Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Phasianus colchicus
(common pheasant)

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Datasheet

Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Phasianus colchicus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common pheasant
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Aves
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. colchicus is an attractive, colourful medium-sized bird with a native range in Eurasia. In its native range, it shows considerable variation in habitat, being found mainly in the overgrown edges of rivers, h...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant); adult male. Poland.
TitleAdult
CaptionPhasianus colchicus (common pheasant); adult male. Poland.
Copyright©Łukasz Łukasik/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant); adult male. Poland.
AdultPhasianus colchicus (common pheasant); adult male. Poland.©Łukasz Łukasik/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant); adult female, feeding on privet berries (Ligustrum sp). Lodz, Poland. December, 2010.
TitleAdult
CaptionPhasianus colchicus (common pheasant); adult female, feeding on privet berries (Ligustrum sp). Lodz, Poland. December, 2010.
Copyright©Jerzy Strzelecki/Poland - via Wikipedia - CC BY 3.0
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant); adult female, feeding on privet berries (Ligustrum sp). Lodz, Poland. December, 2010.
AdultPhasianus colchicus (common pheasant); adult female, feeding on privet berries (Ligustrum sp). Lodz, Poland. December, 2010.©Jerzy Strzelecki/Poland - via Wikipedia - CC BY 3.0
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant); one male and several female ring-necked pheasants.
TitleAdults
CaptionPhasianus colchicus (common pheasant); one male and several female ring-necked pheasants.
Copyright©INRA-Tours/Cattiau
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant); one male and several female ring-necked pheasants.
AdultsPhasianus colchicus (common pheasant); one male and several female ring-necked pheasants.©INRA-Tours/Cattiau
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant); typical eggs.
TitleEggs
CaptionPhasianus colchicus (common pheasant); typical eggs.
Copyright©INRA-Tours/Beguey
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant); typical eggs.
EggsPhasianus colchicus (common pheasant); typical eggs.©INRA-Tours/Beguey
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant); day-old chicks.
TitleChicks
CaptionPhasianus colchicus (common pheasant); day-old chicks.
Copyright©INRA-Tours/Beguey
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant); day-old chicks.
ChicksPhasianus colchicus (common pheasant); day-old chicks.©INRA-Tours/Beguey
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant); two-week old chick.
TitleChick
CaptionPhasianus colchicus (common pheasant); two-week old chick.
Copyright©INRA-Tours/Beguey
Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant); two-week old chick.
ChickPhasianus colchicus (common pheasant); two-week old chick.©INRA-Tours/Beguey

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Phasianus colchicus

Preferred Common Name

  • common pheasant

International Common Names

  • English: farmed game production: pheasants; game pheasant; pheasant; pheasant, common; ring-necked pheasant; true pheasant
  • Spanish: faisán vulgar; faisante
  • French: faisan; faisan commun; faisan de Colchide
  • Russian: obyknovennyi fazan
  • Chinese: huán jing zhì
  • Portuguese: faisão

Local Common Names

  • Czech Republic: bažant obecný
  • Denmark: fasan
  • Finland: fasaani
  • Germany: Fasan, Edel-; Fasan, Jagd-; Jagdfasan; Jagdtfasanen
  • Hungary: facan
  • Iceland: fashani
  • Iran: gharghawol
  • Italy: fagiano comune
  • Japan: kouraikiji
  • Netherlands: fazant
  • Norway: fasan
  • Poland: bazant
  • Slovakia: bažant obycajný
  • Sweden: fasan

DADIS local name

  • Phasianos

DADIS main name

  • common Belgian pheasant
  • ring neck pheasant

EPPO code

  • PHSNCO (Phasianus colchicus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. colchicus is an attractive, colourful medium-sized bird with a native range in Eurasia. In its native range, it shows considerable variation in habitat, being found mainly in the overgrown edges of rivers, hilly areas and close to cultivation. Where it has been introduced, it is closely associated with grassland and agricultural land, often near to woodland edges. Due to its popularity as a game bird, it has been extensively and deliberately introduced to other areas, including Europe, North America, Japan and Australasia. The adverse effects of these introductions are not clear, and in general they appear to be small compared to the size of the introduced population. In the USA, there could be competitive effects on some threatened native birds, and in Japan some sources indicate that the species affects the native P. versicolor by hybridization.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Aves
  •                     Order: Galliformes
  •                         Family: Phasianidae
  •                             Genus: Phasianus
  •                                 Species: Phasianus colchicus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The number of subspecies of Phasianus colchicus is unclear from the literature. According to Switzer (2011) and Zhang et al. (2013), there are 31 subspecies, and these are described according to morphological characters and plumage (Zhang et al., 2013), and often divided into either 5 or 6 groups (see table below).

Kozyrenko et al. (2009) suggested that the number of subspecies could be in the range 31–37, and found very low population genetic differences between three separate populations of Phasianus colchicus pallasi.

Recent phylogenetic investigations do not support the currently described subspecies, and there appears to be widespread hybridization, especially for the Chinese ring-necked pheasants (Qu et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2013).

The table below has been compiled using the following sources: Avibase (2015); Qu et al. (2009); GBWF (2012).


Group

Scientific Name

Common Name

The Phasianus colchicus colchicus group.

Caucasus pheasants or Black-necked pheasants

P.c. colchicus, Linnaeus, 1758

Southern Caucasus Pheasant

P.c. persicus, Severtsov, 1875

Persian Pheasant

P.c. septentrionalis, Lorenz, 1888

Northern Caucasian Pheasant

P.c. talischensis, Lorenz, 1888

Talisch Caucasian Pheasant

The Phasianus colchicus chrysomelas/principalis group

White-winged pheasants

 

P.c. bianchii, Buturlin, 1904

Bianchi’s Pheasant

P.c. chrysomelas, Severtsov, 1875

Khivan Pheasant

P.c. principalis, Sclater, PL, 1885

Northern Pheasant / Prince of Wales’ Pheasant

P.c. zerafschanicus, Tarnovski, 1893

Zerafshan Pheasant

P.c. zarudnyi, Buturlin, 1904

Zarudny’s Pheasant

The Phasianus colchicus mongolicus group

Mongolian ring-necked pheasants/ Kirghiz pheasants

P.c. bergii, Zarudny, 1914

(considered to be identical to P.c. turcestanicus)

 

P.c. mongolicus, von Brandt, 1844

Kirghiz Pheasant

P.c. turcestanicus, Lorenz, 1896

Syr Daria Pheasant

The Phasianus colchicus tarimensis group

Tarim pheasants 

P.c. shawii, Elliot, 1870

Yarkland Pheasant

P.c. tarimensis, Pleske, 1889

Tarim Pheasant

The Phasianus colchicus torquatus group

Chinese ring-necked pheasants/ Grey-rumped pheasants

 

P.c. alaschanicus, Alphéraky & Bianchi, 1908

Alashan Pheasant

P.c. decollatus, Swinhoe, 1870

Kweichow Pheasant

P.c. elegans, Elliot, 1870

Stone’s Pheasant

P.c. edzinensis, Sushkin, 1926

Gobi (Ring-necked) Pheasant

P.c. formosanus, Elliot, 1870

Formosan (Ring-necked) Pheasant

P.c. hagenbecki, Rothschild, 1901

Kobdo (Ring-necked) Pheasant

P.c. karpowi, Buturlin, 1904

Korean (Ring-necked) Pheasant

P.c. kiangsuensis, Buturlin, 1904

Shansi Pheasant

P.c. pallasi, Rothschild, 1903

Manchurian (Ring-necked) Pheasant

P.c. rothschildi, La Touche, 1922

Rothschild’s Pheasant

P.c. satscheuensis, Pleske, 1892

Satchu (Ring-necked) Pheasant

P.c. sohokotensis, Buturlin, 1908

Sohokhoto Pheasant

P.c. strauchi, Przevalski, 1876

Strauch’s Pheasant

P.c. suehschanensis, Bianchi, 1906

Sungpan Pheasant

P.c. takatsukasae, Delacour, 1927

Tonkinese (Ring-necked) pheasant

P.c. torquatus, Gmelin, JF, 1789

Chinese (Ring-necked) pheasant

P.c. vlangalii, Przevalski, 1876

Zaidan Pheasant

The green pheasant, Phasianus versicolor, also known as the Japanese Pheasant, was previously considered to be a subspecies of P. colchicus, although now it is considered to be a separate species (BirdLife International, 2015c; McGowan et al., 2013). In Japan, where P. versicolor is native, introduced P. colchicus does not always thrive, potentially due to competition from P. versicolor, and the two do not hybridize particularly successfully (McGowan et al., 2013). (However, P. c. karpowi is listed as an invasive species with a hybridization impact on P. versicolor by some authorities -- NIES, 2015). In Hawaii, where both P. colchicus and P. versicolor are introduced, hybridization is successful (McGowan et al., 2013).

When considered to be part of P. colchicus, P. versicolor was allocated to a sixth group, the Phasianus colchicus versicolor group with four subspecies (see table below).

Scientific Name

Common Name

Phasianus versicolor versicolor, Vieillot, 1825,

(P. c.  versicolor)

Kyushu Green (Ring-necked) Pheasant

Phasianus versicolor robustipes, Kuroda Sr, 1919

(P. c.  robustipes)

Northern Green (Ring-necked) Pheasant

Phasianus versicolor tanensis, Kuroda Sr, 1919

(P. c.  tanensis)

Pacific Green (Ring-necked) Pheasant

Phasianus versicolor tohkaidi, Momiyama, 1922

(P.c. tohkaidi)

Shikoku Green (Ring-necked) Pheasant

Switzer (2011) does consider P. versicolor to be part of P. colchicus, and describes two main groups of P. colchicus: colchicus and versicolor. Colchicus (described as having barred, coppery/red/yellow mantle and underparts, and a prominent neck ring) is found in mainland Eurasia, and versicolor (described as green on the neck, breast and upper belly and without the neck ring) as native to Japan and introduced to Hawaii.

Description

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There is a high degree of sexual dimorphism in P. colchicus, with the male bird being typically larger and more colourful than the smaller brown female. Males typically have multicoloured plumage with long, pointed and barred tails with heads ranging from glossy dark green to iridescent purple (Switzer, 2011). The RSPB (2015) describe the males as having rich chestnut, golden-brown and black markings on the tail and body with a dark green head and red face wattling; there may or may not be a white neck ring, and males are conspicuous and noisy (Elphick and Woodward, 2003). The female is described by the RSPB (2015) as mottled, with paler brown and black (and with a shorter tail and no wattles or pinnae, the latter being the tufts of feathers behind the eyes that the males have – Robertson, 1988).

Males are 75–89 cm long (tail 42.5–59 cm) and weigh 770–1990 g, and females are 53–62 cm long (tail 29–31 cm) and weigh 545–1453 g (McGowan et al., 2013). Wingspan is 70-90 cm (McGowan et al., 2013).

Due to breeding and hybridization with P. versicolor, there are also forms with dark plumage, known as melanistic (mutant) pheasants.

Distribution

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BirdLife International (2015b) lists the native range of European P. colchicus as: Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, and lists countries in Europe where it was introduced as: Albania; Andorra; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Ireland, Rep. of; Italy; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom – i.e. most European countries.

Switzer (2011) lists the native range as extending from the Caspian Sea, east across central Asia to China, including Korea, Japan (although this refers to P. versicolor) and Burma [Myanmar]. The species has been introduced to Europe, North America, Hawaii, Australia and New Zealand, and in North America it is mostly established on mid-latitude agricultural land (Switzer, 2011).

Lever (2005) lists the natural range of P. colchicus as the southern Palaearctic and north-eastern Oriental regions -- in Eastern Europe in parts of the Caucasus Mountains, and in Asia from northern Asia Minor east to Korea, China and Taiwan. Lever (2005) lists the naturalized range as Europe (British Isles, Continental Europe), Asia (Japan), North America (Canada, Mexico, USA), West Indies, South America (Chile), Australasia (Australia, New Zealand), Atlantic Ocean (St. Helena), Indian Ocean (Mascarene Islands), and the Pacific Ocean (French Polynesia, Hawaiian Islands), although the continued presence of the species in a few countries is uncertain.

In North America, populations are established on most mid-latitude agricultural lands from southern Canada to Utah and California to the New England states, and south to Virginia (Giudice and Ratti, 2015).

In Japan, P. c. karpowi was introduced for hunting, and its range now is described as: Hokkaido, Honshu (the Pacific side of Kanto to Tokai Districts, Nara), Shikoku (Ehime), Kyushu (Fukuoka, Miyazaki, mainland Kagoshima Prefectures, Tsushima, and Osumi), and Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (NIES, 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentNativeBirdLife International, 2015a; Clements et al., 2014Phasianus colchicus colchicus in the S; 100–200 pairs
AzerbaijanPresentNativeBirdLife International, 2015a; Clements et al., 2014Phasianus colchicus colchicus in the NE; 1000–2500 pairs
ChinaWidespreadNativeQu et al., 2009; Switzer, 2011The P.c. torquatus group
-AnhuiPresentQu et al., 2009; eBird, 2015The P.c. torquatus group
-BeijingWidespreadQu et al., 2009The P.c. torquatus group
-ChongqingWidespreadQu et al., 2009The P.c. torquatus group
-FujianPresentQu et al., 2009; Qu et al., 2009; eBird, 2015The P.c. torquatus group
-GansuPresentQu et al., 2009; Clements et al., 2014; eBird, 2015The P.c. torquatus group: P.c. satscheuensis in the west, P. c. sohokhotensis at Soho-Khoto Oasis and Qilian Shan, P. c. strauchi in the S
-GuangdongWidespreadQu et al., 2009The P.c. torquatus group
-GuangxiWidespreadQu et al., 2009The P.c. torquatus group
-GuizhouWidespreadQu et al., 2009; Clements et al., 2014The P.c. torquatus group
-HainanAbsent, unreliable recordQu et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2014
-HebeiPresentQu et al., 2009; eBird, 2015The P.c. torquatus group
-HeilongjiangWidespreadQu et al., 2009The P.c. torquatus group
-HenanWidespreadQu et al., 2009The P.c. torquatus group
-Hong KongPresentQu et al., 2009; eBird, 2015The P.c. torquatus group
-HubeiWidespreadQu et al., 2009The P.c. torquatus group
-HunanWidespreadQu et al., 2009The P.c. torquatus group
-JiangsuPresentQu et al., 2009; eBird, 2015The P.c. torquatus group
-JilinPresentQu et al., 2009; eBird, 2015The P.c. torquatus group
-LiaoningPresentQu et al., 2009; Clements et al., 2014; eBird, 2015The P.c. torquatus group: P. c. karpowi in the N and P. c. decollatus
-MacauWidespreadQu et al., 2009P. c. torquatus group
-Nei MengguWidespreadQu et al., 2009P. c. torquatus group
-NingxiaPresentQu et al., 2009; Clements et al., 2014P. c. torquatus group
-QinghaiPresentQu et al., 2009; Clements et al., 2014; eBird, 2015P. c. torquatus group
-ShaanxiWidespreadQu et al., 2009; Clements et al., 2014; eBird, 2015P. c. torquatus group (P. c. kiangsuensis; P. c. strauchi in the S)
-ShandongPresentQu et al., 2009; Clements et al., 2014; eBird, 2015
-ShanghaiWidespreadQu et al., 2009P. c. torquatus group
-ShanxiWidespreadQu et al., 2009; Clements et al., 2014P. c. torquatus group
-SichuanPresentQu et al., 2009; Clements et al., 2014; eBird, 2015P.c. torquatus group (P. c. suehschanensis in the NW, P. c. elegans in the W, P. c. decollatus)
-TianjinWidespreadQu et al., 2009P. c. torquatus group
-TibetWidespreadQu et al., 2009P. c. torquatus group
-XinjiangPresentKulikova et al., 2002; Qu et al., 2009
-YunnanPresentQu et al., 2009; Clements et al., 2014; eBird, 2015P. c. torquatus group (P. c. decollatus in the NE, P. c. rothschildi in the E)
-ZhejiangWidespreadQu et al., 2009P. c. torquatus group
Georgia (Republic of)LocalisedNativeBirdLife International, 2015a; Clements et al., 2014P. c. colchicus in the E
IranLocalised Not invasive Zarringhabaie et al., 2012; Clements et al., 2014
JapanPresentIntroducedQu et al., 2009; Switzer, 2011Native P. versicolor formerly considered to be a subspecies of P. colchicus
-HokkaidoPresentIntroduced Invasive Eguchi and Amano, 2004; eBird, 2015; NIES, 2015Phasianus colchicus karpowi
-HonshuPresentIntroduced Invasive Clements et al., 2014; eBird, 2015; NIES, 2015P. c. karpowi introduced; native P. versicolor formerly considered to be a subspecies of P. colchicus
-KyushuPresentIntroduced Invasive Clements et al., 2014; eBird, 2015; NIES, 2015P. c. karpowi introduced; native P. versicolor formerly considered to be a subspecies of P. colchicus
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoLocalisedIntroduced1930s or later Invasive eBird, 2015; NIES, 2015Phasianus colchicus karpowi on Amami, Okinowa and Sakishima Islands.
-ShikokuIntroduced1930s or later Invasive NIES, 2015Phasianus colchicus karpowi, Ehime
KazakhstanLocalisedKulikova et al., 2002; Clements et al., 2014
Korea, DPRPresentNativeSwitzer, 2011; Clements et al., 2014; eBird, 2015P. c. karpowi
Korea, Republic ofWidespreadNativeSwitzer, 2011; eBird, 2015; NIES, 2015P. c. karpowi
KyrgyzstanLocalisedKulikova et al., 2002; eBird, 2015Phasianus colchicus mongolicus at Tian Shan and the Trans-Ile Alatau Mountains
MongoliaLocalisedClements et al., 2014P. c. hagenbecki in the NW, P. c. edzinensis in S, P. c. kiangsuensis in the SE
TaiwanWidespreadClements et al., 2014; eBird, 2015P. c. formosanus
TurkeyLocalisedNativeBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 2015100–500 native pairs; 1000–5000 non-native pairs
United Arab EmiratesLocalisedeBird, 2015
UzbekistanLocalisedKulikova et al., 2002; Clements et al., 2014Phasianus colchicus zerafschanicus in south Uzbekistan (Bukhara and Zerafshan Valley); Phasianus colchicus mongolicus at Tian Shan
VietnamLocalisedClements et al., 2014P. c. torquatus near the border with China; P. c. rothschildi and P. c. takatsukasae in the N.

Africa

MauritiusPresentIntroducedeBird, 2015
RéunionPresentLever, 2005
Saint HelenaPresentIntroduced1500sLever, 2005A small but stable population remains

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaLocalisedIntroduced1908McLash, 2008; eBird, 2015In the south
-British ColumbiaLocalisedeBird, 2015In the south
-ManitobaLocalisedeBird, 2015In the extreme SW
-New BrunswickLocalisedeBird, 2015In the south
-Nova ScotiaWidespreadeBird, 2015
-OntarioLocalisedeBird, 2015In the extreme SW
-Prince Edward IslandWidespreadeBird, 2015
-QuebecLocalisedeBird, 2015In the extreme south
-SaskatchewanLocalisedeBird, 2015In the extreme south
MexicoPresentIntroducedLever, 2005
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresenteBird, 2015
-AlaskaLocalisedeBird, 2015Near Homer
-ArizonaLocalisedeBird, 2015In the south
-CaliforniaWidespreadeBird, 2015
-ColoradoWidespreadeBird, 2015
-ConnecticutWidespreadeBird, 2015
-DelawareWidespreadeBird, 2015
-District of ColumbiaWidespreadeBird, 2015
-FloridaLocalisedeBird, 2015
-HawaiiWidespreadIntroduced1865Lever, 2005; Qu et al., 2009; Clements et al., 2014; eBird, 2015On all main islands. P.c. mongolicus introduced in 1865; P.c. torquatus introduced in 1875 to all main islands. P. versicolor also introduced
-IdahoWidespreadeBird, 2015
-IllinoisWidespreadeBird, 2015
-IndianaWidespreadeBird, 2015
-IowaPresentRiley et al., 1998; eBird, 2015
-KansasWidespreadeBird, 2015
-KentuckyLocalisedeBird, 2015
-MaineWidespreadeBird, 2015
-MarylandWidespreadeBird, 2015
-MassachusettsWidespreadeBird, 2015
-MichiganPresentIntroduced1918Flegel, 1996; eBird, 2015Introduced as a game bird
-MinnesotaWidespreadeBird, 2015
-MissouriWidespreadeBird, 2015
-MontanaWidespreadeBird, 2015
-NebraskaPresentMatthews et al., 2012; eBird, 2015
-NevadaLocalisedeBird, 2015
-New HampshireWidespreadeBird, 2015
-New JerseyWidespreadeBird, 2015
-New MexicoWidespreadeBird, 2015
-New YorkWidespreadeBird, 2015
-North CarolinaLocalisedeBird, 2015Near Uwharrie National Forest, in Croatan National Forest, Currituck National Wildlife Refuge, Bodie Island
-North DakotaWidespreadeBird, 2015
-OhioWidespreadeBird, 2015
-OklahomaLocalisedeBird, 2015In the N and W
-OregonWidespreadIntroduced1881McLash, 2008; eBird, 2015
-PennsylvaniaWidespreadeBird, 2015
-Rhode IslandWidespreadeBird, 2015
-South DakotaWidespreadeBird, 2015
-TennesseeWidespreadeBird, 2015
-TexasLocalisedeBird, 2015
-UtahWidespreadeBird, 2015
-VermontLocalisedeBird, 2015
-VirginiaLocalisedeBird, 2015
-WashingtonWidespreadeBird, 2015
-West VirginiaLocalisedeBird, 2015
-WisconsinWidespreadeBird, 2015
-WyomingLocalisedeBird, 2015

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasLocalisedIntroduced1950sLever, 2005Possibly established on Eleuthera
Dominican RepublicLocalisedIntroduced1950sLever, 2005P.c. torquatus may survive in the hills near Cabo Rojo

South America

ChileLocalisedIntroduced1886/1914 Not invasive Jaksic, 1998Introduced in 1886 in Coquimbo using birds from Britain. Assumed to have died out around 1900. Reintroduced 1914 to Cautín using birds from Germany. Now found near Illapel, Cautín, and Valdivia.

Europe

AndorraPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015aLow numbers
AustriaWidespreadIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 201550,000–100,000 pairs
BelarusPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a30–50 pairs
BelgiumPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a10,000–50,000 pairs
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a60,000–90,000 pairs
BulgariaPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a8,000–14,000 pairs
CroatiaWidespreadIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 201550,000–100,000 pairs
Czech RepublicLocalisedIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 2015126,000–252,000 pairs
DenmarkPresentIntroducedJørgensen et al., 1999; IUCN, 2015
FinlandLocalisedIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 20158400–16,000 pairs
FranceWidespreadIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 2015177,000–283,000 pairs
GermanyWidespreadIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; Sodeikat et al., 1995; eBird, 2015200,000–295,000 pairs
GreecePresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; Sfougaris et al., 1996500–2,000 pairs
HungaryWidespreadIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 2015306,403–339,419 pairs
IrelandPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a147,347–350,140 pairs
ItalyWidespreadIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; Santilli and Bagliacca, 2011; eBird, 2015Widespread in N & central areas; 1000–100,000 pairs
LatviaPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015aLow numbers
LiechtensteinPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015aLow numbers
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedIUCN, 2015
LuxembourgPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a10–30 pairs
MacedoniaPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a300–2000 pairs
MoldovaPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a8500–10,000 pairs
MontenegroPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a50–200 pairs
NetherlandsWidespreadIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 201547,368–56,842 pairs
NorwayLocalisedIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 2015In the south; 500 pairs
PolandLocalisedIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 2015340,000–420,000 pairs
PortugalLocalisedIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 20150–50 pairs
RomaniaLocalisedIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 201550,000–250,000 pairs
Russian FederationPresentNativeBirdLife International, 2015a4500–5850 native pairs; 12,000–25,000 non-native pairs
-Russian Far EastPresentKulikova et al., 2002; Kozyrenko et al., 2009Phasianus colchicus pallasi in the south
-Southern RussiaLocalisedClements et al., 2014Phasianus colchicus septentrionalis in the Caucaus region
SerbiaWidespreadIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 201540,000–50,000 pairs
SlovakiaLocalisedIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 201520,000–40,000 pairs
SloveniaLocalisedIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 20159000–13,000 pairs
SpainLocalisedIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 2015370 pairs
-Balearic IslandsLocalisedIntroducedeBird, 2015Mallorca
SwedenLocalisedIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 2015In the south; 25,000–45,000 pairs
SwitzerlandLocalisedIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 201540-60 pairs
UKWidespreadIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; Stoate, 2002; eBird, 20152,300,000 pairs
UkraineLocalisedIntroducedBirdLife International, 2015a; eBird, 2015Mostly the south; 23,000–30,000 pairs

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedQu et al., 2009
-New South WalesLocalisedIntroducedLever, 2005In south and west
-South AustraliaLocalisedIntroduced1960/1Lever, 2005; eBird, 2015Near Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges
-TasmaniaPresentIntroduced1910-1960sLever, 2005; eBird, 2015
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedLever, 2005; eBird, 2015
-Western AustraliaLocalisedIntroduced1897-1960sLever, 2005; eBird, 2015Including Rottnest Island
French PolynesiaAbsent, unreliable recordLever, 2005Status unknown
New ZealandPresentIntroducedLever, 2005; Qu et al., 2009; Clements et al., 2014; eBird, 2015Widespread on North Island, more localized on South Island

History of Introduction and Spread

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P. colchicus has been widely introduced, for hunting or food, to Europe, North America and other areas, from its native range in Asia. Since many introductions happened centuries ago, it is difficult to know precisely when this happened. Some of the known introductions are listed in the History of Introduction table or mentioned in the Distribution table. It is possible that the species was introduced to what is now the UK in the 11th century, since that is when the first documentary evidence of its presence there occurs (as a food source) (Lever, 2005; Yardley, 2009). The UK now has the largest population of P. colchicus in Europe (BirdLife International, 2015a).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia 1855-1960s Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause) Yes Lever (2005) Several introductions between 1855 and 1960s. First attempts in Victoria only temporarily successful; later introductions to Tasmania and S. Australia successful
Bahamas 1950s Lever (2005) Possibly established on Eleuthera
Chile UK 1886 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause) No Jaksic (1998) Died out by 1900
Chile Germany 1914 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause) Yes Jaksic (1998) Small population: ‘hardly found in the feral state’
Dominican Republic 1950s Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Lever (2005) Some may survive on Hispaniola in the hills near Cabo Rojo
New Zealand 1842-1910 Yes Several introductions over the years
Oregon 1881 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause) Yes McLash (2008)
UK 11th cent Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause) Yes Lever (2005) Date and reason uncertain; possbly introduced in 11th centrury

Risk of Introduction

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P. colchicus has already been widely introduced to Europe, North America, Hawaii, Australia, New Zealand and other areas. Since it can utilize various habitats (BirdLife International, 2015b), wherever the birds are managed as game near to suitable wild habitat it is possible that they could escape and become naturalized.

Habitat

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P. colchicus occupy grassland and farmland habitats, preferring relatively open cover, such as grass and stubble fields with nearby trees or bushes for cover (Switzer, 2011). As generalists, they will though occupy a range of habitat types, except for dense tropical or alpine forests or very dry areas (Switzer, 2011). They prefer areas near to water although they can obtain water from dew, insects and succulent vegetation (Switzer, 2011).

In its natural range, P. colchicus shows considerable variation in habitat, being found mainly in the overgrown edges of rivers, hilly areas close to cultivation and cultivated flat land (BirdLife International, 2015b).

P. colchicus has a range territory size of 0.8–3.2 km2 (Switzer, 2011).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Principal habitat
Natural grasslands Principal habitat
Riverbanks Principal habitat
Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat
Wetlands Principal habitat

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

P. colchicus have a diploid number of 81 and 82 for females and males, respectively, with the sex chromosomes always unpaired in females (Castillo et al., 2010).

The complete mitochondrial genome of P. colchicus is 16,692 bp long and is composed of 13 typical protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 putative control region (Li et al., 2013).

Kozyrenko et al. (2009) suggest that the number of subspecies could be in the range 31–37, and found very low population genetic differences between three separate populations of Phasianus colchicus pallasi. Phylogenetic studies on Chinese subspecies of P. colchicus have not supported the subspecies (Qu et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2013).

Initially found in the UK, there are melanistic forms of P. colchicus (Heinzel et al., 1998; GBWF, 2012) most likely due to a recessive allele (GBWF, 2012).

P. colchicus may hybridize with P. versicolor (McGowan et al., 2013; NIES, 2015).

Reproductive Biology

P. colchicus have a polygamous mating system, where males have a harem of females and take no part in rearing the chicks (McLash, 2008). Males actively defend a territory and crow in an attempt to attract females to mate with (McLash, 2008). Females chose to mate with males with intermediate similarity of histocompatibility complex (Baratti et al., 2012) and with long tails and ear tufts (Switzer, 2011).

The females are not territorial (Switzer, 2011), construct a nest on the ground, and lay 6-14 eggs (McLash, 2008) (7-15 eggs according to Switzer, 2011; 9-14 eggs in the native range in Azerbaijan, according to BirdLife International, 2015b), laying one egg a day (Switzer, 2011). Larger clutches occur when more than one female lays her eggs in the same nest (Switzer, 2011). The nest is a shallow depression in the ground, often lined with plant material (BirdLife International, 2015b).

Hatching can take 23–28 days and fledging takes 7–12 days, with the time to complete independence being 70–80 days (Switzer, 2011). The young are precocial and are able to run around and eat soon after hatching (McLash, 2008; Switzer, 2011). Sexual maturity occurs at 1 year old (Switzer, 2011).

The breeding season can be highly variable in both native and introduced ranges (McGowan et al., 2013). Breeding occurs once a year and the season extends from March to June (Switzer, 2011). In the native range in Azerbaijan, egg-laying occurs in April and May (BirdLife International, 2015b).

Longevity

P. colchicus can typically live for 11–18 years in captivity, and approximately 3 years in the wild (Switzer, 2011). Males may have an annual survival rate of 7%, compared with 21-46% for females. These figures can be lower where hunting occurs (Switzer, 2011).

Activity Patterns/Behaviour

P. colchicus have a range territory size of 0.8–3.2km2, with the range being smaller in winter than during the nesting season. They are social birds and can form flocks in the autumn in areas of food and cover (Switzer, 2011).

They spend most of their time on the ground (where they scratch for food in the undergrowth with their bills) and in trees, and can run swiftly, holding their tails up at a 45 degree angle. They have a strutting gait when walking and are strong fliers, with the ability to take off suddenly. They use dust bathing to help remove skin cells, excess oil and old feathers (Switzer, 2011).

Mass migrations may occur in the native range but in its introduced range the species is sedentary (BirdLife International, 2015b). P. colchicus pallasi in the Russian Far East undergoes seasonal migrations of 200-300 km in a straight line in extremely severe and snowy winters. P. c. mongolicus in the mountains of Central Asia has also been recorded as undergoing seasonal migration (Kulikova et al., 2002).

Population Size and Structure

The estimated global population size of P. colchicus is very large (although decreasing), at 45– 300 million individuals, with the population in Europe estimated at 10.2– 14.1 million (BirdLife International, 2015c).

Nutrition

P. colchicus have a diet consisting of waste grain, weed seeds, fruits, leaves and insects (McLash, 2008). In the native range, they feed on plant matter such as fruits, seeds, leaves, buds and a small amount of animal matter such as insects (BirdLife International, 2015b). Where the species is introduced it is an opportunistic omnivore, feeding on a diverse range of food, but preferring energy-rich items such as cultivated grains, mast and fruits (BirdLife International, 2015b). Crops eaten include maize (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and flax (Linum) (Switzer, 2011). In North America, weed seeds eaten include foxtail (Setaria), ragweed (Ambrosia) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) (Switzer, 2011).  Fruits eaten include wild grape (Vitis), apples (Malus), and blackberries (Rubus). The birds also eat grasshoppers (Orthoptera), caterpillars (Lepidoptera), crickets (Gryllidae), and snails (Gastropoda) (Switzer, 2011).  

Environmental Requirements

P. colchicus prefer areas near to water, although they can obtain water from dew, insects and succulent vegetation (Switzer, 2011).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
66 46

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Accipiter cooperii Predator not specific
Accipiter gentilis Predator not specific
Accipiter nisus Predator not specific
Amyrsidea perdicis Parasite
Ascaridia Parasite not specific
Borrelia burgdorferi Parasite not specific
Bubo virginianus Predator not specific
Buteo buteo Predator not specific
Buteo jamaicensis Predator not specific
Buteo lagopus Predator not specific
Buteo lineatus Predator not specific
Canis latrans Predator not specific
Canis lupus familiaris Predator not specific
Capillaria Parasite not specific
Chelydra serpentina Predator not specific
Circus hudsonius Predator not specific
Coronavirus Pathogen not specific
Corvidae Predator not specific
Eimeria Parasite not specific
Falco peregrinus Predator not specific
Heterakis Parasite not specific
Ixodes ricinus Parasite not specific
Meles meles Predator not specific
Mephitis mephitis Predator not specific
Mustela Predator not specific
Neovison vison Predator not specific
Newcastle disease virus Pathogen not specific
Procyon lotor Predator not specific
Raillietina Parasite not specific
Siphonaptera Parasite not specific
Strigiformes Predator not specific
Syngamus Parasite not specific
Vulpes vulpes Predator not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Pheasants are susceptible to the viral infection Newcastle disease (ND) (Jørgensen et al., 1999; Aldous and Alexander, 2008). Between 1994 and 2005, outbreaks of ND in pheasants were recorded in Denmark, Finland, France, Great Britain, Ireland, Italy and Northern Ireland (Aldous and Alexander, 2008). Pheasants are also susceptible to respiratory diseases caused by coronaviruses, which have been found to have a high degree of genetic similarity with the coronaviruses of chickens and turkeys (Cavanagh et al., 2002). In captivity, P. colchicus may be susceptible to marble spleen disease caused by type II avian adenovirus (Lee et al., 2001).

P. colchicus are susceptible to several nematode parasites (Gassal and Schmäschke, 2006; Santilli and Bagliacca, 2011). Other parasites include: Borrelia burgdorferi, ticks (Ixodes ricinus), fleas (Siphonaptera), tapeworms (Railletina) (Switzer, 2011) and lice (Mallophaga) (Dik and Uslu, 2006, referring to captive birds in Turkey; Rak et al., 1975, reporting Amyrsidea hexapilosus [Amyrsidea (Argimenopon) perdicis] in wild birds in Iran).

In the UK, P. colchicus are predated by buzzards (Buteo buteo), owls, sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and other mammals (Parrott, 2015; Kenward et al., 2001). A study in the UK and Austria found nest predation by corvids, foxes (Vulpes vulpes), badgers (Meles meles) and other mammals (Draycott et al., 2008). In Sweden, goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) have also been shown to predate P. colchicus (Kenward et al., 1981). Predators recorded in North America include: domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), coyotes (Canis latrans), mink (Neovison vison), weasels (Mustela spp.), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), rough-legged hawks (Buteo lagopus), Cooper’s hawks (Accipiter cooperii), peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), northern harriers (Circus cyaneus [Circus hudsonius]) and snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) (Switzer, 2011).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Accidental Introduction

Most introductions appear to be deliberate.

Intentional Introduction

P. colchicus has been knowingly and extensively introduced to Europe, North America, Hawaii and other regions of the world as a game bird that has naturalized. In areas where it is managed as a game bird, it is intentionally released from pens into surrounding estates/countryside in large numbers for hunting (GWCT, 2015).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal productionDeliberate introduction as gamebird from Asia to Europe, N. America, Chile, Australia & New Zealand Yes Yes
Hunting, angling, sport or racingDeliberate introduction as gamebird from Asia to Europe, N. America, Chile, Australia & New Zealand Yes Yes
Intentional releaseDeliberate introduction as gamebird from Asia to Europe, N. America, Chile, Australia & New Zealand Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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P. colchicus has no major effects on crops, although there may be localized effects after captive-bred releases. Any small amount of local damage to crop plants in Europe and the USA is far outweighed by the economic value of the species (Lever, 2005). The species was said to be an agricultural pest on St Helena in the 1950s, although the population has declined substantially since then (Lever, 2005).

Due to the susceptibility of P. colchicus to Newcastle disease, and its potential to spread this to other birds, it can be a cause of economic losses if an embargo on poultry sales is imposed as a result of an outbreak (Switzer, 2011).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

Where large numbers of pheasants are released for the hunting season, this sudden influx of birds could potentially affect local ecosystems. They could potentially deplete food sources for other animals, affect ground/hedge flora, and attract more predators to the environment (GWCT, 2015). Some research suggests that captive bred P. colchicus that are released into suitable habitat have an extremely low survival rate (Sodeikat, 1995), and that those that survive the shooting season do not breed well (GWCT, 2015), which might limit their effect.

It has been suggested that P. colchicus spread seeds of non-native plants on Hawaii, although they may also facilitate the dispersal and germination of indigenous species (Lever, 2005).

Impact on Biodiversity

Where large numbers are released to boost wild populations for the hunting season, this influx of birds could potentially reduce the diversity of ground/hedge flora, other grain- and seed-eating birds, and amphibians and reptiles (GWCT, 2015), although as mentioned above released birds may not survive or breed well.

Farm-reared P. colchicus that are managed and released could potentially spread parasites to wild populations (Santilli and Bagliacca, 2011).

A UK-based study found that management of wild P. colchicus as a gamebird on farmland had no effect on farmland passerine diversity, although for some species, individual numbers increased (Stoate, 2002). Areas that are managed as suitable habitat for P. colchicus may attract wildlife and so could have a positive impact on biodiversity. On the other hand, in the UK there are reports of continued persecution of raptors near game bird rearing and release sites (Smart et al., 2010).

In the USA, P. colchicus may have an inhibitory effect (as a competitor) on the Northern Bobwhite Colinus virginianus (classified as Near Threatened – IUCN, 2015) and may also affect the Greater Prairie-chicken Tympanuchus cupido (in whose nests they sometimes lay their own eggs, and which is classified as Vulnerable) (Lever, 2005).  P. colchicus has also been recorded as a brood parasite of the Vulnerable Lesser Prairie-chicken T. pallidicinctus in Kansas, USA (Hagen et al., 2002). It is possible that exotic introductions have an effect on Attwater’s Greater Prairie-chicken Tympanuchus cupido attwateri, which is on the US list of endangered species, and prohibiting the introduction to public lands of exotic species such as P. colchicus has been proposed as an action to aid recovery of T. c. attwateri (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010).

P. colchicus may negatively affect Perdix perdix (grey partridge) through nest parasitism, habitat competition, disease transmission and aggressive behaviour (Switzer, 2011).

P. colchicus karpowi is listed as an invasive species with a hybridization impact on the native Japanese species P. versicolor by some authorities (NIES, 2015), although according to McGowan et al. (2013) the two do not hybridize particularly successfully.

If as has been suggested P. colchicus spread seeds of non-native plants on Hawaii (Lever, 2005), this could have an adverse effect on native biodiversity, although they may also facilitate the dispersal and germination of indigenous species (Lever, 2005). The species has had neglible impact on terrestrial invertebrates in Hawaii and does not compete with endemic bird species there (Lever, 2005).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Colinus virginianusNT (IUCN red list: Near threatened) NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)CompetitionLever, 2005
Tympanuchus cupidoVU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)Competition; Pest and disease transmissionLever, 2005; Switzer, 2011
Tympanuchus cupido attwateri (Attwater's greater prairie chicken)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesTexasUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010
Tympanuchus pallidicinctusVU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable)KansasHagen et al., 2002

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition
  • Hybridization
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

P. colchicus is a food source throughout its range. Where it is managed for hunting, it is of economic benefit to land owners and local communities by attracting paying visitors to the area. There is a considerable national and international trade in chicks and viable eggs (Aldous and Alexander, 2008). A recent report (PACEC, 2012) found that game shooting (predominantly of pheasants) on Exmoor, UK, contributed £18 million per year to the UK economy, of which £4 million remained in the local area.

Social Benefit

During the hunting/shooting season there is presumably a positive social benefit for the people involved. Since pheasants are attractive birds, they also have positive social benefits to people who are walking, birdwatching etc. in the countryside where they are likely to encounter them.

P. colchicus meat is a good nutritional source of iron -- 100g of drumstick can provide 23.6% of the recommended daily intake (Franco and Lorenzo, 2013).

Environmental Services

It has been suggested that P. colchicus in Hawaii facilitate the dispersal and germination of indigenous plant species as well as introduced ones. In this way, it has been suggested that the species may help to restore degraded ecosystems on Maui (Lever, 2005).

Management of land for pheasants may benefit other species as well.

Uses List

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General

  • Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)

Human food and beverage

  • Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)

Materials

  • Feathers

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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P. colchicus is closely related to the Green Pheasant, Phasianus versicolor (once considered a subspecies of P. colchicus) (BirdLife International, 2015c). Male P. versicolor are described as having green necks, breasts and upper bellies, and do not have the white neck ring (Switzer, 2011). Similar species in Europe include the Golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus), distinguished by its shyer nature, and very bright red underparts, yellow head and lower back and finely barred tail (RSPB, 2015), and Lady Amherst’s pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae), easily distinguished by its white underbelly, yellow lower back edged in red and bare blueish skin on the face and legs (RSPB, 2015; Heinzel et al., 1998).   

Females and juveniles of P. colchicus could potentially be mistaken for other pheasants (or other species such as partridges, although the long pointed tail should set them apart).

Prevention and Control

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There are no reports in the literature of any prevention and control measures against P. colchicus (even in Japan where P. c. karpowi is considered invasive), except for the suggestion in the USA that its introduction to public lands, along with that of other exotic species, should be prohibited to aid the recovery of the endangered Attwater's Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010). It is unlikely that the general public is aware of any issues with the bird as an introduced species, unless they are involved in activities where its presence would be noticed.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Several gaps in knowledge regarding the impacts of game bird management on non-target species have been identified by Mustin et al. (2001), including: ecological, economic and social trade-offs; effects of medications on non-target organisms; effects of predator control; the persecution of raptors; and biodiversity impacts (at a landscape level) of the release of game birds.

References

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Aldous EW; Alexander DJ, 2008. Newcastle disease in pheasants (Phasianus colchicus): a review. Veterinary Journal, 175(2):181-185. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10900233

Avibase, 2015. Avibase - the world bird database. http://avibase.bsc-eoc.org/avibase.jsp?lang=EN

Bagliacca M et al., 1996. Effect of dietary fibre content on intestinal development and metabolic profile in growing pheasants. Rivista di Avicoltura, 65:33-39.

Baratti M; Dessì-Fulgheri F; Ambrosini R; Bonisoli-Alquati A; Caprioli M; Goti E; Matteo A; Monnanni R; Ragionieri L; Ristori E; Romano M; Rubolini D; Scialpi A; Saino N, 2012. MHC genotype predicts mate choice in the ring-necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 25(8):1531-1542. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1420-9101

Benchiekh N, 1988. Réponse dirrecte et corrélée à une sélection pour la reproduction chez le fasian. DEA, Univ. Rennes, 68pp.

BirdLife International, 2015. Phasianus colchicus (Common Pheasant). European Red List of Birds. Supplementary Material. Luxembourg, Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 17 pp. http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/userfiles/file/Species/erlob/supplementarypdfs/45100023_phasianus_colchicus.pdf

BirdLife International, 2015. Phasianus colchicus (Linnaeus, 1758), European Red List Assessment. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International, 3 pp. http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/userfiles/file/Species/erlob/summarypdfs/45100023_phasianus_colchicus.pdf

BirdLife International, 2015. Species factsheet: Phasianus colchicus. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=1016870

Boyer JP; Melin JM, 1974. Behavioral genetics: activity, growth and flying length in female pheasants - their significance. In: XV World Poultry Congress, 1974/08/11-16. New Orleans (USA), 262-263.

Briganti F; Papeschi A; Mugnai T; Dessi Fulgheri F, 1999. Effect of testosterone on male traits and behaviour in juvenile pheasants. Ethology, Ecology and Evolution, 11:171-178.

Castillo A; Romboli I; Marzoni M; Stanyon R, 2010. Karyotype of chicken-pheasant hybrids. Avian Biology Research, 3(1):17-21.

Cavanagh D; Mawditt K; Welchman D de B; Britton P; Gough RE, 2002. Coronaviruses from pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) are genetically closely related to coronaviruses of domestic fowl (infectious bronchitis virus) and turkeys. Avian Pathology, 31(1):81-93.

Cetin O; Kirikci K; Tepeli C, 1997. Breeding possibilities for pheasants (P. colchicus) under intensive conditions in a cold climate zone: 2. Growth and carcass characters. Veteriner Bilimleri Dergisi, 13(1):69-76; 24 ref.

Clements JF; Schulenberg TS; Iliff MJ; Robertson TA; Fredericks TA; Sullivan BL; Wood CL, 2014. The ebird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

Delacour J, 1977. The Pheasants of the World. Alton, UK: Nimrod Press Ltd, 119-136.

Dik B; Uslu U, 2006. Cuclotogaster heterographus (Mallophaga: Lipeuridae) infestation on ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in Konya. (Konya'da halkali sülünlerde (Phasianus colchicus) Cuclotogaster heterographus (Mallophaga: Lipeuridae) enfestasyonu.) Türkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi, 30(2):125-127. http://www.tparazitolderg.org

Draycott RAH; Hoodless AN; Ludiman MN; Robertson PA, 1998. Effects of spring feeding on body condition of captive-reared ring-necked pheasants in Great Britain. Journal of Wildlife Management, 62(2):557-563; 26 ref.

Draycott RAH; Hoodless AN; Woodburn MIA; Sage RB, 2008. Nest predation of Common Pheasants Phasianus colchicus. Ibis (London), 150(s1):37-44. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/121384197/HTMLSTART

Draycott RAH; Pock K; Carroll JP, 2002. Sustainable management of a wild pheasant population in Austria. Zeitschrift für Jagdwissenschaft, 48(s1):346-353.

eBird, 2015. eBird. USA: Cornell Lab of Ornithology and National Audubon Society. http://ebird.org/content/ebird/

Eguchi K; Amano HE, 2004. Spread of exotic birds in Japan. Ornithological Science, 3(1):3-11.

Elphick J; Woodward J, 2003. Pocket Birds. London, UK: Dorling Kindersley.

Flegel CS, 1996. Genetic heterogeneity and differentiation resulting from Sichuan pheasant (Phasianus colchicus strauchi) introductions in southern Michigan [PhD Thesis]. East Lansing, Michigan, USA: University of Michigan.

Franco D; Lorenzo JM, 2013. Meat quality and nutritional composition of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) reared in an extensive system. British Poultry Science, 54(5):594-602. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cbps20

Gassal S; Schmäschke R, 2006. The helminth and coccidial fauna of pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in view of the specific environmental conditions in pheasantries and in the wild. (Zur Helminthen- und Kokzidienfauna des Jagdfasans (Phasianus colchicus) unter Berücksichtigung der spezifischen Umweltbedingungen in Fasanerien und in freier Wildbahn.) Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 119(7-8):295-302. https://vetline.de/8963056/150/3130/69443

Gavard-Gongallud N, 2000. L'élevage du gibier à plumes: Elevage - Pathologie - Habitat - Populations. Eds: France Agricole. ISBN: 2-85557-050-6.

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07/06/15 Original text for Invasive Species Compendium sections by:

Vicki Cottrell, consultant, UK

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