Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Litopenaeus vannamei
(whiteleg shrimp)

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Datasheet

Litopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Litopenaeus vannamei
  • Preferred Common Name
  • whiteleg shrimp
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Crustacea
  •         Class: Malacostraca
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • L. vannamei is a decapod crustacean which is native to the eastern Pacific coast of Central and South America from <_st13a_city _w3a_st="on">Tumbes, <_st13a_country-region _w>...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cleaning and processing harvested white shrimp. Thailand.
TitleCleaning & processing
CaptionCleaning and processing harvested white shrimp. Thailand.
CopyrightChang Kwei Lin
Cleaning and processing harvested white shrimp. Thailand.
Cleaning & processingCleaning and processing harvested white shrimp. Thailand.Chang Kwei Lin
Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae in a plastic bag.
TitleLitopenaeus vannamei postlarvae
CaptionLitopenaeus vannamei postlarvae in a plastic bag.
CopyrightNyan Taw
Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae in a plastic bag.
Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvaeLitopenaeus vannamei postlarvae in a plastic bag.Nyan Taw
Monitoring health of Litopenaeus vannamei.
TitleMonitoring shrimp health
CaptionMonitoring health of Litopenaeus vannamei.
CopyrightNyan Taw
Monitoring health of Litopenaeus vannamei.
Monitoring shrimp healthMonitoring health of Litopenaeus vannamei.Nyan Taw
Litopenaeus vannamei in ice after harvest.
TitleShrimps in ice after harvest
CaptionLitopenaeus vannamei in ice after harvest.
CopyrightNyan Taw
Litopenaeus vannamei in ice after harvest.
Shrimps in ice after harvestLitopenaeus vannamei in ice after harvest.Nyan Taw

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)

Preferred Common Name

  • whiteleg shrimp

Other Scientific Names

  • Penaeus vannamei Boone, 1931

International Common Names

  • English: Pacific white shrimp; white-legged shrimp
  • Spanish: camarón patiblanco
  • French: crevette pattes blanches

Summary of Invasiveness

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L. vannamei is a decapod crustacean which is native to the eastern Pacific coast of Central and South America from <_st13a_city _w3a_st="on">Tumbes, <_st13a_country-region _w3a_st="on">Peru in the south to <_st13a_place _w3a_st="on"><_st13a_country-region _w3a_st="on">Mexico in the north. It has been introduced widely around the world since the 1970s, but especially since 2000, as it has become the principle cultured shrimp species in <_st13a_place _w3a_st="on">Asia. The species itself is not considered a major threat to biodiversity, does not appear to have formed breeding populations, and has generally resulted in positive economic impacts in non-indigenous areas.  

An examination of current lists of invasive species published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Invasive Species Specialist Group (IUCN, 2004) revealed no listings for L. vannamei. As mentioned, L. vannamei has been anthropogenically introduced as an aquaculture species to several areas of the world to which it is not native (e.g. USA, Belize, Brazil, Venezuela, Various Carribean and pacific islands, South-East Asia, mainland China, India, etc.). Although there have been numerous escapes from aquaculture production facilities into non-native waters, and this species is regularly caught in the wild around Asia, it is as yet unproven whether breeding populations have been established outside its natural range.

Perhaps of more concern is that L. vannamei is known to carry a range of diseases (especially viral) that can affect both this species and the native shrimp (and other crustacean) species in countries where it has been introduced. This can have negative consequences on its culture and the culture of the indigenous species and possibly on wild stocks, although very little is known about this. However, it is suspected that diseases such as Taura syndrome virus, infectious myonecrosis virus and necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (and elements of the mondodon slow growth syndrome) have been brought into Asia from Latin America with introductions of L. vannamei.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Crustacea
  •                 Class: Malacostraca
  •                     Subclass: Eumalacostraca
  •                         Order: Decapoda
  •                             Suborder: Dendrobranchiata
  •                                 Unknown: Penaeoidea
  •                                     Family: Penaeidae
  •                                         Genus: Litopenaeus
  •                                             Species: Litopenaeus vannamei

Description

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Morphology

Shrimp of the family Penaeidae follow a similar body design to that of most Malacostracans. That is, they are laterally compressed, elongate decapods, with a well-developed abdomen adapted for swimming. Each somite (segment) is enclosed by a dorsal tergum and ventral sternum. It is usual to call the side plates (and any extensions thereof) of each somite the pleura (Dall et al., 1990).

In the Penaeidae the head (five somites) and thorax (eight somites) are fused into a cephalothorax, which is completely covered by the carapace. The pleura of the cephalothorax form the branchiostegite or gill cover. The carapace has characteristic ridges (carinae) and grooves (sulci). The rostrum is always prominent, with a high median blade bearing dorsal teeth and, in some genera, ventral teeth as well. The compound eyes are stalked and laterally mobile and the somites of the head bear, in order, pairs of antennules, antennae, mandibles, maxillules (maxillae 1) and maxillae (maxillae 2). The thorax has three pairs of maxillipeds and five pairs of pereiopods (legs), the first three being chelate and used for feeding, and last two simple (non-chelate) and used for walking. The abdomen consists of six somites, the first five with paired pleopods. The mouth is situated ventrally and the cephalic appendages surrounding it, plus the first and second maxillipeds and sometimes the third as well, may be referred to collectively as the ‘mouth parts’. The anus is on the ventral surface of the telson, towards its base (Dall et al., 1990).

Penaeids are dioecious and the external structures of the genital system are the major dimorphic features. The male has two pairs of modified abdominal appendages on the first and second abdominal segments (the petasma and appendix masculina) that deliver sperm to the female's external receptacle (the thelycum) located between the bases of the fifth walking legs. The petasma, appendix masculine and thelycum are located on the ventral surface (Bailey-Brock and Moss, 1992).

The petasma is formed by the endopodites of the first pair of pleopods which are modified as interlocking structures for spermatophore transfer. The appendix masculina are on the endopodites of the second pair of pleopods and serve to separate the petasma into two component halves. The thelycum may be ‘open’ or ‘closed’, depending on the species. Closed thelyca are those where the spermatophore is placed by a male in the groove below the plates whereas the female is in the soft exoskeleton stage following moulting. The spermatophore is stored for some time before spawning. Open thelyca are not enclosed by plates, and the spermatophore must be placed on it by a male when the female's exoskeleton is hard; usually within hours of spawning. The presence of a spermatophore on the female is evidence that she has successfully mated. Open thelyca are found in some shrimp species endemic to the western hemisphere, such as P. stylirostris and P. vannamei; whereas closed thelyca are characteristic of most Asian species, such as P. monodon, P. chinensis, P. indicus and P. merguiensis (Bailey-Brock and Moss, 1992).

Internal organs of the male reproductive system include paired testes, vas deferens and terminal ampoules for spermatophore storage. The female reproductive system includes paired (but partially fused) ovaries that extend from the mid-thorax to the posterior end of the abdomen, and oviducts terminating adjacent to a single thelycum. (Bailey-Brock and Moss, 1992).

The morphology of the digestive tract in the Penaeidae is similar to that of most Decapoda. It is divided into a complex, cuticle-lined foregut region; a compact digestive (or midgut) gland at the beginning of the midgut region, followed by a long tubular, simple part; and a cuticle-lined hindgut region, consisting principally of the rectum (Dall et al., 1990).

The foregut has been variously called the ‘stomodaeal apparatus’ (ponderous, but technically correct); the ‘stomach’ (morphologically incorrect: it is part of the stomodaeum); the ‘proventriculus’ (derived from analogy with insects, where it is a region between the crop and midgut) (Dall et al., 1990).

The labrum and surrounding tissues are glandular, but the role of these glands is unknown. The mouth leads into a short vertical oesophagus, surrounded by contractile muscles, which can close it in a sphincter-like manner. The oesophagus opens into the lumen of the anterior of the proventriculus. The proventriculus is divided into two principal chambers. The anterior chamber is distensible, particularly in the anterior part; it is sometimes called the ‘food sac’. There are a pair of ventro-lateral, elongate plates, each of which bears a row of small teeth, which lead to the much heavier armature of the lateral teeth of the gastric mill and the single, dorsal median tooth. The posterior chamber is much narrower than the anterior chamber and is further divided into an upper compartment, which is a through-canal to the midgut, and a lower filter-press. The foregut cuticle ends where the latter opens ventrally into the digestive gland, which surrounds the lower posterior chamber and extends dorsally around it as far as the tip of the anterior diverticulum. Above the filter-press, the foregut cuticle extends backwards to the paired openings of the anterior diverticulum of the midgut, which are closed by a pair of lappets. The principal functions of the midgut are the secretion of digestive enzymes and absorption of nutrients. The remainder of the midgut is a straight tube, running from the cephalothorax dorsally through the abdomen to the rectum. It is lined by a folded, simple epithelium. At the anterior end, two lateral openings lead into the dorsal anterior diverticulum; at the posterior end, a dorsal opening leads into the posterior diverticulum. Histologically, both diverticula appear to be simple extensions of the midgut. The short muscular rectum is lined by six pad-like ridges, whose primary function appears to be for grasping the faecal pellet in the peritrophic membrane and extruding it (Dall et al., 1990).

The rostrum is armed with dorsal and usually, 2-4 (occasionally 5-8) ventral teeth, which are moderately long, and in young distinctly surpassing antennular peduncle. They are shorter in adults, sometimes reaching only to the mid-length of second antennular segment. Carapace has pronounced antennal and hepatic spines, and lacks orbital and pterygostomian spines. The post-ocular sulcus is absent. The post-rostral carina is of variable length, sometimes almost reaching posterior margin of carapace. The adrostral carina and sulcus short, extending to, or only slightly beyond epigastric tooth. Gastrofrontal carina are absent, whereas the gastro-orbital carina is relatively short, usually extending (at most) anteriorly about two-thirds of distance between hepatic spine and orbital margin. The orbito-antennal sulcus is well marked, with sharp cervical and hepatic carinae, and deep accompanying sulci (GSMFC, 2004).

Branchiocardiac carina are lacking and longitudinal and transverse sutures absent. The sixth abdominal somite bears three cicatrices, dorsolateral sulcus extremely narrow or absent. The telson is unarmed. Antennules lack a parapenaeid spine and antennular flagella are much shorter than the carapace. The palp of first maxilla is elongate, consisting of 3 or 4 articles, with distal ones together flagelliform. The basal article is produced into setose proximal lobes on the lateral and mesial margins, which bear 1 or 2 long distomesial spines, and distolateral row of spinules. Basial and ischial spines are present on first pereiopod, and a basial on second (Perez Farfante and Kensley, 1997).

In mature males the petasma is symmetrical, semi-open, not hooded, lacking distomedian projections, and has short ventral costae, not nearly reaching distal margin and distinctly gaping (Perez Farfante, 1975; Perez Farfante and Kensley, 1997). The spermatophores are extremely complex, consisting of a sperm mass encapsulated by a sheath and bearing various attachment structures (anterior wing, lateral flap, caudal flange, dorsal plate), as well as adhesive and glutinous materials (Chow et al., 1991). The mature female has an open thelycum and sternite XIV (14) bearing ridges, prominences, depressions, or grooves (Perez Farfante, 1975; Perez Farfante and Kensley, 1997).

Life stages

L. vannamei has six nauplii stages, three protozeal stages, and three mysis stages in its pelagic larval life history (Kitani, 1986). Subsequently, it becomes a post-larva and adopts a benthic lifestyle.

The carapace length (CL) of L. vannamei postlarvae ranges from 0.88 to 3.00 mm (Kitani, 1993). The larval stages (1.95-2.73 mm CL) can be recognized by the lack of a thoracic spine on the seventh sternite, and relative rostral length against the length of eye plus eye stalk ranges from 2/5 to 3/5, rarely 4/5 (Kitani, 1994). The most distinguishable morphological character is the development of supraorbital spines in the second and third protozoea (Kitani, 1986).

Colour

The colour of L. vannamei is typically translucent-white. The body can display a bluish hue that is due to a predominance of blue chromatophores which are concentrated near the margins of the telson and uropods (Eldred and Hutton, 1960). Colour variations are also shown in cases of nutritional deficiencies. The legs of L. vannamei can often appear white; hence the common name, white-legged shrimp.

Distribution

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L. vannamei typically occurs in the Gulf of Panama (Perez Farfante and Kensley, 1997). Its range in the eastern Pacific is from Sonora, Mexico, south to Tumbes, Peru (Perez-Farfante and Kensley, 1997). A suitable environment for outdoor pond culture of this species is any location in which water temperature remains within 26-32°C for at least one growout period and in which salinity does not rapidly change within 2-45 ppt. Any attempts at culture outside a salinity range of 15-35 ppt should be undertaken with adequate acclimation of postlarvae/juveniles to ambient conditions. Year-round outdoor culture is possible along the west coast of Mexico, Central America and South America in the western hemisphere from Sonora, Mexico, to Tumbes, Peru. These latitudes are also appropriate for the east coasts of Mexico, Central America and South America, but can also include islands in the Caribbean Sea and western Atlantic (e.g. the Bahamas), where the species must be introduced. Suitable areas for culture have been identified and are being increasingly used in South-East Asia and mainland China at similar latitudes; however, this has lead to transboundary movements of exotic diseases (e.g. monodon slow growth syndrome, Taura syndrome virus, infectious myonecrosis virus and necrotizing hepatopancreatitis), so future introductions warrant further scrutiny.

L. vannamei has also been cultured in indoor recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). This extends the range of possible culture location for this species, contingent upon local and culture system economics and degree to which culture criteria can be maintained for normal growth and survival. A current trend in culture of L. vannamei is low-salinity inland production. Currently, West Texas and South Florida sites where the ground water is saline (e.g. >2 ppt) are proving to be suitable locations. These inland locations which utilize saline groundwater present certain advantages over typical outdoor coastal operations:

1) improved biosecurity and reduced potential for disease transmission via natural or other culture populations and vectors
2) low cost of land
3) avoidance of restrictive coastal zone regulations.

L. vannamei has also been introduced to Asia. The first introduction apparently occurred in 1980 in the Philippines, followed by Taiwan in 1981 and mainland China in 1988. In 1996, mainland China and Taiwan started commercial production of L. vannamei and from there, aquaculture production spread rapidly to other nations in Asia, including Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia and India (Rosenberry, 2004; Briggs et al., 2004). Asia (particularly China, Thailand and Indonesia) now produces 75% of the worlds L. vannamei, with only 25% being produced in its original Western hemisphere.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Atlantic, SouthwestPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
Atlantic, Western CentralPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
Pacific, Eastern CentralPresentNative Not invasive Perez Farfante , 1975
Pacific, SouthwestPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
Pacific, Western CentralPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003

Asia

CambodiaPresentIntroduced2000SEAFDEC, 2005Sinhanouk Ville
ChinaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2004
IndiaLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2004
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Akiyma , 1986
IranPresentIntroduced2006Shrimp News, 2006Bushehr province
IsraelPresentIntroducedParnes et al., 2004
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
MalaysiaWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2004
MyanmarPresentIntroduced2000SEAFDEC, 2005
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2004
SingaporePresentIntroduced2002SEAFDEC, 2005
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2004
ThailandPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2004
VietnamPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2004

Africa

EgyptPresentIntroduced Not invasive CAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

North America

MexicoPresentNative Not invasive Perez Farfante , 1975; Perez and Kensley , 1997
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
-ArizonaLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
-FloridaLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
-GeorgiaLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
-HawaiiWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
-LouisianaLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
-MississippiLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
-South CarolinaLocalisedIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
-TexasWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003

Central America and Caribbean

ArubaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
BahamasPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
BelizePresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
Costa RicaPresentNative Not invasive Perez Farfante , 1975; Perez and Kensley , 1997
CubaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
El SalvadorPresentNative Not invasive Perez Farfante , 1975; Perez and Kensley , 1997
GuatemalaPresentNative Not invasive Perez Farfante , 1975; Perez and Kensley , 1997
HondurasPresentNative Not invasive Perez Farfante , 1975; Perez and Kensley , 1997
JamaicaPresentIntroduced1994Shrimp News, 2007
NicaraguaPresentNative Not invasive Perez Farfante , 1975; Perez and Kensley , 1997
PanamaPresentNative Not invasive Perez Farfante , 1975; Perez and Kensley , 1997
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroduced1989DIAS, 2007
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003

South America

BrazilWidespreadIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003
ColombiaPresentNative Not invasive Perez Farfante , 1975; Perez and Kensley , 1997
EcuadorPresentNative Not invasive Perez Farfante , 1975; Perez and Kensley , 1997
PeruPresentNative Not invasive Perez Farfante , 1975; Perez and Kensley , 1997
SurinamePresentIntroduced1998DIAS, 2007
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rosenberry , 2003

Europe

NetherlandsPresentIntroduced2007Shrimp News, 2007One re-circulated farm in Rotterdam

Oceania

FijiPresentIntroduced1972Briggs et al., 2004Imported by Ifremer
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced1972Briggs et al., 2004Imported by Ifremer
GuamLocalisedIntroduced2006Shrimp News, 2006Both Guam and Saipan have small broodstock-rearing facilities
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced1972Briggs et al., 2004Imported by Ifremer

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Estuaries Principal habitat Natural
Inland saline areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Lagoons Principal habitat Natural
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural
Mangroves Principal habitat Natural
Mud flats Principal habitat Natural
Salt marshes Principal habitat Natural
Marine
Benthic zone Principal habitat Natural
Coral reefs Present, no further details Natural
Inshore marine Principal habitat Natural

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
aquatic and benthic phytoplankton Adult/Fry/Larval variable e.g. diatoms
bacterial flocs Adult/Fry variable
benthic polychaetes Adult/Fry variable
detritus/benthic bacteria Adult/Fry variable
zooplankton Adult/Fry variable e.g. copepods

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Tolerated < 860mm precipitation annually
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 35
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 28 35
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 12

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.4 Optimum Adult highly variable reports, acute change is more harmful than upper level, not a real problem in outdoor growout
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.4 Optimum Broodstock highly variable reports, acute change is more harmful than upper level, not a real problem in outdoor growout
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.1 Optimum <1 tolerated, both values apply to PL/juveniles in the wild
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.4 Optimum Egg highly variable reports, acute change is more harmful than upper level, not a real problem in outdoor growout
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.4 Optimum Larval highly variable reports, acute change is more harmful than upper level, not a real problem in outdoor growout
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.4 Optimum Fry highly variable reports, acute change is more harmful than upper level, not a real problem in outdoor growout
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0.4 2.0 Harmful Adult highly variable reports, acute change is more harmful than upper level, not a real problem in outdoor growout
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0.4 2.0 Harmful Broodstock highly variable reports, acute change is more harmful than upper level, not a real problem in outdoor growout
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0.4 2.0 Harmful Egg highly variable reports, acute change is more harmful than upper level, not a real problem in outdoor growout
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0.4 2.0 Harmful Larval highly variable reports, acute change is more harmful than upper level, not a real problem in outdoor growout
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0.4 2.0 Harmful Fry highly variable reports, acute change is more harmful than upper level, not a real problem in outdoor growout
Ammonium [ionised] (mg/l) <1 Optimum <10 tolerated, both values apply to PL/juveniles in the wild
Cadmium (mg/l) <0.01 Harmful Adult
Cadmium (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Adult
Cadmium (mg/l) <0.01 Harmful Broodstock
Cadmium (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Broodstock
Cadmium (mg/l) <0.01 Harmful Egg
Cadmium (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Egg
Cadmium (mg/l) <0.01 Harmful Larval
Cadmium (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Larval
Cadmium (mg/l) <0.01 Harmful Fry
Cadmium (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Fry
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) <60 Optimum Adult seldom a problem
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) <60 Optimum Broodstock seldom a problem
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) <60 Optimum Fry seldom a problem
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) >60 Harmful Adult seldom a problem
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) >60 Harmful Broodstock seldom a problem
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) >60 Harmful Fry seldom a problem
Chlorine (mg/l) <0.9 Optimum Larval widely-used disinfectant in ponds, hatcheries; residual toxic to larvae, marine
Chlorine (mg/l) <1.7 Optimum Fry widely-used disinfectant in ponds, hatcheries; residual toxic to larvae, marine
Chlorine (mg/l) <2 Optimum Adult widely-used disinfectant in ponds, hatcheries; residual toxic to larvae, marine
Chlorine (mg/l) <2 Optimum Broodstock widely-used disinfectant in ponds, hatcheries; residual toxic to larvae, marine
Chlorine (mg/l) >0.9 Harmful Larval widely-used disinfectant in ponds, hatcheries; residual toxic to larvae, marine
Chlorine (mg/l) >1.7 Harmful Fry widely-used disinfectant in ponds, hatcheries; residual toxic to larvae, marine
Chlorine (mg/l) >2 Harmful Adult widely-used disinfectant in ponds, hatcheries; residual toxic to larvae, marine
Chlorine (mg/l) >2 Harmful Broodstock widely-used disinfectant in ponds, hatcheries; residual toxic to larvae, marine
Chromium (mg/l) <0.10 Harmful Fry
Chromium (mg/l) <0.10 Optimum Fry
Chromium (mg/l) <0.10 Harmful Broodstock
Chromium (mg/l) <0.10 Optimum Broodstock
Chromium (mg/l) <0.10 Harmful Egg
Chromium (mg/l) <0.10 Optimum Egg
Chromium (mg/l) <0.10 Harmful Larval
Chromium (mg/l) <0.10 Optimum Larval
Chromium (mg/l) <0.10 Harmful Adult
Chromium (mg/l) <0.10 Optimum Adult
Conductivity (µmhos/cm) 500-2000 Optimum 200-50,000 tolerated in the wild
Copper (mg/l) <0.025 Harmful Adult
Copper (mg/l) <0.025 Optimum Adult
Copper (mg/l) <0.025 Harmful Broodstock
Copper (mg/l) <0.025 Optimum Broodstock
Copper (mg/l) <0.025 Harmful Egg
Copper (mg/l) <0.025 Optimum Egg
Copper (mg/l) <0.025 Harmful Larval
Copper (mg/l) <0.025 Optimum Larval
Copper (mg/l) <0.025 Harmful Fry
Copper (mg/l) <0.025 Optimum Fry
Depth (m b.s.l.) 0-60 Optimum <100 tolerated in the wild
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 2 Harmful Adult >50% saturation in most cases, not really important for eggs
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 2 Harmful Fry >50% saturation in most cases, not really important for eggs
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 4 Harmful Broodstock >50% saturation in most cases, not really important for eggs
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 4.5 6.0 Optimum Adult >50% saturation in most cases, not really important for eggs
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 4.5 6.0 Optimum Broodstock >50% saturation in most cases, not really important for eggs
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 4.5 6.0 Optimum Egg >50% saturation in most cases, not really important for eggs
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 4.5 6.0 Optimum Larval >50% saturation in most cases, not really important for eggs
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 4.5 6.0 Optimum Fry >50% saturation in most cases, not really important for eggs
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >3 Optimum > 1 tolerated, in the wild, for sub-adults/adults
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) <50 Harmful Adult not often monitored
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) <50 Harmful Broodstock not often monitored
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) <50 Optimum Fry not often monitored
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) >50 Optimum Adult not often monitored
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) >50 Optimum Broodstock not often monitored
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) >50 Harmful Fry not often monitored
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 75-150 Optimum 50-500 tolerated in the wild
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Adult mainly a problem in extensive and semi-intensive ponds
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Broodstock mainly a problem in extensive and semi-intensive ponds
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Egg mainly a problem in extensive and semi-intensive ponds
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Larval mainly a problem in extensive and semi-intensive ponds
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Fry mainly a problem in extensive and semi-intensive ponds
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) 0.01 0.05 Harmful Adult mainly a problem in extensive and semi-intensive ponds
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) 0.01 0.05 Harmful Broodstock mainly a problem in extensive and semi-intensive ponds
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) 0.01 0.05 Harmful Egg mainly a problem in extensive and semi-intensive ponds
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) 0.01 0.05 Harmful Larval mainly a problem in extensive and semi-intensive ponds
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) 0.01 0.05 Harmful Fry mainly a problem in extensive and semi-intensive ponds
Illumination (Lux illuminance) 12000 Harmful Broodstock primarily important for broodstock
Illumination (Lux illuminance) 2500 Optimum Broodstock primarily important for broodstock
Lead (mg/l) <0.10 Harmful Adult
Lead (mg/l) <0.10 Optimum Adult
Lead (mg/l) <0.10 Harmful Broodstock
Lead (mg/l) <0.10 Optimum Broodstock
Lead (mg/l) <0.10 Harmful Egg
Lead (mg/l) <0.10 Optimum Egg
Lead (mg/l) <0.10 Harmful Larval
Lead (mg/l) <0.10 Optimum Larval
Lead (mg/l) <0.10 Harmful Fry
Lead (mg/l) <0.10 Optimum Fry
Mercury (mg/l) 0.0001 Harmful Adult
Mercury (mg/l) 0.0001 Optimum Adult
Mercury (mg/l) 0.0001 Harmful Broodstock
Mercury (mg/l) 0.0001 Optimum Broodstock
Mercury (mg/l) 0.0001 Harmful Egg
Mercury (mg/l) 0.0001 Optimum Egg
Mercury (mg/l) 0.0001 Harmful Larval
Mercury (mg/l) 0.0001 Optimum Larval
Mercury (mg/l) 0.0001 Harmful Fry
Mercury (mg/l) 0.0001 Optimum Fry
Nitrite (mg/l) >4.5 Harmful Fry problem for recirculating systems, seldom for ponds
Nitrite (mg/l) >4.5 Harmful Larval problem for recirculating systems, seldom for ponds
Nitrite (mg/l) <4.5 Optimum Egg problem for recirculating systems, seldom for ponds
Nitrite (mg/l) <4.5 Optimum Larval problem for recirculating systems, seldom for ponds
Nitrite (mg/l) <4.5 Optimum Fry problem for recirculating systems, seldom for ponds
Nitrite (mg/l) >4.5 Harmful Adult problem for recirculating systems, seldom for ponds
Nitrite (mg/l) >4.5 Harmful Broodstock problem for recirculating systems, seldom for ponds
Nitrite (mg/l) >4.5 Harmful Egg problem for recirculating systems, seldom for ponds
Nitrite (mg/l) <0.1 Optimum <4.5 tolerated in the wild, both values apply to PL/juveniles
Nitrite (mg/l) <4.5 Optimum Adult problem for recirculating systems, seldom for ponds
Nitrite (mg/l) <4.5 Optimum Broodstock problem for recirculating systems, seldom for ponds
Salinity (part per thousand) >40 Harmful Fry controlled in hatchery, less controlled outdoors
Salinity (part per thousand) 32 Harmful Broodstock controlled in hatchery, less controlled outdoors
Salinity (part per thousand) 32 Harmful Egg controlled in hatchery, less controlled outdoors
Salinity (part per thousand) 32 Harmful Larval controlled in hatchery, less controlled outdoors
Salinity (part per thousand) 34 Harmful Adult controlled in hatchery, less controlled outdoors
Salinity (part per thousand) 10 40 Optimum Fry controlled in hatchery, less controlled outdoors
Salinity (part per thousand) 27 31 Optimum Adult controlled in hatchery, less controlled outdoors
Salinity (part per thousand) 27 31 Optimum Broodstock controlled in hatchery, less controlled outdoors
Salinity (part per thousand) 27 31 Optimum Egg controlled in hatchery, less controlled outdoors
Salinity (part per thousand) 27 31 Optimum Larval controlled in hatchery, less controlled outdoors
Salinity (part per thousand) 10-25 Optimum 0.5-40 tolerated in the wild, both values apply to sub-adults/adults
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) <27 >32 Harmful Broodstock controlled in maturation facility
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) 28 30 Optimum Broodstock controlled in maturation facility
Turbidity (JTU turbidity) 30 Optimum Adult mainly a pond growout issue
Turbidity (JTU turbidity) <25 >40 Harmful Adult mainly a pond growout issue
Turbidity (JTU turbidity) 10-50 Optimum 0-100 tolerated in the wild
Velocity (cm/h) 0-10000 Optimum <50,000 tolerated in the wild
Water pH (pH) <7.5 >8.4 Harmful Adult slightly basic preferred, important for broodstock systems
Water pH (pH) <7.5 >8.4 Harmful Broodstock slightly basic preferred, important for broodstock systems
Water pH (pH) <7.5 >8.4 Harmful Fry slightly basic preferred, important for broodstock systems
Water pH (pH) <8.0 >8.2 Harmful Egg slightly basic preferred, important for broodstock systems
Water pH (pH) <8.0 >8.2 Harmful Larval slightly basic preferred, important for broodstock systems
Water pH (pH) 7.5 8.4 Optimum Adult slightly basic preferred, important for broodstock systems
Water pH (pH) 7.5 8.4 Optimum Broodstock slightly basic preferred, important for broodstock systems
Water pH (pH) 7.5 8.4 Optimum Fry slightly basic preferred, important for broodstock systems
Water pH (pH) 8.0 8.2 Optimum Egg slightly basic preferred, important for broodstock systems
Water pH (pH) 8.0 8.2 Optimum Larval slightly basic preferred, important for broodstock systems
Water pH (pH) 7-8 Optimum 6.5-9.5 tolerated in the wild
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 30 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <25 >34 Harmful Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <26 >32 Harmful Fry
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <27 >31 Harmful Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <27 >32 Harmful Broodstock
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <27 >32 Harmful Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 27 31 Optimum Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 28 30 Optimum Broodstock
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 28 30 Optimum Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 28 32 Optimum Fry
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 20-32 Optimum 18-35 tolerated in wild
Zinc (mg/l) 0.10 Harmful Adult
Zinc (mg/l) 0.10 Optimum Adult
Zinc (mg/l) 0.10 Harmful Broodstock
Zinc (mg/l) 0.10 Optimum Broodstock
Zinc (mg/l) 0.10 Harmful Egg
Zinc (mg/l) 0.10 Optimum Egg
Zinc (mg/l) 0.10 Harmful Larval
Zinc (mg/l) 0.10 Optimum Larval
Zinc (mg/l) 0.10 Harmful Fry
Zinc (mg/l) 0.10 Optimum Fry

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Ardea Adult/Fry
Enhydra lutris Fry
Larus Adult/Fry
Odonata Larval
Phalacrocorax Adult/Fry
Sterna Adult/Fry

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AquacultureImported into non-native countries in the Americas. Asian importers sourced from stocks from Hawaii Yes Yes Briggs et al., 2004
Breeding and propagationStocks from native countries used to establish domesticated strains Yes Briggs et al., 2004; Oceanic Institute, 2007
FoodFrozen and processed exports sent worldwide Yes Yes Globefish, 2007
ResearchResearch institutes have moved this species worldwide Yes Yes Briggs et al., 2004
SmugglingHas occurred, especially in Asian countries which still ban its culture Yes Yes Briggs et al., 2004
StockingPost-larvae and juveniles have been moved worldwide for stocking ponds Yes Yes Briggs et al., 2004

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftAll stages from live broodstock, to larvae and adults Yes Yes Briggs et al., 2004
Aquaculture stockBroodstock, eggs, larvae and adults transferred for stocking aquaculture facilities Yes Yes Briggs et al., 2004
Live seafoodLive adults transferred locally and internationally for food, especially in China Yes Yes Globefish, 2007

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Crop production Positive
Trade/international relations Positive

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
  • Conflict
  • Host damage
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Attractant in fish/shrimp feed
  • Live feed

General

  • Capital accumulation
  • Laboratory use
  • Research model

Human food and beverage

  • Canned meat
  • Cured meat
  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat
  • Live product for human consumption
  • Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)
  • Whole

Materials

  • Shell

References

Top of page

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Aquaculture Asia Pacific Magazinehttp://www.aquaasiapac.com/
Aquaculture Certification Councilhttp://www.aquaculturecertification.org/A non-governmental body established to certify social, environmental and food safety standards at aquaculture facilities throughout the world. Based in Missouri, USA.
Aquafeed Newsletterwww.aquafeed.com
Aquafindhttp://www.aquafind.com/
Aquamediahttp://www.aquamedia.org
Aquatic Networkhttp://www.aquanet.com
Camara Nacional de Acuaculture (CNA), Ecuadorhttp://www.cna-ecuador.com
European Commission External Tradehttp://ec.europa.eu/trade/creating-opportunities/economic-sectors/fisheries/index_en.htm
FAO FISHSTAT Plushttp://www.fao.org/fi/statist/FISOFT/FISHPLUS.asp
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Growfishhttp://www.growfish.com.au/default.asp
National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries Statistics Division, USAhttp://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/st1/trade/index.htmlThe Fisheries Statistics Division of the NMFS present a series of programs that can be used to summarize U.S. foreign trade in fishery products for the years 1989 to present.
Seafood Businesshttp://www.seafoodbusiness.com
Shrimp News Internationalhttp://www.shrimpnews.com/
The Wavehttp://www.thewaveonline.com
Yahoo Shrimp Listhttp://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/shrimp/

Organizations

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World: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 12, rue de Prony, 75017 Paris, France, http://www.oie.int/

Malaysia: INFOFISH, FAO, 1st Floor, Wisma PKNS, Jalan Raja Laut,, PO Box 10899, 50728, Kuala Lumpur, http://www.infofish.org/

Thailand: Asia-Pacific Fisheries Commission (APFIC) FAO, Maliwan Mansion, 39 Phra Abit rd.,, Bangkok 10200, http://www.apfic.org

Thailand: NACA (Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific), PO Box 1040, Kasetsart Post Office, Ladyao, Jatujak, Bangkok 10903, Bangkok, Thailand, http://www.enaca.org/

Thailand: SEAFDEC (Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center), PO Box 1406 Kasetsart Post Office Bangkok 10903, Bangkok, Thailand, http://www.seafdec.org/

Italy: Aquatic Animal Pathogen and Quarantine Information System (AAPQIS), Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture Service, Fishery Resource Division, Fisheries Department, FAO, Rome, http://www.aapqis.org/main

Italy: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, http://www.fao.org/

Italy: Globefish, FAO, Via delle Terme di Caracalla,, 00100, Rome, http://www.globefish.org

Switzerland: World Trade Organzation, Centre William Rappard, Rue de Lausanne 154,, CH-1211 geneva 21, http://www.wto.org

Switzerland: Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF), WWF Switzerland, Hohlstrasse, 110 8010 Zuerich

USA: Global Aquaculture Alliance - GAA, 5661 Telegraph Road, Suite 2A St Louis, Missouri 63129, http://www.gaalliance.org

USA: Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission - GSMFC, PO Box 726 Ocean Springs,, MS 39566-0726, http://nisgsmfc,org

USA: US Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Ariel Rios Building, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington DC, http://www.epa.gov

USA: World Aquaculture Society (WAS), WAS Home Office, 143 J. M. Parker Coliseum, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70806, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, http://www.was.org/

Contributors

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02/10/2007 Updated by:

Matthew Briggs, Consultant, Thailand

Main Author
Joe Fox
Physical and Life Sciences, Texas A&M Corpus Christi, CS 251 6300 Ocean Drive, Corpus Christi, TX 78412, USA

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