG, 1971. Shell disease of oysters. MAFF Fishery Investigation Series II, 26. London, UK: HMSO, 1-19

Alvarez G, Zapata C, Amaro R, Guerra A, 1989. Multilocus heterozygosity at protein loci and fitness in the European oyster, Ostrea edulis L. Heredity, 63(3):359-372

Andrews EB, Jennings KH, 1993. The anatomical and ultrastructural basis of primary urine formation in bivalve molluscs. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 59(2):223-257

Benson A, 2005. Ostrea edulis. USGS Nonindiginous aquatic species database, Gainesville, FL. Online at http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.asp?SpeciesID=118. Revision date 20 April 2004

Berthe FCJ, Le Roux F, Adlard RD, Figueras A, 2004. Marteiliosis in mollusks: a review. Aquatic living resources, 17(4):433-448

Bower SM, 2003. Synopsis of Infectious Diseases and Parasites of Commercially Exploited Shellfish: Mikrocytos mackini (Denman Island Disease) of Oysters. Online at http://www-sci.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/shelldis/pages/mikmacoy_e.htm

Bower SM, McGladdery SE, Price IM, 1994. Synopsis of infectious diseases and parasites of commercially exploited shellfish. Annual Review of Fish Diseases, 4:1-3

Bower, S. M., 2010. Synopsis of infectious diseases and parasites of commercially exploited shellfish. Canada: Fisheries and Oceans Canada.https://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/aah-saa/diseases-maladies/index-eng.html [Derived from Bower, S.M., McGladdery, S.E., Price, I.M. (1994). Synopsis of infectious diseases and parasites of commercially exploited shellfish. Annual Review of Fish Diseases 4: 1-199 and subsequently updated]

Bromley, C., McGonigle, C., Ashton, E. C., Roberts, D., 2016. Restoring degraded European native oyster, Ostrea edulis, habitat: is there a case for harrowing?. Hydrobiologia, 768, 151-165. doi: 10.1007/s10750-015-2544-2

Bruce JR, Knight M, Parke MW, 1940. The rearing of oyster larvae on an algal diet. Journal of the Marine Biological Association, UK, 24:337-374

Cáceres-Martínez J, Robledo JAF, Figueras A, 1995. Presence of Bonamia and its relation to age, growth rates and gonadal development of the flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, in the Ría de Vigo, Galicia (NW Spain). Aquaculture, 130(1):15-23

Cano J, Rosique MJ, Rocamora J, 1997. Influence of environmental parameters on reproduction of the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis L.) in a coastal lagoon (Mar Menor, Southeastern Spain). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 63:187-196

Carlton JT, Mann R, 1996. Transfers and worldwide introductions, In: Kennedy et al., eds. The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Maryland, USA: Maryland Sea Grant College, College Park, 691-706

Cole HA, 1937. Experiments on the breeding of oysters (Ostrea edulis) in tanks, with special reference to the food of the larvae and spat. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Fishery Investigations Series II, 15

Enright C, Krailo D, Staples L, Smith M, Vaughan C, Ward D, Gaul P, Borgese E, 1983. Biological control of fouling algae in oyster aquaculture. Journal of Shellfish Research, 3(1):41-44

FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, 2021. Ostrea edulis (Linnaeus, 1758). Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Ostrea_edulis/en

FAO, 2017. Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species (DIAS). In: Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species (DIAS) Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.http://www.fao.org/fishery/dias/en

Farley CA, Banfield WG, Kasnic G, Foster WS, 1972. Oyster herpes-type virus. Science, 178:759-760

FIGIS, 2005. Fisheries Global Information System. Online at www.fao.org. Accessed 25 July 2005

Funes VG, Jiménez RA, 1989. Histological identification of the gonadal phases of the European oyster (Ostrea edulis), introduced experimentally into the north western coast of Baja California, Mexico. Ciencias Marinas, 15(2):41-54

Gardner J, Elliott M, 2002. UK Biodiversity Action Plan Native Oyster Species Information Review. Institute of Estuarine and Coastal Studies University of Hull Report Reference No: Z123-F-2001

Gercken, J., Schmidt, A. , 2014. Current status of the European oyster (Ostrea edulis) and possibilities for restoration in the German North Sea. Germany: Bundesamt für Naturschutz.88 pp. https://www.bfn.de/fileadmin/BfN/meeresundkuestenschutz/Dokumente/2015-06-02_Auster_Machbarkeitsstudie-barrierefrei-english.pdf

Glamuzina, B., Pešić, A., Joksimović, A., Glamuzina, L., Matić-Skoko, S., Conides, A., Klaoudatos, D., Zacharaki, P., 2014. Observations on the increase of wild gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata abundance, in the eastern Adriatic Sea: problems and opportunities. International Aquatic Research, 6(3), 127-134. doi: 10.1007/s40071-014-0073-7

Gonzalez-Wanguemert M, Perez-Ruzafa A, Rosique MJ, Ortiz A, 2004. Genetic differentiation in two cryptic species of Ostreidae, Ostrea edulis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Ostreola stentina (Payraudeau, 1826) in Mar Menor Lagoon, southwestern Mediterranean Sea. Nautilus, 118(3):103-111

Gosling E, 2003. Bivalve Molluscs Biology, Ecology and Culture. Oxford, UK: Fishing News Books, 443 pp

Harding JP, 1948. An Australian barnacle invades our estuaries. The Illustrated London News, April 24. 468

Harrang, E., Heurtebise, S., Faury, N., Robert, M., Arzul, I., Lapègue, S., 2015. Can survival of European flat oysters following experimental infection with Bonamia ostreae be predicted using QTLs?. Aquaculture, 448, 521-530. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.06.019

Haupt, T. M., Griffiths, C. L., Robinson, T. B., Tonin, A. F. G., 2010. Oysters as vectors of marine aliens, with notes on four introduced species associated with oyster farming in South Africa. African Zoology, 45(1), 52-62. doi: 10.3377/004.045.0101

Héral M, Deslous-Paoli JM, 1991. Oyster culture in European countries. In: Menzel W, ed. Estuarine and marine bivalve mollusk culture. Boston, USA: CRC Press Inc., 153-190

Hidu, H., Lavoie, R. E., 1991. The European oyster in Maine and eastern Canada. In: Estuarine and marine bivalve mollusk culture, [ed. by Menzel, W.]. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: CRC Press Inc.. 35-46. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/european-oyster-ostrea-edulis-maine-eastern-canada-herbert-hidu-rene-lavoie/e/10.1201/9781351071918-4

Holmes JMC, Minchin D, 1991. A new species of Herrmannella (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Sabelliphilidae) associated with the oyster Ostrea edulis L. Crustaceana, 60:258-269

ISSG, 2017. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) : Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

ISSG, 2021. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) : Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Jug-Dujaković, M., Gavrilović, A., Jug-Dujaković, J., 2008. Possible means of protection and indentification of Mali Ston oyster in the market. (Mogući oblici zaštite i identifikacije Malo-Stonske kamenice na tržištu). Naše More, 55(5/6), 262-268. http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=51261

Jørgensen CB, 1990. Bivalve filter feeding: hydrodynamics, bioenergetics, physiology and ecology. Olsen and Olsen, Fredensborg, Denmark

Kaiser MJ, 2001. Ecological effects of shellfish cultivation. In: Black KD, ed. Environmental impacts of aquaculture. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 51-75

Kennedy RJ, Roberts D, 1999. A survey of the current status of the flat oyster Ostrea edulis in Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland, with a view to the restoration of its oyster beds. Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 99B(2):79-88

Kennedy VS, Eble AF, Newell RIE, 1996. The Eastern Oyster: Crassostrea virginica. Maryland Sea Grant College, USA. 1-731

Kirby MX, 2004. Fishing down the coast: historical expansion and collapse of oyster fisheries along continental margins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 101(35):13096-13099

Klaveness D, 1990. Size structure and potential food value of the plankton community to Ostrea edulis L. in a traditional Norwegian “østerpoll”. Aquaculture, 86:231-247

Knight-Jones EW, 1948. Elminius modestus: Another imported pest of east coast oyster beds. Nature, 161:201-202

Korringa P, 1940. Experiments and observations on swarming, pelagic life and setting in the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis L. Arch. Neerl. Zool., 5:1-249

Korringa P, 1952. Recent advances in oyster biology. Quarterly Review of Biology, 27:266-308, 339-365

Laing I, Walker P, Areal F, 2005. A feasibility study of native oyster (Ostrea edulis) stock regeneration in the United Kingdom. CEFAS, 95pp

Laing, I., Walker, P., Areal, F., 2006. Return of the native - is European oyster (Ostrea edulis) stock restoration in the UK feasible?. Aquatic Living Resources, 19(3), 283-287. doi: 10.1051/alr:2006029

Lallias, D., Beaumont, A. R., Haley, C. S., Boudry, P., Heurtebise, S., Lapègue, S., 2007. A first-generation genetic linkage map of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis (L.) based on AFLP and microsatellite markers. Animal Genetics, 38(6), 560-568. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2007.01647.x

Lallias, D., Gomez-Raya, L., Haley, C. S., Arzul, I., Heurtebise, S., Beaumont, A. R., Boudry, P., Lapègue, S., 2009. Combining two-stage testing and interval mapping strategies to detect QTL for resistance to bonamiosis in the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis. Marine Biotechnology, 11(5), 570-584. doi: 10.1007/s10126-008-9173-y

Launey S, Ledu C, Boudry P, Bonhomme F, Naciri-Graven Y, 2002. Geographic structure in the European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis L.) as revealed by microsatellite polymorphism. Journal of Heredity, 93(5):331-338

Leitão A, Chaves R, Santos S, Guedes-Pinto H, Boudry P, 2004. Restriction enzyme digestion chromosome banding in Crassostrea and Ostrea species: comparative karyological analysis within Ostreidae. Genome, 47(5):781-8

Loosanoff VL, 1962. Gametogenesis and spawning of the European oyster, Ostrea edulis, in waters of Maine. Biological Bulletin, 122(1), 86-94. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.2307/1539324

Loosanoff VL, Davis HC, 1963. Rearing of bivalve mollusks. Advances in Marine Biology, 1:1-136

Lynch, S. A., Flannery, G., Hugh-Jones, T., Hugh-Jones, D., Culloty, S. C., 2014. Thirty-year history of Irish (Rossmore) Ostrea edulis selectively bred for disease resistance to Bonamia ostreae. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 110(1/2), 113-121. doi: 10.3354/dao02734

Mann R, 1979. Some biochemical and physiological aspects of growth and gametogenesis in Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea edulis grown at sustained elevated temperatures. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 59:95-110

Millar RH, 1971. Breeding and gonadial cycles of oysters in Loch Ryan, Scotland. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer., 28:432-439

Millican PF, Helm MM, 1994. Effects of nutrition on larvae production in the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis. Aquaculture, 123(1/2):83-94

Montes J, Ferro-Soto B, Conchas RF, Guerra A, 2003. Determining culture strategies in populations of the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, affected by bonamiosis. Aquaculture, 220(1/4):175-182

Morton B, Lam K, Slack-Smith S, 2003. First report of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis, identified genetically, from Oyster Harbour, Albany, south-western Western Australia. Molluscan Research, 23(3):199-208

Navarrete-Mier, F., Sanz-Lázaro, C., Marín, A., 2010. Does bivalve mollusc polyculture reduce marine fin fish farming environmental impact?. Aquaculture, 306(1/4), 101-107. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.06.013

Nelson TC, 1960. The feeding mechanism of the oyster II. On the gills and palps of Ostrea edulis, Crassostrea virginica and C. angulata. Journal of Morphology, 107(2):163-203

Newkirk GF, 1989. Culture of the Belon oyster, Ostrea edulis, in Nova Scotia. In: Boghen AD, ed. Cold-water Aquaculture in Atlantic Canada. Canadian Institute for Research on Regional Development, Moncton, 159-179

Orton JH, 1937. Oyster Biology and Oyster Culture. London, UK: Arnold

Philpots JR, 1890. Oysters and all about them, London and Leicester, UK: John Richardson & Co.642 pp. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/1566 doi:10.5962/bhl.title.1566

Pogoda, B., Buck, B. H., Saborowski, R., Hagen, W., 2013. Biochemical and elemental composition of the offshore-cultivated oysters Ostrea edulis and Crassostrea gigas. Aquaculture, 400/401, 53-60. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.02.031

Saavedra C, Zapata C, Alvarez G, 1995. Geographical patterns of variability at allozyme loci in the European oyster Ostrea edulis. Marine Biology, 122(1):95-104

Saavedra C, Zapata C, Guerra A, Alvarez G, 1993. Allozyme variation in European populations of the oyster Ostrea edulis. Marine Biology, 115:85-95

Sawusdee, A., Jensen, A. C., Collins, K. J., Hauton, C., 2015. Improvements in the physiological performance of European flat oysters Ostrea edulis (Linnaeus, 1758) cultured on elevated reef structures: implications for oyster restoration. Aquaculture, 444, 41-48. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.03.022

Saxby SA, 2002. A review of food availability, sea water characteristics and bivalve growth performance at coastal culture sites in temperate and warm temperate regions of the world. Perth, Western Australia, Australia: Department of Fisheries, Government of Western Australia.42 pp. http://www.fish.wa.gov.au/Documents/research_reports/frr132.pdf [Fisheries Research Report No. 132]

Smaal, A. C., Capelle, J., Lindeboom, H., 2011. Flat oyster restoration with special reference to the western Wadden Sea. In: BfN - Skripten (Bundesamt für Naturschutz),(No.287) [ed. by Nordheim, H. von, Krause, J. C., Maschner, K.]. Bonn, Germany: Bundesamt für Naturschutz (German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation). 125-134. http://www.bfn.de

Sobolewska H, Beaumont AR, Hamilton A, 2001. Dinucleotide microsatellites isolated from the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis. Molecular Ecology Notes, 1(1/2):79-80

Spencer BE, 2002. Molluscan Shellfish Farming. Oxford, UK: Fishing News Books, Blackwell Publishing

Stroud, G. D., undated. Handling and Processing Oysters. Aberdeen, UK: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Torry Research Station.http://www.fao.org/3/x5954e/x5954e00.htm [Torry Advisory Note No. 84]

Tully, O., Clarke, S. , 2012. The Status and Management of Oyster (Ostrea edulis) in Ireland. Rinville, Ireland: The Marine Institute, Fisheries Ecosystems Advisory Services.36 pp. https://oar.marine.ie/bitstream/handle/10793/828/Tully&Clarke_IrFishInvest_24_2012.pdf [Irish Fisheries Investigations No. 24]

University Marine Biological Station Millport, 2007. Conservation of the Native Oyster Ostrea edulis in Scotland. Inverness, UK: Scottish Natural Heritage.viii + 174 pp. https://www.nature.scot/naturescot-commissioned-report-251-conservation-native-oyster-ostrea-edulis-scotland [Scottish Natural Heritage Commissioned Report No.251 (ROAME No. F02AA408).]

Vercaemer B, Spence K, Kenchington E, Mallet A, Harding J, 2003. Assessment of genetic diversity of the European oyster (Ostrea edulis) in Nova Scotia using microsatellite markers. Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2453. Dartmouth: Department of Fisheries and Oceans

Waller TR, 1981. Functional morphology and development of veliger larvae on the European oyster, Ostrea edulis Linné. Smithsonian contribution to Zoology, No. 328

Walne PR, 1965. Observations on the influence of food supply and temperature on the feeding and growth of the larvae of Ostrea edulis. Fisheries Investigation Series II: 14(1)

Walne PR, 1974. Culture of Bivalve Molluscs. 50 years experience at Conwy. Surrey, England: Fishing News (Books) Ltd

Ward JE, Newell RIE, Thompson RJ, MacDonald BA, 1994. In vivo studies of suspension-feeding processes in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). Biological Bulletin, 186:221-240

Wilson JH, 1981. Hatchery rearing of Ostrea edulis and Crassostrea gigas. Aquaculture Technical Bulletin, Ireland, 4:1-34

Wilson JH, Simmons J, 1985. Gametogenesis and breeding of Ostrea edulis on the West coast of Ireland. Aquaculture, 46:307-321

Woolmer, A.P., Syvret, M. , FitzGerald, A., 2011. Restoration of Native Oyster, Ostrea edulis, in South Wales: Options and Approaches. 93 pp. [CCW Contract Science Report No: 960]

Yıldiz, H., Berber, S., Acarlı, S., Vural, P., 2011. Seasonal variation in the condition index, meat yield and biochemical composition of the flat oyster Ostrea edulis (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Dardanelles, Turkey. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 10(1), e5. http://ijas.pagepress.org/index.php/ijas/article/view/ijas.2011.e5/pdf_25

Yonge CM, 1926. Structure and physiology of the organs of feeding and digestion in Ostrea edulis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association, UK, 15:643-653

Yonge CM, 1960. Oysters. London, UK: Collins

Yonge CM, 1970. Oyster cultivation. Underwater Journal, 2(3):138-144

Zrnčić, S., Oraić, D., 2005. Shellfish aquaculture in Croatia: control and safety. (Uzgoj školjkaša u hrvatskoj: kontrola i sigurnost). Veterinarska Stanica, 36(5/6), 299-304.

Distribution References

Agius C, Jaccarini V, Ritz D A, 1978. Growth trials of Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea edulis in inshore waters of Malta (Central Mediterranean). Aquaculture. 15 (3), 195-218. DOI:10.1016/0044-8486(78)90031-5

Benson A, 2005. (Ostrea edulis). In: USGS Nonindigenous aquatic species database, Gainesville, FL, http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.asp?SpeciesID=118

Burke K, Bataller É, Miron G, 2008. Spat collection of a non-native bivalve species (European oyster, Ostrea edulis) off the Eastern Canadian coast. Journal of Shellfish Research. 27 (2), 345-353. DOI:10.2983/0730-8000(2008)27[345:SCOANB]2.0.CO;2

CABI, 2021. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, 2021. Ostrea edulis (Linnaeus, 1758)., Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Ostrea_edulis/en

Funes V G, Jiménez R A, 1989. Histological identification of the gonadal phases of the European oyster (Ostrea edulis), introduced experimentally into the north western coast of Baja California, Mexico. (Identificacion histologica de las fases gonadicas del ostion Europeo (Ostrea edulis), introducido experimentalmente en la porcion noroccidental de la costa de Baja California, Mexico.). Ciencias Marinas. 15 (2), 41-54.

Gavrilović A, Petrinec Z, 2003. Production and technology of breeding oysters (O. edulis) in the Bay of Mali Ston: perspective of the development. (Proizvodnja i tehnologija uzgoja kamenica O. edulis u malostonskom zaljevu - perspektive razvoja.). Veterinarska Stanica. 34 (1), 5-11.

Glamuzina B, Pešić A, Joksimović A, Glamuzina L, Matić-Skoko S, Conides A, Klaoudatos D, Zacharaki P, 2014. Observations on the increase of wild gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata abundance, in the eastern Adriatic Sea: problems and opportunities. International Aquatic Research. 6 (3), 127-134. DOI:10.1007/s40071-014-0073-7

Gosling E, 2003. Bivalve molluscs: biology, ecology and culture. [ed. by Gosling E]. Oxford, UK: Fishing News Books Ltd., x + 443 pp.

Haupt T M, Griffiths C L, Robinson T B, Tonin A F G, 2010. Oysters as vectors of marine aliens, with notes on four introduced species associated with oyster farming in South Africa. African Zoology. 45 (1), 52-62. DOI:10.3377/004.045.0101

Héral M, Deslous-Paoli JM, 1991. Oyster culture in European countries. In: Estuarine and marine bivalve mollusk culture, [ed. by Menzel W]. Boston, USA: CRC Press Inc. 153-190.

Hidu H, Lavoie R E, 1991. The European oyster in Maine and eastern Canada. In: Estuarine and marine bivalve mollusk culture. [ed. by Menzel W]. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: CRC Press Inc., 35-46. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/european-oyster-ostrea-edulis-maine-eastern-canada-herbert-hidu-rene-lavoie/e/10.1201/9781351071918-4

ISSG, 2017. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

ISSG, 2021. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD), Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Morton B, Lam K, Slack-Smith S, 2003. First report of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis, identified genetically, from Oyster Harbour, Albany, south-western Western Australia. In: Molluscan Research, 23 (3) 199-208.

Newkirk GF, 1989. Culture of the Belon oyster, Ostrea edulis, in Nova Scotia. In: Cold-water Aquaculture in Atlantic Canada, [ed. by Boghen AD]. Moncton, Canadian Institute for Research on Regional Development. 159-179.

Yıldiz H, Berber S, Acarlı S, Vural P, 2011. Seasonal variation in the condition index, meat yield and biochemical composition of the flat oyster Ostrea edulis (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Dardanelles, Turkey. Italian Journal of Animal Science. 10 (1), e5. http://ijas.pagepress.org/index.php/ijas/article/view/ijas.2011.e5/pdf_25

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Essex Native Oyster Restoration Initiative (ENORI) https://essexnativeoyster.com/
FIGIShttp://www.fao.org/fishery/topic/18042/enFisheries Global Information System
The Blue Marine Foundation’s Solent Oyster Restoration Project http://www.bluemarinefoundation.com/project/solent/

Contributors

Top of page

25/03/2018 Updated by:

Vicki Bonham, consultant, UK

Main Author
David "Dai" Roberts
Marine Systems Research Group, School of Biology and Biochemistry, Medical Biology Centre, Queen's University, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: