Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Palaemon elegans
(rock shrimp)



Palaemon elegans (rock shrimp)


  • Last modified
  • 19 March 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Palaemon elegans
  • Preferred Common Name
  • rock shrimp
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Crustacea
  •         Class: Malacostraca
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. elegans is a euryhaline species that is native to the Atlantic and Mediterranean (including the Black Sea) coasts of Europe, ranging from Norway to South Africa. It inhabits intertidal areas, lagoons and estuaries, forming very abundant...

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Diagrammatic illustration of adult
CaptionDiagrammatic illustration of adult
CopyrightMichal Grabowski
Diagrammatic illustration of adult
AdultDiagrammatic illustration of adultMichal Grabowski


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Palaemon elegans Rathke, 1837

Preferred Common Name

  • rock shrimp

Other Scientific Names

  • Leander squilla Kemp, 1910
  • Leander squilla var. elegans de Man, 1915
  • Leander squilla var. intermedia de Man, 1915

International Common Names

  • English: common prawn

Local Common Names

  • Croatia: jadranska kozica
  • France: crevette bouquet
  • Germany: Kleine Felsengarnele
  • Italy: gamberetto
  • Netherlands: gewone steurgarnaal
  • Poland: krewetka atlantycka
  • Portugal: camarão de poça
  • Spain: quisquilla

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. elegans is a euryhaline species that is native to the Atlantic and Mediterranean (including the Black Sea) coasts of Europe, ranging from Norway to South Africa. It inhabits intertidal areas, lagoons and estuaries, forming very abundant populations in vegetated places. It was also accidentally introduced to the Aral and Caspian lakes in the 1950s. Very recently it has colonized the Baltic Sea, spreading by 2003 as far as the Gulf of Finland. Recent reports show that the species has completely replaced the native P. adspersus, from many suitable habitats along the southern Baltic coast and colonized some coastal lagoons, devoid of palaemonid shrimp before. The vector of its introduction remains unknown so it is unclear whether P. elegans should be treated as an invasive alien species posing a threat to local biodiversity, or if it is simply enriching the biodiversity through the natural extension of its range from the Atlantic coast.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Crustacea
  •                 Class: Malacostraca
  •                     Subclass: Eumalacostraca
  •                         Order: Decapoda
  •                             Suborder: Natantia
  •                                 Unknown: Palaeomonoidea
  •                                     Family: Palaemonidae
  •                                         Genus: Palaemon
  •                                             Species: Palaemon elegans

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Some misunderstanding on the distribution of Palaemon elegans in the Baltic Sea arises from confusing this species in literature with Palaemon adspersus, due to use of its old synonymic name by some authors. For example, Balss (1926), cites P. elegans under its old name Leander squilla (Linnaeus, 1758). According to Opinion 564 of the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature (Holthuis, 1988), the name Cancer squilla described by Linnaeus (1758: 632, 1761: 495-496) belongs in reality to Palaemon adspersus Rathke, 1837 (syn. Leander adspersus). The latter name was conserved by the Commission, through suppression of the specific name squilla Linnaeus. In fact, in the cited work of Balss (1926) the information on the species distribution in Baltic concerns only Leander squilla var. typical, that was later included in P. adspersus; the other variety mentioned by Balss (1926), L.s. var. elegans Rathke, 1837 was later raised to species level as Palaemon elegans. Holthuis (1949, 1950) gave more detailed explanation behind the taxonomic changes and stated that former reports of P. elegans (Balls, 1926; Schellenberg, 1928) in the Baltic Sea were mistakes which resulted from confusing this species with P. adspersus. In conclusion, all the older data may be attributed to P. adspersus or, at least, the occurrence of P. elegans in the Baltic at that time was highly doubtful (Grabowski, 2006).


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The maximum length of P. elegans is 63 mm. Its rostrum is strongly expanded ventrally, straight or very slightly upwardly curved with seven to nine dorsal teeth and with two to four (most often three) ventral teeth. The tip of the rostrum is often bifid. Three or rarely two dorsal teeth are placed behind the posterior edge of the orbit. Ventral side of the rostrum with a single row of setae. Antenules triramous, shorter ramus of the outer flagellum stout and fused to the longer ramus for about 50-60% of its length. Third maxilliped about 0.5 x length of scaphocerite, exopod present. Mandible with incisor and molar process, and two segmented palp. Sixth abdominal segment with a protuberance just above the posterolateral marginal spine. Carapace and abdomen usually with a black colour transverse striped pattern. Legs with yellow and blue bands. However, the colouration may differ depending on the habitat – in turbid waters the pattern is likely to fade away almost completely. Detailed illustrated descriptions were provided by Smaldon (1993) and by Gonzales-Ortegon and Cuesta (2006).

The species life cycle was studied by Fincham (1977) and the identification key to larval stages was provided by Fincham and Williamson, (1978).



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This euryhaline marine species inhabits vegetated areas (Dalla Via, 1985) and is widely distributed in European coastal waters from the Black and Mediterranean seas to the North Sea and the Atlantic shores of Norway. As introduced unintentionally it occurs also in the Aral and Caspian lakes. It has also colonized the Baltic Sea as far east as the Gulf of Finland.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


LibyaPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
MayottePresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
MoroccoPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
São Tomé and PríncipePresentNative
Western SaharaPresentNative


AzerbaijanAbsent, Intercepted only
GeorgiaAbsent, Intercepted onlyOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
IranAbsent, Intercepted only
KazakhstanAbsent, Intercepted only


AlbaniaPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
BulgariaPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
CroatiaPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
CyprusPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
FrancePresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
-CorsicaPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
GibraltarPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
GreecePresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
IrelandPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
ItalyPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedFirst reported: 2000 - 2002
MaltaPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
MonacoPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
NetherlandsPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
PolandPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
PortugalPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
-AzoresPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
-MadeiraPresentOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
RomaniaPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
SerbiaPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
SloveniaPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
-Canary IslandsPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
SwedenPresentInvasiveOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
United KingdomPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)
-Channel IslandsPresentNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)

North America

United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MassachusettsPresentOver 70 shrimp collected at Hawthorne and at nearby Palmer's Cove Yacht Club

Sea Areas

Atlantic - Eastern CentralPresent, WidespreadNative
Atlantic - NortheastPresent, WidespreadNative
Atlantic - SoutheastPresent, WidespreadNative
Mediterranean and Black SeaPresent, WidespreadNativeOriginal citation: d'Udekem d'Acoz (1999)

History of Introduction and Spread

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During the first half of twentieth century it was accidentally introduced to the Aral and Caspian lakes (Zentkevich, 1963). Grabowski (2006) noted that in some publications (Janas et al., 2004) it was erroneously reported, based on data from Balss (1926), that this species was present from the southern Baltic and had ranged from Kiel to the Gulf of Gdansk since the 1920s. In fact, these data concerned another species – P. adspersus Rathke, 1837.The distribution of P. elegans in the Baltic was, until recently, limited to its westernmost part. The species was reported sporadically only from Wismarer Bucht (Köhn and Gosselck, 1989). In the eastern and southern Baltic the species was found first in 2002 in the Arkona Basin (Zettler, 2002) and in Poland in the Gulf of Gdansk (Janas et al., 2004). However, Grabowski (2006) indicated that P. elegans was present on the Polish Baltic coast at least since 2000 (records from the Martwa Wisla (Dead Vistula)).

Currently, the species is the most abundant palaemonid shrimp along the Polish Baltic coast. It also inhabits the Szczecin Lagoon and the Vistula deltaic system including the Vistula Lagoon (Jazdzewski et al., 2005; Grabowski 2006). In 2003, the species was already found in the Gulf of Finland (Kekkonen, 2003; Lavikainen and Laine, 2004). According to the suppositions of Köhn and Gosselck (1989), the larval stages of P. elegans were transported occasionally to the Baltic Sea in ballast waters. These authors reported that ovigerous females did not occur in German Baltic waters and concluded that this species was not reproducing there. Grabowski et al. (2005) observed ovigerous females and postlarval stages of all sizes in the Bay of Puck and along the open Baltic coast in Poland. In many places, it replaced completely native P. adspersus, while in others it dominated the palaemonid communities (Grabowski 2006). Köhn and Gosselck (1989) hypothesised that P. elegans could have been be introduced to German waters through ballast waters; however, there are no data available to either prove or disprove this assumption. Thus, it is still not clear if P. elegans should be treated as an introduced, invasive alien species that poses a threat to local biodiversity, or if it is simply enriching biodiversity through the natural extension of its range from the Atlantic coast.

Risk of Introduction

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The case of P. elegans may be another example in a long list of successful colonization known in the Baltic Sea (Leppäkoski and Olenin, 2000; Leppäkoski, 2004). With no doubt the species has become a permanent and important element of the Baltic fauna. In many places it replaced the native P. adspersus, and in the others it dominates the palaemonid communities. However, a question arises whether P. elegans should be treated as an introduced invasive, non-native being a threat for the local biodiversity, or simply as enriching this biodiversity through a natural range extension. The shrimp occurs along the Atlantic coasts of Europe and it may naturally penetrate into the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea similar to the European shore crab, Carcinus maenas,observed sporadically in the Eastern Baltic. On the other hand, Köhn and Gosselck (1989) hypothesised that P. elegans could be introduced through shipping (ballast waters). It is highly probable as there are numerous cases of decapod crustaceans spread, enhanced and accelerated by human activity (Rodriguez and Suarez, 2001). Ballast waters offer by no means the most effective mechanism for the introduction of exotic species (Carlton, 1985; Gollasch, 2002). It has been assessed that each day there are 3-4 thousand marine species transported worldwide (Carlton and Geller, 1993). Decapod planctonic larvae are also known to migrate this way (Chu et al., 1997) and examples of such kind of decapod introductions are known from Europe (Rodriguez and Suarez, 2001), in fact the authors discuss also this way of dispersal for the already mentioned crab, Carcinus maenas. Furthermore, P.elegans was side-introduced with mullet species to the seas of the former USSR (Zentkevitch, 1963), however this option is unlikely in the Baltic as there is no data on such fishery activity in the area. Further spread of this species by natural dispersal is suspected in the Baltic Sea (to the slightly brackish Gulf of Bothnia). It is also possible that with ballast waters it will be transferred to coastal waters and estuaries of North America or the Far East.



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The species occurs in shallow littoral zone, on muddy or sandy bottom where it is primarily associated with vegated areas, such as Zostera meadows or stony and rocky places overgrown with algae. Also, it produces highly abundant populations in reed zone in lagoons or estuaries (Dalla Via, 1985; Grabowski, 2006).


Habitat List

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BrackishEstuaries Principal habitat Natural
BrackishLagoons Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
MarineInshore marine Principal habitat Natural
MarineBenthic zone Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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For information on the genetics of this species please see Porter et al. (2005).

Reproductive Biology

The species breeds from April to September, in favourable conditions females may produce two broods per year. As in all palaemonids, the eggs are protected by females and remain attached to her pleopods until the planctonic larva hatches. Then it undergoes typical development with variable number of zoeal stages recorded (from six to nine). The larva changes lifestyle to benthic in megalope (post-larval) stage. The species life cycle was studied by Fincham,(1977) and the identification key to larval stages was provided by Fincham and Williamson (1978).


Physiology and Phenology

The species is known to accumulate cadmium in its tissues (White and Rainbow, 1986).



P. elegans is omnivorous, feeding predominantly on algae, small crustaceans and foraminiferans.



The species forms communities with other palaemonid shrimp species living in the same habitat types, such as Palaemon adspersus, P. serratus, P. longirostris and Palaemonetes varians (Grabowski, 2006).


Environmental Requirements

It is a euryhaline species, occurring both in brackish and marine waters.


Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
60 22 33 22

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Depth (m b.s.l.) 0.2 5 Optimum
Salinity (part per thousand) 5 25 Optimum 1-40 tolerated
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 20 Optimum 5-31 tolerated

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aggregata eberthi Parasite Aquatic|Adult not specific
Aggregata octopiana Parasite Aquatic|Adult not specific
Gadus morhua Predator
Gymnocephalus cernuus Predator
Neogobius melanostomus Predator
Platichthys Predator
Zoarces viviparus Predator

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Natural enemies of this species may include various aquatic birds (eg. ducks, seagulls, herons, waders) and predatory fish (eg. Zoarces viviparus, Neogobius melanostomus, Gymnocephalus cernuus, Platichthys spp., Gadus morhua), however no detailed studies are available so far (Gruszka and Wiecaszek, 2004). Arias et al. (1998) reported two species of coccidian parasites of the genus Aggregata using P. elegans as intermediate hosts in Spanish waters.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

On the local scale, in the Baltic Sea, the species is extending its range probably through natural dispersal mechanisms. Its larval stages (zoea) lead planctonic life and may be carried with sea currents. In the Baltic inshore waters the currents are associated with wind action. Adult individuals leading benthic life are able to swim short distances and colonise neighbouring patches of suitable habitats.

Accidental Introduction

Köhn and Gosselck,(1989) hypothesised that P. elegans could be introduced through shipping (ballast waters). Zenkevich (1963) reported that it was side-introduced with mullet species to the Caspian and Aral seas of the former USSR.


Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture Yes
Breeding and propagation Yes
Disturbance Yes
FisheriesAccidental introduction with mullet Yes Zentkevich (1963)
Hitchhiker Yes
Nursery trade Yes
Self-propelled Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture stock Yes
Bait Yes
Floating vegetation and debris Yes
Ship ballast water and sedimentLarval stages Yes Köhn and Gosselck (1989)

Impact Summary

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Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Biodiversity

P. elegans is known to outcompete and replace native palaemonid shrimps (P. adspersus and Palaemonetes varians) from inshore, lagoon and estuarine habitats. Some positive impact may be related to the species forming abundant populations that may possibly enrich food base of various bird and fish species.


Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Palaemon adspersus (Baltic prawn)No detailsPolandCompetition; Competition - monopolizing resources; PredationGrabowski (2006)

Risk and Impact Factors

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  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition (unspecified)
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Bait/attractant


  • Laboratory use
  • Research model
  • Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Due to its very characteristic colour pattern the species is relatively easy to identify in the field. However, if the animals are not well coloured, confusion with other Palaemon (eg. P. adspersus, P. longirostris, P. serratus) or Palaemonetes (P. turcorum, P. varians, P. zariquieyi) species is possible. In such cases other morphological features, visible under stereomicrocope, have to be used. Detailed, well illustrated identification keys are provided by Smaldon (1993) and by Gonzales-Ortegon and Cuesta (2006).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Eradication or control of this species is most probably not possible due to the animals small size, abundance, habitats and similarity to related native species.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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As the problem of P. elegans invasiveness has been raised just recently there are still many gaps in knowledge. Particularly, further studies upon mechanisms and vectors of its spread are needed, as well as the impact on local benthic communities and place in the food chain.


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Arias C; Gestal C; Rodríguez H; Soto M; Estévez J, 1998. Palaemon elegans, an intermediate host in the life-cycle of Aggregata octopiana. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 32(1):75-78.

Balss H, 1926. Decapoda. Die Tierwelt der Nord- und Ostsee Lief [ed. by Grimpe G, Wagler E]. Liepzig, , 1-112.

Carlton JT, 1985. Transoceanic and interoceanic dispersal of coastal marine organisms: The biology of ballast water. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 23:313-371.

Carlton JT; Geller JB, 1993. Ecological roulette: the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science, 261:78-82.

Chu KH; Tan PF; Fung CH; Chen QC, 1997. A biological survey of ballast water in container ships entering Hong Kong. Hydrobiologia, 352:201-206.

Dalla Via J, 1985. Oxygen consumption and temperature change in the shrimp Palaemon elegans. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 26:199-202.

Dore I; Frimodt C, 1987. An Illustrated Guide to Shrimp of the World:1-229.

d'Udekem d'Acoz C, 1999. Collection Patrimoines Naturels. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 1-383.

Fincham AA, 1977. Larval development of British prawns and shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Natantia). Laboratory methods and a review of Palaemon (Paleander) elegans Rathke 1837. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Zoology), 32:1-28.

Fincham AA; Williamson DI, 1977. Decapoda, Larvae VI. Caridea. Fiches d'Identification du Zooplancton [du Conseil International pur l'Exploration de la Mer], 159/160:1-8.

Gollasch S, 2002. The importance of ship hull fouling as a vector of species introductions into the North Sea. Biofouling, 18(2):105-121.

González-Ortegón E; Cuesta JA, 2006. An illustrated key to species of Palaemon and Palaemonetes (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from European waters, including the alien species Palaemon macrodactylus. Journal of Marine Biology Association United Kingdom, 86(1):93-102.

Grabowski M, 2006. Rapid colonization of the Polish Baltic coast by an Atlantic palaemonid shrimp Palaemon elegans Rathke, 1837. Aquatic Invasions, 1(3):116-123.

Grabowski M; Jazdzewski K; Konopacka A, 2005. Alien Crustacea in Polish waters (Part I) - Introduction and Decapoda. Oceanological & Hydrobiological Studies, 24(suppl. 1/2005):43-62.

Gruszka P; Wiecaszek B, 2004. Book of Abstracts, Baltic - the Sea of Aliens, 25-27 August 2004, Gdynia, Poland.

Holthuis LB, 1949. The caridean Crustacea of the Canary Islands. Zoologische Mededelingen, 30(15):227-255.

Holthuis LB, 1950. The Decapoda of the Siboga Expedition. Part X. The Palaemonidae collected by the Siboga and Snellius expeditions, with remarks on other species. Part I: Subfamily Palaemoninae. Siboga Expedition, 39(a9):1-268.

Holthuis LB; Gottlies E, 1958. An annotated list of Decapod Crustacea of the Mediterranean Coast of Israel, with an appendix listing the Decapoda of the Eastern Mediterranean. Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel:1-126.

Janas U; Zarzycki T; Kozik P, 2004. Palaemon elegans - a new component of the Gulf of Gdansk macrofauna. Oceanologia, 46(1):143-146.

Jazdzewski K; Konopacka A; Grabowski M, 2005. Native and alien malacostracan Crustacea along the Polish Baltic Sea coast in the twentieth century. Oceanological & Hydrobiological Studies, 24(suppl. 1/2005):195-208.

Kekkonen T, 2003. Suomelle uusi katkarapulaji löytyi Hangon Tvärminnestä.

Köhn J; Gosselck F, 1989. Identifcation key for the Malacostraca of the Baltic Sea. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologishen Museum in Berlin, 65(1):3-114.

Lapinska E; Szaniawska A, 2006. Environmental preferences of Crangon crangon (Linnaeus, 1758), Palaemon adspersus Rathke, 1837 and Palaemon elegans Rathke, 1837 in the littoral zone of the Gulf of Gdansk. Crustaceana, 79(6):649-662.

Lavikainen T; Laine AO, 2004. First record of the invasive prawn Palaemon elegans in the brackish northern Baltic Sea. Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, 80:14-16.

Leppäkoski E, 2004. Living in a sea of exotics - the Baltic case. Aquatic Invasions in the Black, Caspian, and Mediterranean Seas, 35:237-255. [NATO Science Series IV, Earth and Environmental Sciences.]

Leppäkoski E; Olenin S, 2000. Non-native species and rates of spread: lessons from the brackish Baltic Sea. Biological Invasions, 2:151-163.

Müller Y, 2004. Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. France: Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais, 1-307.

Porter ML; Perez-Losada M; Crandall KA, 2005. Model-based multi-locus estimation of decapod phylogeny and divergence times. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol, 37(2):355-369.

Rodriguez G; Suarez H, 2001. Anthropogenic dispersal of decapod crustaceans in aquatic environments. Intersciencia, 26(7):282-288.

Schellenberg A, 1928. [English title not supplied]. (Krebstiere oder Crustacea II: Decapoda, Zehnfuesser) In: Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meersteile nach ihern Merkmalen und nach ihrer Lebenweise, Jena, Germany [ed. by Dahl F] Jena, Germany: Verlag von Gustav Fischer, 32-142.

Sea Grant College Program MIT, 2010. State Researchers Find New Non-Native Invasive Species. MIT Sea Grant News.

Smaldon G; Holthuis LB; Fransen CHJM, 1993. Synopses of the British Fauna (N.S.)., 1-142.

White SL; Rainbow PS, 1986. Accumulation of cadmium by Palaemon elegans (Crustacea: Decapoda). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 32:17-25.

Zentkevich L, 1963. Biology of the seas of the USSR. New York, USA: Interscience Publishers.

Zettler ML, 2002. [English title not supplied]. (Crustaceologishe Neugkeiten aus Mecklenburg) Archiv der Freunde der Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg, 41:15-36.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Dore I, Frimodt C, 1987. An Illustrated Guide to Shrimp of the World. New York, USA: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. 229 pp.

González-Ortegón E, Cuesta J A, 2006. An illustrated key to species of Palaemon and Palaemonetes (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from European waters, including the alien species Palaemon macrodactylus. Journal of Marine Biology Association United Kingdom. 86 (1), 93-102.

Grabowski M, 2006. Rapid colonization of the Polish Baltic coast by an Atlantic palaemonid shrimp Palaemon elegans Rathke, 1837. Aquatic Invasions. 1 (3), 116-123.

Holthuis L B, Gottlies E, 1958. Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel, 126 pp.

Köhn J, Gosselck F, 1989. Identification key for the Malacostraca of the Baltic Sea. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologishen Museum in Berlin. 65 (1), 3-114.

Lavikainen T, Laine A O, 2004. First record of the invasive prawn Palaemon elegans in the brackish northern Baltic Sea. Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. 14-16.

MIT, Sea Grant College Program, 2010. State Researchers Find New Non-Native Invasive Species. In: MIT Sea Grant College Program News,

Müller Y, 2004. Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. France: Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais. 1-307.

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435.

Zentkevich L, 1963. Biology of the seas of the USSR. New York, USA: Interscience Publishers.

Links to Websites

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Alien Species Directory
Baltic Sea Portal
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS) source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Macrozoobenthos of the North Sea


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06/02/08 Original text by:

Michal Grabowski, University of Lodz, Dept Invertebrate Zoology & Hydrobiology, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz, Poland

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