Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Penaeus monodon
(giant tiger prawn)

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Datasheet

Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Penaeus monodon
  • Preferred Common Name
  • giant tiger prawn
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Crustacea
  •         Class: Malacostraca
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. monodon is native to the Indo-West Pacific Ocean, from the eastern coast of Africa (Natal to Somalia, including Madagascar), the Arabian Peninsula, South-East Asia, Taiwan, China,...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); adult.
Copyright©CSIRO - CC BY 3.0
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); adult.
AdultPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); adult.©CSIRO - CC BY 3.0
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); adult.
Copyright©CSIRO - CC BY 3.0
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); adult.
AdultPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); adult.©CSIRO - CC BY 3.0
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); stages in Ovarian Development of P. monodon; (a) Underdevelpoed or spent stage: (b) Developing stage: (c) Nearly ripe stage: (d) Ripe stage: (e) Post-spawn.
TitleOvarian development
CaptionPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); stages in Ovarian Development of P. monodon; (a) Underdevelpoed or spent stage: (b) Developing stage: (c) Nearly ripe stage: (d) Ripe stage: (e) Post-spawn.
Copyright©Waraporn Promwikorn
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); stages in Ovarian Development of P. monodon; (a) Underdevelpoed or spent stage: (b) Developing stage: (c) Nearly ripe stage: (d) Ripe stage: (e) Post-spawn.
Ovarian developmentPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); stages in Ovarian Development of P. monodon; (a) Underdevelpoed or spent stage: (b) Developing stage: (c) Nearly ripe stage: (d) Ripe stage: (e) Post-spawn.©Waraporn Promwikorn
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); mating sequence: (a) Parallel swimming; (b) Male ventral side up, attached to female; (c) Male perpendicular to female; (d) Male curves around female. (with permission, from Primavera, 1979)
TitleMating sequence
CaptionPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); mating sequence: (a) Parallel swimming; (b) Male ventral side up, attached to female; (c) Male perpendicular to female; (d) Male curves around female. (with permission, from Primavera, 1979)
Copyright©With permission, from Primavera, 1979.
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); mating sequence: (a) Parallel swimming; (b) Male ventral side up, attached to female; (c) Male perpendicular to female; (d) Male curves around female. (with permission, from Primavera, 1979)
Mating sequencePenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); mating sequence: (a) Parallel swimming; (b) Male ventral side up, attached to female; (c) Male perpendicular to female; (d) Male curves around female. (with permission, from Primavera, 1979)©With permission, from Primavera, 1979.
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
TitleWSSV in Asia
CaptionPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
Copyright©Peter Walker
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
WSSV in AsiaPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.©Peter Walker
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
TitleWSSV in Asia
CaptionPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
Copyright©Peter Walker
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.
WSSV in AsiaPenaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn); explosive emergence of WSSV in Asia.©Peter Walker

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Penaeus monodon Fabricus, J.C. 1798

Preferred Common Name

  • giant tiger prawn

Other Scientific Names

  • Penaeus bubulus Kubo, 1949
  • Penaeus carinatus Dana, 1852
  • Penaeus coeruleus Stebbing, 1905
  • Penaeus monodon monodon Burkenroad, 1959
  • Penaeus semisulcatus exsulcatus Higendorf, 1879
  • Penaeus tahitensis Heller, 1862

International Common Names

  • English: black tiger; giant tiger; shrimp, giant tiger; tiger prawn; tiger shrimp
  • Spanish: camarón tigre gigante
  • French: crevette géante tigrée

Local Common Names

  • Australia: jumbo tiger prawn; panda prawn
  • Cambodia: bangkear
  • China/Hong Kong: gwai ha
  • Germany: Bärenschiffskielgarnele
  • India: bagda chingri; jinga; kara chemmeen; year
  • Indonesia: udang pantjet; udang windu
  • Japan: ushi-ebi
  • Kenya: kamba; kamba ndogo
  • Myanmar: jar-pazun; pazun-kya
  • Pakistan: kalri
  • Philippines: jumbo tiger shrimp; sugpo
  • Tanzania: kamba; kamba ndogo
  • Thailand: kung kula-dum
  • Uganda: kamba; kamba ndogo

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. monodon is native to the Indo-West Pacific Ocean, from the eastern coast of Africa (Natal to Somalia, including Madagascar), the Arabian Peninsula, South-East Asia, Taiwan, China, the Sea of Japan, New Guinea and Northern Australia (Dore and Frimodt, 1987; Perez Farfante and Kensley, 1997).

 
They have colonized the Mediterranean sea via the Suez canal, and have been introduced from Asia (not resulting in established populations) in 1970s to Tahiti (thence to other Pacific islands) in 1980s to Hawaii and the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the USA (Texas, Florida, Georgia, South and North Carolina) (Wenner and Knott, 1992; McCann et al., 1996), Europe (Italy and Cyprus) and various South American countries (Colombia, Venezuela, the Caribbean, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru). However, introductions in the late 1980s to West Africa (Senegal, Gambia, Ivory Coast, Guinea and Angola) have resulted in relatively common trawler catches, suggesting establishment.
 
The major threat appears to be the risk of importing exotic shrimp diseases that can affect this species and other farmed and native wild crustaceans in the target countries(Lightner, 1996; Overstreet et al., 1997). Many examples of such introductions have been noted, such as in the introduction of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) to the Americas since 1999. Although P. monodon is not included on either the IUBN or ISSG alert lists and is not considered as a pest, the IABIN Invasiveness Information Network (I3N) has listed it as an invasive species in Brazil and the USA.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Crustacea
  •                 Class: Malacostraca
  •                     Subclass: Eumalacostraca
  •                         Order: Decapoda
  •                             Suborder: Dendrobranchiata
  •                                 Unknown: Penaeoidea
  •                                     Family: Penaeidae
  •                                         Genus: Penaeus
  •                                             Species: Penaeus monodon

Description

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In 1798 Fabricius described this shrimp in his monograph and proposed the name Penaeus monodon. The morphology of this species is as follows: the rostrum, extending beyond the tip of the antennular peduncle, has usually seven dorsal and three ventral teeth, and is sigmoid in shape. The adrostral carina reaches almost to the epigastric spine. The carina reaches to the posterior edge of the carapace. The gastro-orbital carina occupies the posterior one-half distance between the post-orbital margin of the carapace and the hepatic spine. The hepatic carina is predominant and the anterior half is horizontal. The antennular flagellum is equal to or slightly longer than the peduncle. The fifth pereiopods have no exopod. The abdomen is carinated dorsally from the anterior one-third of the fourth to sixth somite. The telson is unarmed. The coloration is as follows: carapace and abdomen are transversely banded with red and white. The antennae are greyish brown. Pereiopods are brown and fringing setae red. When kept in ponds, the colour changes to dark brown, and often to a blackish hue.

Juvenile and adolescent P. monodon are recorded in estuaries, while adults inhabit waters of 162 metres (90 fathoms). In the Philippines, Motoh (1981) found vertical distribution to be from surface waters in estuaries down to 70 metres offshore, where the range of water temperature and salinity was between 22 and 34°C, and 4 and 35 ppt, respectively. Experiments with a variety of temperature and salinity ranges have yielded positive results culturing P. monodon with a range of 22-36°C water temperature and 27-36 ppt, respectively, with an 80% survival rate at harvest and average weight of 38 g after a 130-day growout period (A Forbes, Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Government of Namibia, personal communication, 2005). Shrimp are poikilothermic, thus the shrimp’s body temperature will be in equilibrium with the water temperature. According to Van Hoff’s law, a 10ºC temperature increase will roughly double the rate of biochemical reactions, thus directly affecting the metabolism of the animal.

Distribution

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In general, P. monodon is distributed from 30°E to 155°E in longitude and from 35°N to 25°S in latitude. In addition to the countries listed in the distribution table, P. monodon is also cultivated in localised areas north of Malindi in Kenya (M Briggs, personal communication, http://www.shrimpdoctor.com, 1984).

Recent molecular genetic studies have shown that population distributions, particularly across their known culture range, can be genetically disjunct while appearing to be continuous. The nucleotide diversity is significantly lower in the western Indian Ocean than in the western Pacific, implying that the populations have regional differences in demographic history and separate evolutionary histories as demonstrated by differences in levels of genetic diversity and degrees of genetic differentiation between the two regions. Analysis of geographic distribution of the elongation factor 1-alphaintron sequences indicate very strong differentiation and phylogenetic distinction among alleles from two different oceans and yet, despite these biogeographic schisms, that concerted evolution is operating rapidly in this species.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeHolthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987
CambodiaPresentNativeHolthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresentIntroducedHolthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedHolthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987
-HainanPresentIntroducedHolthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedCheung, 1960
IndiaPresentNativeHolthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987
IndonesiaPresentNativeHolthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987
IranIntroduced, not establishedIntroduced1992DIAS, 2007To southern zone of Iran imported from Malaysia
Korea, Republic ofWidespreadNative Not invasive Shrimp News, 2006
MalaysiaPresentNativeHolthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987
MyanmarPresentNative Not invasive Holthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987
PhilippinesPresentNativeHolthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987
Saudi ArabiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SingaporeLocalisedNative Not invasive Shrimp News, 2006
Sri LankaPresentNativeHolthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987
TaiwanPresentNativeHolthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987
ThailandPresentNative Not invasive Holthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987
VietnamPresentNativeHolthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroduced1980s Invasive Shrimp News, 2006
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced1990s Invasive CAB International, 2004Grand-Lahou
GambiaLocalisedIntroduced1980s Invasive Shrimp News, 2006
GuineaIntroduced, not establishedIntroduced1989 Invasive DIAS, 2007From Hawaii/Gambia
MadagascarPresentNativeHolthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987
MozambiquePresentNativeHolthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987
SenegalPresentIntroduced1980s Invasive Shrimp News, 2006Casamance
SeychellesPresentIntroducedHolthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987
South AfricaPresentNativeHolthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987
TanzaniaPresentNativeHolthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987

North America

MexicoIntroduced, establishment uncertainIntroduced1976DIAS, 2007From Taiwan
USAPresentIntroduced1980sMcCann et al., 1996Texas, Florida, Georgia, South and North Carolina
-HawaiiIntroduced, establishment uncertainIntroduced Not invasive DIAS, 2007Big Island, Hawaii from Philippines, Tahiti and Taiwan

Central America and Caribbean

JamaicaPresentIntroducedShrimp News, 2006
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedShrimp News, 2006

South America

BrazilIntroduced, establishment uncertainIntroduced1970sDIAS, 2007Northeast
ColombiaPresentIntroduced1980sShrimp News, 2006Caribbean coast
EcuadorAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1980sShrimp News, 2006
PeruAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1980sShrimp News, 2006
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced1980sShrimp News, 2006Caribbean coast

Europe

CyprusIntroduced, establishment uncertainIntroduced1990sDIAS, 2007
ItalyIntroduced, establishment uncertainIntroduced1980sDIAS, 2007

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNativeDall, 1957
FijiIntroduced, not establishedIntroduced1976DIAS, 2007Imported from Tahiti
French PolynesiaIntroduced, establishment uncertainIntroduced1972DIAS, 2007Imported by Ifremer from New Caledonia
GuamPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holthuis, 1980; Dore and Frimodt, 1987; DIAS, 2007
SamoaIntroduced, not establishedIntroduced1980DIAS, 2007Imported from Tahiti
Solomon IslandsIntroduced, not establishedIntroduced1987DIAS, 2007Imported from Australia

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Inland saline areas Principal habitat Natural
Estuaries Principal habitat Natural
Lagoons Principal habitat Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural
Mangroves Principal habitat Natural
Mud flats Principal habitat Natural
Intertidal zone Principal habitat Natural
Salt marshes Principal habitat Natural
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Marine
Inshore marine Principal habitat Natural
Coral reefs Present, no further details Natural
Benthic zone Principal habitat Natural

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Tolerated < 860mm precipitation annually
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Aluminium (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Adult
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.1 Optimum Adult <1 tolerated, both values apply to PL/juveniles
Ammonium [ionised] (mg/l) <1 Optimum <10 tolerated, both values apply to PL/juveniles
Arsenic (mg/l) 0.013 Optimum Adult
Cadmium (mg/l) <0.053 Optimum Adult
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) <10 Optimum Adult
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) <2 Optimum <3 tolerated
Chlorine (mg/l) <0.002 Optimum Adult
Chromium (mg/l) <0.003 Optimum Adult
Conductivity (µmhos/cm) 500 2000 Optimum 200-50,000 tolerated
Copper (mg/l) <0.1 Optimum Adult
Depth (m b.s.l.) 0 60 Optimum <100 tolerated
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <3 Harmful Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <3 Harmful Fry
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >5 Optimum Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >5 Optimum Broodstock
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >5 Optimum Egg
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >5 Optimum Larval
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >5 Optimum Fry
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >3 Optimum >1 tolerated
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 75 150 Optimum 50-500 tolerated
Hydrogen sulphide (mg/l) <0.002 Optimum Adult
Iron (mg/l) <1 Optimum Adult
Lead (mg/l) <0.02 Optimum Adult
Manganese (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Adult
Mercury (mg/l) <0.0025 Optimum Adult
Nickel (mg/l) <0.05 Optimum Adult
Nitrite (mg/l) 4.5 Optimum Adult
Nitrite (mg/l) 4.5 Optimum Broodstock
Nitrite (mg/l) 4.5 Optimum Egg
Nitrite (mg/l) 4.5 Optimum Larval
Nitrite (mg/l) 4.5 Optimum Fry
Nitrite (mg/l) <0.1 Optimum <4.5 tolerated, both values apply to PL/juveniles
Oils and refined products (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Adult
Phosphate (mg/l) <0.5 Optimum Adult
Polychlorinated biphenyls (mg/l) <0.002 Optimum Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) <40 Harmful Fry
Salinity (part per thousand) 35 Optimum Broodstock
Salinity (part per thousand) 35 Optimum Egg
Salinity (part per thousand) 35 Optimum Larval
Salinity (part per thousand) 25 35 Optimum Fry
Salinity (part per thousand) 32 36 Optimum Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) 10 35 Optimum 0-45 tolerated, both values apply to sub-adults/adults
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) Harmful Broodstock
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) 28 Optimum Broodstock
Turbidity (JTU turbidity) <75 Optimum Adult
Turbidity (JTU turbidity) 10 50 Optimum 0-100 tolerated
Velocity (cm/h) 0-10000 Optimum <50,000 tolerated
Water pH (pH) 8 Optimum Egg
Water pH (pH) 8 Optimum Larval
Water pH (pH) 8 Optimum Fry
Water pH (pH) 7.5 8.5 Optimum Adult
Water pH (pH) 7.5 8.5 Optimum Broodstock
Water pH (pH) 7 8 Optimum 6-9 tolerated
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 28 Optimum Broodstock
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 28 Optimum Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 28 Optimum Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 26 33 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 28 30 Optimum Fry
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 28 35 Optimum 20-36 tolerated, both values apply to sub-adults/adults
Zinc (mg/l) <0.086 Optimum Adult

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AquacultureTo non-native countries in North, South and Central America, West Africa, Europe and Oceania Yes Yes Dall, 1957; Dore and Frimodt, 1987; FAO, 2007; Holthuis, 1980; Shrimp News, 2007
Breeding and propagationHawaii and main culture countries worldwide brought broodstock from native countries Yes Yes FAO, 2007; Shrimp News, 2007
FoodFrozen and processed exports from all main producer countries send worldwide for further processing Yes Yes Globefish, 2007; National Marine Fisheries Service, 2007
ResearchResearch institutes and universities worldwide have imported this species Yes Yes Briggs et al., 2004
SmugglingSmuggling has occured, especially into non-native countries where permission has not been granted Yes Yes Shrimp News, 2007
StockingBroodstock, post-larvae and juveniles have been moved worldwide for stocking ponds Yes Yes Shrimp News, 2007

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftAll stages from live broodstock, larvae and adults to frozen and prepared adult product Yes Yes Shrimp News, 2007
Aquaculture stockBroodstock, eggs, larvae and adults transferred from other countries and within the same country Yes Yes Shrimp News, 2007
Live seafoodLive brookstock, eggs, larvae and adults transferred locally and internationally for food Yes Yes Globefish, 2007
Ship bilge waterSome introductions of this species suspected to have originated from ship bilge water Yes Yes

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
  • Conflict
  • Host damage
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Predation
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fishmeal

General

  • Capital accumulation
  • Laboratory use
  • Research model

Human food and beverage

  • Fish meal
  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat
  • Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)
  • Whole

References

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Bailey-Brock JH; Moss SM, 1992. Penaeid taxonomy, biology and zoogeography. In: Fast AW, Lester LJ, eds. Marine shrimp culture: principles and practices. Developments in aquaculture and fisheries science, volume 23. The Netherlands: Elsevier Science, 9-27.

Bardach JE, 1997. Sustainable aquaculture. Sustainable aquaculture., xi + 251 pp.

Boyd CE, 1999. Aquaculture sustainability and environmental issues. World Aquaculture, 30(2), 10-13, 71-72.

Briggs M; Funge-Smith S; Subasinghe R; Phillips M, 2004. Introductions and movements of Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus stylirostris in Asia and the Pacific. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, 476:78 pp.

CAB International, 2004. Prevention and Management of Alien Invasive Species: Forging Cooperation throughout West Africa. In: Proceedings of a workshop held in Accra, Ghana, 9-11 March, 2004. CAB International, Nairobi, Kenya.

Castille FL Jr; Lawrence AL, 1981. The effect of salinity on the osmotic, sodium and chloride concentrations in the hemolymph of euryhaline shrimp of the genus Penaeus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 68A:75–80.

Chamberlain G, 2007. World Review and Present Status of Shrimp Culture. In: Indaqua 2007 Conference, Chennai, India.

Cheung TS, 1960. A key to the identification of Hong Kong penaeid prawns with comments on points of systematic interest. Hong Kong Fisheries Journal, 3:61-69.

Costanza R, 1991. Ecological Economics: The Science and Management of Sustainability. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

Dall W, 1957. A revision of Australian species of Penaeidae (Crustacea, Decapoda: Penaeidae). Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Resources, 8:136-230.

DIAS, 2007. Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species, Fisheries and Aquaculture Department of the FAO. http://www.fao.org

Dore I; Frimodt C, 1987. An illustrated guide to shrimp of the world. Osprey Books and Scandinavian Fishing Year Book.

Duda TF; Palumbi SR, 1999. Population structure of the black tiger, Penaeus monodon, among western Indian Ocean and western Pacific populations. Marine Biology, 134:705-710.

FAO, 2007. Improving Penaeus monodon hatchery practices: Manual based on experience in India. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. http://www.org/docrep/010/a1152e/a1152e00,htm

Fast AW; Lester LJ, 1992. Marine shrimp culture: principles and practices. Marine shrimp culture: principles and practices., 862 pp.; [Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, 23].

Fast AW; Mensaveta P, 2000. Some recent issues and innovations in marine shrimp pond culture. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 8:151-233.

Forbes A, 1990. Effects of Constant High Salinity on the Growth of Penaeus monodon in lined ponds with coral sand substrata. Abstracts of the minutes of the World Aquaculture Society Annual Meeting, Halifax, Canada.

Forbes A, 1992. Aquaculture on the Islands of the Indian Ocean. Aquaculture Magazine, 18(2).

Globefish, 2007. Fish Info Network. http://www.globefish.org

Hall R; Young MN; Kenway M, 2002. Manual for the Determination of Egg Fertility. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Queensland, Australia. Online at http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/research/mdef/mdef-00.html. Accessed 24 November 2005.

Hargreaves JA, 1997. The quest for sustainable shrimp aquaculture. World Aquaculture, 28(3):43-47.

Hashimoto Y, 1965. Taste-producing substances in marine products. In: Kreuzer R, ed. The Technology of Fish Utilization. London, UK: Fishing News Books, Ltd., 57.

Holthuis LB, 1980. Shrimps and prawns of the world: an annotated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries. FAO Species Catalogue. Rome, Italy: FAO.

Joint Subcommittee Aquaculture On, 1997. An Evaluation of Potential Virus Impacts on Cultured Shrimp and Wild Shrimp Populations in the Gulf Of Mexico and southeastern U.S. Atlantic Coastal Waters. A Report to the Joint Subcommittee On Aquaculture. Prepared by the JSA Shrimp Virus Work Group. National Marine Fisheries Service, U.S. Department Of Commerce Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department Of Agriculture, National Center For Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Fish And Wildlife Service, U.S. Department Of Interior. 65 pp.

Lightner DV, 1996. A handbook of shrimp pathology and diagnostic procedure for diseases of cultured penaeid shrimp. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA.

Lightner DV, 1996. The Penaeid Shrimp Viruses IHHNV and TSV: Epizootiology, Production Impacts and Role of International Trade in their Distribution in the Americas. Revues Scientifique et Technique Office International des Epizooties, 15(2):579-601.

Lightner DV; Redman RM; Poulos BT; Nunan LM; Mari JL; Hasson KW, 1997. Risk of spread of penaeid shrimp viruses in the Americas by the international movement of live and frozen shrimp. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Épizooties, 16(1):146-160.

Lo CF; Chang YS; Cheng CT; Kou GH, 1998. PCR Monitoring of Cultured Shrimp for White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Infection in Growout Ponds. In: Flegel TW, ed. Advances in Shrimp Biotechnology. BIOTEC, Thailand, 281-286.

McCann JA; Arkin LN; Williams JD, 1996. Nonindigenous Aquatic And Selected Terrestrial Species Of Florida. University Of Florida, Center For Aquatic Plants. http://aquatl.ifas.edu/mctitle.

McCoid V; Miget R; Finne G, 1984. Effect of environmental salinity on the free amino acid composition and concentration in penaeid shrimp. Journal of Food Science. 49:327-330.

Motoh H, 1981. Studies on the fisheries biology of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon in the Philippines. Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines. Extension Manual No. 7.

National Marine Fisheries Service, 2007. US Foreign Trade website. http://www.st.nmfs.gov/st1/trade/

Overstreet RM; Lightner DV; Hasson KW; McIlwain S; Lotz JM, 1997. Susceptibility to Taura syndrome virus of some penaeid shrimp species native to the Gulf of Mexico and the Southeastern United States. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 69(2):165-176.

Perez Farfante I; Kensley B, 1997. Penaeoid and Sergestoid Shrimps and Prawns of the World. Keys and Diagnoses for the families and genera. Paris, France: Memories Du Museum National D'Historie Naturelle, 233 pp.

Primavera JH, 1979. Notes on the courtship and mating behavior in Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) (Decapoda,Natantia). Crustaceana, 37(3):287-292.

Primavera JH, 1990. External and internal anatomy of adult penaeid prawns/shrimps. SEAFDEC, Aquaculture Department, The Philippines, Poster.

Rangswamy JR; Rao SVS; Lahiry NL, 1970. Free amino acid pattern in Indian shrimp (Metapenaeus dobsonii). J. Agric. Food. Chem., 18:298.

Shrimp News, 2006. Shrimp News International. http://www.shrimpnews.com/

Shrimp News, 2007. Shrimp News International. http://www.shrimpnews.com/

Simudu W; Hujita, 1954. Studies on muscle of aquatic animals XII: On glycine content in extractive of shrimp with special reference to their taste. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish., 20(8):720.

Walker PJ, 2005. Disease Emergence and Food Security: Global impact of pathogens on sustainable aquaculture production. In: Brown AG, ed. Fish, Aquaculture and Food Security - Sustaining Fish as a Food Supply. The Crawford Fund, Canberra, Australia, 44-50.

Wenner EC; Knott DM, 1992. Occurrance of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, in coastal waters of South Carolina. In: Proceedings of the conferences and workshop: introductions and transfers of marine species: achieving a balance between economic development and resource protection, South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium [ed. by DeVoe, \M. .. R. ..]. 173-181.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Aquaculture Asia Pacific Magazinehttp://www.aquaasiapac.com/
Aquaculture Certification Councilhttp://www.aquaculturecertification.org/A non-governmental body established to certify social, environmental and food safety standards at aquaculture facilities throughout the world. Based in Missouri, USA.
Aquafeed Newsletterwww.aquafeed.com
Aquafindhttp://www.aquafind.com/
Aquamediahttp://www.aquamedia.org
Aquatic Networkhttp://www.aquanet.com
Australian Prawn Farmers Associationhttp://www.afpa.com.au
Camara Nacional de Acuaculture (CNA), Ecuadorhttp://www.cna-ecuador.com
DIAS, Database on Introductions of Aquatic Specieshttp://www.fao.org/figis/servlet/static?dom=collection&xml=dias.xmlThe database includes records of species introduced or transferred from one country to another. Some example maps demonstrate the extent of introductions.
European Commission External Tradehttp://ec.europa.eu/trade/creating-opportunities/economic-sectors/fisheries/index_en.htm
FAO Code of Practice on the Introduction and Transfer of Marine Organisms, 1994http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/W3592E/w3592e0b.htm#bm11.1
FAO Cultured Species Factsheethttp://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Litopenaeus_vannamei/en
FAO FISHSTAT Plushttp://www.fao.org/fi/statist/FISOFT/FISHPLUS.asp
FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisherieshttp://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/W3592E/w3592e00.htm
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Growfishhttp://www.growfish.com.au/default.asp
High Health Aquaculturehttp://www.hihealthshrimp.com/
National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries Statistics Division, USAhttp://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/st1/trade/index.htmlThe Fisheries Statistics Division of the NMFS present a series of programs that can be used to summarize U.S. foreign trade in fishery products for the years 1989 to present.
Seafood Businesshttp://www.seafoodbusiness.com
Seafood.comhttp://www.seafood.com/
Shrimp News Internationalhttp://www.shrimpnews.com/
The Wavehttp://www.thewaveonline.com
Yahoo Shrimp Listhttp://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/shrimp/

Organizations

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World: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 12, rue de Prony, 75017 Paris, France, http://www.oie.int/

Malaysia: INFOFISH, FAO, 1st Floor, Wisma PKNS, Jalan Raja Laut,, PO Box 10899, 50728, Kuala Lumpur, http://www.infofish.org/

Philippines: SEAFDEC Aquaculture, Tigbauan, 5021 Iloilo, Iloilo, Philippines, http://www.seafdec.org.ph/

Thailand: Asia-Pacific Fisheries Commission (APFIC) FAO, Maliwan Mansion, 39 Phra Abit rd.,, Bangkok 10200, http://www.apfic.org

Thailand: NACA (Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific), PO Box 1040, Kasetsart Post Office, Ladyao, Jatujak, Bangkok 10903, Bangkok, Thailand, http://www.enaca.org/

Italy: Aquatic Animal Pathogen and Quarantine Information System (AAPQIS), Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture Service, Fishery Resource Division, Fisheries Department, FAO, Rome, http://www.aapqis.org/main

Italy: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, http://www.fao.org/

Italy: Globefish, FAO, Via delle Terme di Caracalla,, 00100, Rome, http://www.globefish.org

Switzerland: World Trade Organzation, Centre William Rappard, Rue de Lausanne 154,, CH-1211 geneva 21, http://www.wto.org

Switzerland: Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF), WWF Switzerland, Hohlstrasse, 110 8010 Zuerich

USA: Global Aquaculture Alliance - GAA, 5661 Telegraph Road, Suite 2A St Louis, Missouri 63129, http://www.gaalliance.org

USA: Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission - GSMFC, PO Box 726 Ocean Springs,, MS 39566-0726, http://nisgsmfc,org

USA: High Health Aquaculture - HHA, 73-4460 Kaahumanu Hwy #117 Kailua-Kona, Hawaii 96740, http://www.hihealthshrimp.com

USA: U.S. Marine Shrimp Farming Program - USMSFP, 41-202 Kalanianaole Highway, Waimanalo, HI 96795, http://usmsfp.org

USA: US Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Ariel Rios Building, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington DC, http://www.epa.gov

USA: US Geological Survey - USGS, USGS National Center 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA 20192, http://nas.er.usgs.gov

USA: World Aquaculture Society (WAS), WAS Home Office, 143 J. M. Parker Coliseum, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70806, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, http://www.was.org/

Australia: Australian Prawn Farmers Association, Head Office, level 6 183 North Quay, PO Box 12009, Brisbane Queensland, http://www.apfa.com.au

Contributors

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21/11/2007 Updated by:

Matthew Briggs, Consultant, Thailand

Main Author
Alec Forbes
Ministry of Fisheries & Marine Resources, Private Mail Bag 13355, Windhoek, Namibia

Distribution Maps

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