Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Marsupenaeus japonicus
(kuruma shrimp)

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Datasheet

Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 02 April 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Marsupenaeus japonicus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • kuruma shrimp
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Crustacea
  •         Class: Malacostraca
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The kuruma shrimp is a commercially important species in Japan and in the Mediterranean region around Egypt, Israel and Turkey. It is listed as one of the 100 worst invaders in Europe by

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp); adult. Museum preserved specimen, in the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, Japan. September 2013.
TitleAdult
CaptionMarsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp); adult. Museum preserved specimen, in the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, Japan. September 2013.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Daderot/via wikipedia - CC0
Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp); adult. Museum preserved specimen, in the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, Japan. September 2013.
AdultMarsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp); adult. Museum preserved specimen, in the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, Japan. September 2013.Public Domain - Released by Daderot/via wikipedia - CC0
Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp); live adults, in an observation tank. Taiwan.
TitleLive adults
CaptionMarsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp); live adults, in an observation tank. Taiwan.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/original photgrapher James P. McVey/via wikipedia - CC0
Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp); live adults, in an observation tank. Taiwan.
Live adultsMarsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp); live adults, in an observation tank. Taiwan.Public Domain - Released by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/original photgrapher James P. McVey/via wikipedia - CC0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Marsupenaeus japonicus Bate, 1888

Preferred Common Name

  • kuruma shrimp

Other Scientific Names

  • Penaeus canaliculatus japonicus Bate, 1888
  • Penaeus japonicus Bate, 1888
  • Penaeus pulchricaudatus Stebbing, 1914

International Common Names

  • English: karuma prawn
  • Spanish: camarón kuruma; langostino Japonés
  • French: crevette kuruma

Local Common Names

  • Australia: Japanese king prawn; tiger prawn
  • China/Hong Kong: flowery prawn
  • Israel: kristal
  • Japan: Kuruma ebi; Saimaki ebi
  • Kenya: tiger prawn
  • Korea, Republic of: oriental brown shrimp
  • Papua New Guinea: Japanese king prawn; tiger prawn
  • South Africa: ginger prawn
  • Taiwan: banded shrimp

Summary of Invasiveness

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The kuruma shrimp is a commercially important species in Japan and in the Mediterranean region around Egypt, Israel and Turkey. It is listed as one of the 100 worst invaders in Europe by DAISIE (2011) because it appears to have outcompeted the native penaeid shrimp Melicertus kerathurus.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Crustacea
  •                 Class: Malacostraca
  •                     Subclass: Eumalacostraca
  •                         Order: Decapoda
  •                             Suborder: Dendrobranchiata
  •                                 Unknown: Penaeoidea
  •                                     Family: Penaeidae
  •                                         Genus: Marsupenaeus
  •                                             Species: Marsupenaeus japonicus

Description

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Anatomy

M. japonicus is one of the largest penaeid shrimp. The maximum size is 27 cm in length and 130 g in body weight. Mean length of male and female is 19 cm and 25 cm, respectively. Surface of the shell is smooth and rostrum bears 8-10 spines dorsally and 1-2 ventrally. First three pairs of pereiopods are chelated. Shelf of second abdominal segment covers the posterior shell of the first abdominal segments (Kafuku and Ikenoue, 1983).

Morphology

Rostrum is armed with dorsal and 1 (occasionally 2) ventral teeth which is longer in young individuals. It conspicuously surpasses the antennular peduncle and decreases in length with size. In the adult, it reaches the distal end of the first antennular segment. Antennal and hepatic spines are very pronounced. Postocular sulcus is absent. Postrostral carina, adrostral sulcus and carina are long. They almost reach the posterior margin of carapace. Gastrofrontal carina turns anterodorsally upon itself at posterior end. Gastro-orbital carina is long and almost reaches the anterior margin of the carapace. Orbito-antennal sulcus is well-defined. Cervical carina is sharp and accompanying sulcus is well marked. Hepatic carina and sulcus are well-defined. Longitudinal and transverse sutures are absent. Sixth abdominal somite bears three cicatrices. Telson is armed with three pairs of movable lateral spines.

Antennular flagella are much shorter than the carapace. Palp of first maxilla is elongated and sometimes consists of 4 or 5 articles. Basal spine is on the first and second pereopods. Petasma is symmetrical and enclosed with greatly developed and curved distomedian projections. The thelycum is closed (Perez Farfante and Kensley, 1997).

Coloration

The body of the kuruma shrimp is pale and bears uninterrupted brown transverse bands on carapace and abdominal segments. Narrow bands of blue, yellow and red adorn the tip of the telson. Walking legs and pleopods are pale yellow proximally, and blue distally. Uropods are distally striped with yellow and blue. Setal fringe is red (Kafuku and Ikenoue, 1983).

Distribution

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The kuruma shrimp is considered as one of the most economically important members of the family Penaeidae. It inhabits inshore waters up to 90 m deep on sandy mud and sandy bottoms. The kuruma shrimp has a maximum length of 25-30 cm, and can survive and grow at low water temperatures (10°C). It is native to the Indian Ocean and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean. It is reported that kuruma shrimp is distributed along the east coast of South Africa, Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, Fiji Island and north Australia (Hayashi, 1996). It migrates from the Red Sea through the Suez Canal to the eastern Mediterranean Sea. It was first reported in the Mediterranean, in Egypt but was misclassified as P. canaliculatus (Balss, 1927). It has been successively recorded in Syria, southern Turkey, Israel, Cyprus, Lebanon, Greece and Rhodes.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Indian Ocean, EasternPresentNative Not invasive Hayashi, 1996
Indian Ocean, WesternPresentNative Not invasive Hayashi, 1996
Mediterranean and Black SeaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Hayashi, 1996; DAISIE, 2011Abundant along the Levantine coast, sporadic records from Sea of Marmara, Amvrakikos and Vistonikos Gulfs, Adriatic coast of Italy, and France
Pacific, SouthwestPresentNative Not invasive Hayashi, 1996
Pacific, Western CentralPresentNative Not invasive Hayashi, 1996

Asia

IsraelPresentDAISIE, 2011
JapanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
LebanonPresentDAISIE, 2011
SyriaPresentDAISIE, 2011
TaiwanPresentNative Not invasive Hayashi, 1996
TurkeyPresentDAISIE, 2011

Africa

EgyptPresentDAISIE, 2011

Europe

CyprusPresentDAISIE, 2011
FranceRestricted distributionDAISIE, 2011
GreecePresentDAISIE, 2011
ItalyRestricted distributionDAISIE, 2011

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNative Not invasive Hayashi, 1996

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Brazil 1970s Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No DIAS (2005)
Cyprus 1990s Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No DIAS (2005)
Fiji Japan 1974 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No DIAS (2005)
France 1980s Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No DIAS (2005)
French Polynesia Japan 1973 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government No No DIAS (2005)
Italy 1980s Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No DIAS (2005)
Portugal Spain 1985 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sector No Yes DIAS (2005)
Singapore Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sector No No DIAS (2005)
Spain Japan 1984 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sector Yes No DIAS (2005)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat
Marine
 
Inshore marine Present, no further details

Biology and Ecology

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The kuruma shrimp mainly inhabits bays and inland seas, which are influenced by warm currents. Before spawning, the male and female copulate and spermatophores that contain spermatozoa are transferred from the male to the female by means of the petasma. The female stores the spermatophores in her seminal receptacle located under the thelycum. Spawning occurs at night in deep-sea water areas. The female releases the eggs into the sea while swimming leisurely during the spawning. At the same time, the spermatozoa within the spermatophores are discharged into the sea, and thus the eggs are fertilized. A female 17 cm in length releases about 700,000 eggs at a single spawning (Kafuku and Ikenoue, 1983). Spawning season varies from March to September, depending on the area of spawning. Spawning begins when water temperature exceeds 20°C, and under low salinity conditions.

Hatched nauplii reach the zoeal and mysis stages through molting, and then metamorphose into the postlarval stage. Kuruma shrimp change their habitat with growth. The nauplius has 6 stages, the zoea 3 stages, and the mysis 3 stages, respectively. Larvae hatched in offshore areas are transferred to bays or river mouth areas by the ocean current. After reaching the juvenile stage, they are transferred from the river mouth to the offshore area by ocean currents with low salinity.

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceFood Source DatasheetLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
bivalves (clams, scallops, oysters) Adult/Broodstock
small fish (squid, sardine fry, sand eel fry) Adult/Broodstock
small organism Adult/Broodstock
zooplankton Adult/Broodstock/Fry/Larval

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 20
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 25 35
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 5 10

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.3 Optimum Fry
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) >1 Optimum Adult
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) <20 Optimum Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 5 Optimum Fry
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 0 1.5 Harmful Adult
Nitrite (mg/l) >5 Harmful Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) <5 >45 Harmful Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) <5 >45 Harmful Broodstock
Salinity (part per thousand) <5 >45 Harmful Fry
Salinity (part per thousand) 30 35 Optimum Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) 30 35 Optimum Broodstock
Salinity (part per thousand) 30 35 Optimum Egg
Salinity (part per thousand) 30 35 Optimum Fry
Salinity (part per thousand) 32 34 Optimum Larval
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) <20 >35 Harmful Broodstock
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) 20 30 Optimum Broodstock
Water pH (pH) <4 >10 Harmful Adult
Water pH (pH) <4 >10 Harmful Fry
Water pH (pH) 7 8 Optimum Egg
Water pH (pH) 7 8 Optimum Larval
Water pH (pH) 7 8 Optimum Fry
Water pH (pH) 7 9 Optimum Adult
Water pH (pH) 7 9 Optimum Broodstock
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 25 Optimum Broodstock
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <10 >35 Harmful Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 25 30 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 26 29 Optimum Egg
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 26 29 Optimum Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 26 29 Optimum Fry

References

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Abdel-Rahman SH, Kanazawa A, Teshima S, 1979. Effects of dietary carbohydrates on the growth and levels of the hepatopancreas glycogen and serum glucose of prawn. Bull. Jap. Soc. Scien. Fish., 12:1491-1494

Alam MS, Teshima S, Koshio S, 2003. Requirements of essential amino acids and utilization of crystalline amino acids by shrimp. Aqua Feed International, 6: 6-9

Balazs GH, 1973. Preliminary studies on the preparation and feeding of crustacean diets. Aquaculture, 2: 369-377

Balss H, 1927. Bericht über die Crustacea Decapoda (Natantia und Anomura). Zoological Results of the Cambridge Expedition to the Suez Canal 1924, XIV. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 22: 221-227

Baticados MCL, Coloso RM, Duremdez RC, 1986. Studies on the chronic soft-shell syndrome in the tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, from brackish water ponds. Aquaculture, 56: 271-285

Baticados MCL, Cruz-Lacierda ER, de la Cruz MC, Duremdez-Fernandez RC, Gacutan RQ, Lavilla-Pitogo CR, Lio-Po GD, 1990. Diseases of Penaeid Shrimps in the Philippines. Aquaculture Department, SEAFDEC, Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines, 46 p

Boonyaratpalin S, Supamataya K, Kasornchandra J, Direkbusarakom S, Ekpanithanpong U, Chantanachookin C, 1993. Non-occluded vaculo-like virus the causative agent of yellow-head disease in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Gyobyo Kenkyu (Fish Pathology), 28: 103-109

Conklin DE, 1997. Vitamins. In: D’Abramo LR, Conklin DE, Akiyama DM, eds. Crustacean Nutrition, Advances in World Aquaculture, Vol. 6, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA, World Aquaculture Society, pp. 123-149

DAISIE, 2011. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Deshimaru O, Kuroki K, 1974. Studies on a purified diet for prawn. 2. Optimum contents of cholesterol and glucosamine in the diet. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 40(4):421-424

Deshimaru O, Kuroki K, Sakamoto S, Yone Y, 1978. Absorption of labelled calcium-SUP-45 Ca by prawn from sea water. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 44: 975-977

Deshimaru O, Shigueno K, 1972. Introduction to the artificial diet for prawn Penaeus japonicus. Aquaculture, 1: 115-133

Deshimaru O, Yone Y, 1978. Requirement of prawn for dietary minerals. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 44(8):907-910

DIAS, 2005. Introduced species database. Penaeus japonicus. Online at http://www.fao.org/figis/servlet/FsSearchServlet. Accessed 21 November 2005

FAO, 1986. Shrimp culture: pond design, operation and management. NACA training Manual Series no 2

FIGIS, 2005. Penaeus japonicus Bate, 1888. Fisheries global information system, FIGIS-FAO/SIDP Species Identification Sheet. Online at http://www.fao.org/figis/servlet/FiRefServlet?ds=species&fid=2584 Accessed 21 November 2005

Flegel TW, Fegan DF, Kongsom S, Vuthikomudomkit S, Sriurairatana S, Boonyaratpalin S, Chantanachookhin C, Vickers JE, MacDonald OD, 1992. Occurrence, diagnosis, and treatment of shrimp diseases in Thailand, In: Fulks W, Main K, eds. Diseases of Cultured Penaeid Shrimp in Asia and United States. The Oceanic Institute, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, pp. 57-112

Furusho S, Umezaki Y, Ishida K, Honda A, 1988. Changes in the concentration of ATP-related compounds and lactic acid in muscle of live prawn Penaeus japonicus during storage in sawdust. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 54: 1209-1212

Guillaume J, 1997. Protein and Amino Acids. In: D’Abramo LR, Conklin DE, Akiyama DM, eds. Crustacean Nutrition, Advances in World Aquaculture, Vol. 6, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA, World Aquaculture Society, pp. 26-50

Hatae K, Tokuda H, Shimada A, Matsumoto M, Yamanaka H, 1991. Flavor and texture of "Arai" made of kuruma prawn differed in treatment. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 57: 2133-2137

Hayashi K, 1996. 1. Bunrui to Bunpu (Taxonomy and Distribution), In: Kittaka, J, Takashima, F, Kanazwa, A, eds. Ebi•kani rui no zouyoushoku (Aquaculture of Crustaceans), Kouseishakouseikaku, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 1-32

Inoue K, Miwa S, Oseko N, Nakano H, Kimura T, Momoyama K, Hiraoka, M, 1994. Mass mortalities of cultured Kuruma shrimp Penaeus japonicus in Japan in 1993: electron microscopic evidence of the causative virus. Fish Pathology, 29: 149-158

Kafuku T, Ikenoue H, 1983. Modern Methods of Aquaculture in Japan: Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheires Science II. Elsevier Scientific Pub. Co., New York, USA and Kodamsha Ltd, Tokyo, Japan

Kanazawa A, 1983. Penaeid Nutrition. In: Pruder GD, Langdon CJ, Conklin DE, eds. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Aquaculture Nutrition: Biochemical and Physiological Approaches to Shellfish Nutrition, 27-29 October, 1981. World Aquaculture Society, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA, Special Publication No. 2, pp. 87-105

Kanazawa A, 1985. Nutrition of Penaeid Prawns and Shrimps. In: Taki Y, Primavera JH, Llobrera JA, eds. Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimp, Iloilo, Philippines, Aquaculture Department, SEAFDEC, pp. 123-130

Kanazawa A, Tanaka N, Teshima S, Kashiwada K, 1971. Nutritional requirements of prawn-2. Requirement of sterol. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 37: 211-215

Kanazawa A, Teshima S, 1977. Biosynthesis of fatty acids from acetate in the prawn, Penaeus japonicus. Memories of the faculty of fisheries, Kagoshima University, 25: 47-51

Kanazawa A, Teshima S, 1981. Essential amino acids of the prawn. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 47(3):1375-1377

Kanazawa A, Teshima S, Endo M, 1979. Requirements of prawn, Penaeus japonicus, for essential fatty acids. Memoirs of Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, 28:27-33

Kanazawa A, Teshima S, Sasaki N, 1984. Requirements of the juvenile prawn for calcium, phosphorus, potassium, copper, manganese, and iron. Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, 33: 63-71

Kanazawa A, Teshima S, Tokiwa S, Kayama M, Huruta M, 1979a. Essential fatty acids in the diets of prawn-2. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid on growth. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 45: 1151.1153

Kitabayashi K, Kurata H, Shudo K, Nakamura K, Ishikawa S, 1971. Studies on formula feed for kuruma prawn. I. On the relationship among glucosamine, phosphorus and calcium. Bulletin Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory, 65: 91-107

Koshio S, Teshima SI, Kanazawa A, Watase T, 1993. The effect of dietary protein content on growth, digestion efficiency and nitrogen excretion of juvenile kuruma prawns, Penaeus japonicus.. Aquaculture, 113(1/2):101-114; 28 ref

Lester LJ, Pante MJR, 1992. Genetics of Penaeus Species.Chapter 3, In: Fast, AW, Lester, LJ, eds. Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, 23, Marine Shrimp Culture: Principles and Practices, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 29-52

Lightner DV, 1993. Diseases of Penaeid Shrimp. In: McVey JP, ed, CRC Handbook of Mariculture, 2nd Edn, Vol. 1, Crustacean Aquaculture, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, pp. 393-486

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Teshima S, Kanazawa A, Sasada H, Kawasaki M, 1982. Requirements of the larval prawn, Penaeus japonicus, for cholesterol and soybean phospholipids. Memoirs of Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University, 31:193-199

Teshima SI, Kanazawa A, 1984. Effects of protein, lipid, and carbohydrate levels in purified diets on growth and survival rates of the prawn larvae. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries, 50(10):1709-1715; 29 ref

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Wonteerasupaya C, Vickers JE, Sriurairatana S, Nash GL, Akarajamorn A, Boonsaeng V, Panyim S, Tassanakajon A, Withyachumnarnkul B, Flegel TW, 1995. A non-occluded, systemic baculovirus that occurs in cells of ectodermal and mesodermal origin and causes high mortality in the black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 21(1):69-77

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
DAISIE Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europehttp://www.europe-aliens.org/index.jsp
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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Main Author
Shunsuke Koshio
Kagoshima University, Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima 890-0056, Japan

Joint Author
Shin-ichi Teshima

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