Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Petiveria alliacea
(guinea hen weed)

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Datasheet

Petiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Petiveria alliacea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • guinea hen weed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. alliacea is a herbaceous perennial herb, with medicinal properties, included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randal...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Habit and flower of Petiveria alliacea
TitleHabit and flower
CaptionHabit and flower of Petiveria alliacea
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Habit and flower of Petiveria alliacea
Habit and flowerHabit and flower of Petiveria alliacea©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Petiveria alliacea L., 1753

Preferred Common Name

  • guinea hen weed

Other Scientific Names

  • Petiveria alliacea var. grandifolia Moq.
  • Petiveria alliacea var. octandra (L.) Moq.
  • Petiveria corrientina Rojas
  • Petiveria hexandria Sessé & Moc.
  • Petiveria ochroleuca Moq.
  • Petiveria octandra L.
  • Petiveria paraguayensis D. Parodi

International Common Names

  • English: Congo root; garlic weed; Guinea hen plant; Guinea-hen weed; gully root; skunk root; skunk weed; strong man's weed
  • Spanish: ajillo; anamú; apacina; epasina; hierba gallinita; hierba zorrillo; hoja de zorrillo; ipasina; mapurite; pipí; zorrillo
  • French: chasse vermine; chasser vermine; feuilles avé; herbe aux poules; pétivere à odeur d’ail; verveine puante

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: calauchín; mikura; sinikila
  • Bahamas: garlic-weed; obeah-bush
  • Brazil: erva guiné; guiné; mucuracá; tipí
  • Dominican Republic: avé; huevo de gato; mal pourri
  • El Salvador: hierba de toro
  • Guatemala: apacin
  • Haiti: avette
  • Honduras: ipacina
  • Lesser Antilles: conga root; cudjoe root; dandail; danday; douvan neg; douvant-negre; fey douvan; garlic root; gonga root; kudjoe root; marie purie; mawi pouwi; strong man bush
  • Mexico: carricillo silvestre; japachumi
  • Peru: chanvico; mucura; sacha ajo

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. alliacea is a herbaceous perennial herb, with medicinal properties, included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). Within its native distribution range, this species is a common weed in pastures, agricultural lands, waste areas, roadsides, and riverbanks. It is listed as an “agricultural weed” in Mexico, Cuba, Colombia, Brazil, Puerto Rico, and Central America where it affects mainly coffee and maize plantations (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967; Garcia et al., 1975; Más and Lugo, 2013). Seeds of P. alliacea can be easily dispersed at local and long-distances attached to animals’ fur and feathers and human clothes by spiky hooks and barbed projections present in the fruits (Mori and Brown, 1998; Nienaber and Thieret, 2003). The species is a fast-growing herb with a wide environmental tolerance which may aid its survival as a successful weed.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Phytolaccaceae
  •                             Genus: Petiveria
  •                                 Species: Petiveria alliacea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Phytolaccaceae is a small family of flowering plants including 18 genera and 65 species of trees, shrubs, herbs, and vines, mostly distributed in tropical and warm temperate areas principally in America, but also in Tropical Africa, Tropical Asia, and Australia (Stevens, 2012). Taxonomic delimitation of the family Phytolaccaceae has been a matter of debate. Although for many botanists Phytolaccaceae clearly belongs to the Caryophyllales, there is a debate about its circumscription and exact position (Nienaber and Thieret, 2003; Steinmann, 2013). Recently, some genera historically considered within the family have been segregated as separate families. For example, the North American genus Stegnosperma is now considered in the monogeneric family Stegnospermataceae. Similarly the Old World genera Barbeuia and Gisekia are now treated as the families Barbeuiaceae and Gisekiaceae (Steinmann, 2013). The New World genera Achatocarpus and Phaulothamnus were recognized by some specialists as members of Phytolaccaceae, but these genera are now treated in the family Achatocarpaceae. Even with these genera removed, controversy exists, and the core of the family is sometimes additionally divided into two families (Steinmann, 2013):

  1. Phytolaccaceae: characterized by ovary of 3-16 carpels, corresponding to subfamiles Agdestioideae and Phytolaccoideae.
  2.  Petiveriaceae: characterized by ovary of one carpel, corresponding to subfamilies Rivinioideae and Microteoideae.

The Plant List (2013) places the genus Petiveria still within the Phytolaccaceae, which is the taxonomic status used for this datasheet. P. alliacea is the only accepted species name within the genus in The Plant List (2013), although the infraspecific taxon P. alliacea var. tetrandra (Ortega) Hauman is also listed as accepted.

Description

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P. alliacea is a herbaceous plant, stems erect, up to 1 m tall, pubescent to glabrate. Leaves are alternate, simple and entire, stipules 2 mm; petiole 0.4-2 cm; blade elliptic to oblong or obovate, to 20 × 7 cm, base acute to cuneate, apex acuminate or acute to obtuse or rounded. Leaves and stems with garlic smell. Inflorescences often drooping distally, 0.8-4 dm; peduncle 1-4 cm; pedicel 0.5-2 mm. Flowers are bisexual, zygomorphic, slightly imbricate to rather remote; sepals white or greenish to pinkish, linear-lanceolate to linear-oblong, 3.5-6 mm; ovary superior. Fruits are narrowly oblong achenes subtended by persistent bracts and perianth, 6-8 mm long, striate with recurved hooks, 1 seed (Nienaber and Thieret, 2003; Alegre and Clavo, 2007).

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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P. alliacea is native to America: North America (i.e., Florida and Texas), Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and South America. It has been introduced in India and tropical Africa (Benin, Burundi, Nigeria, and Democratic Republic of Congo; Alegre and Clavo, 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Pauwels, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012), and is grown as a medicinal herb.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroducedAlegre and Clavo, 2007Cultivated

Africa

BeninPresentIntroducedAlegre and Clavo, 2007
BurundiPresentIntroducedPauwels, 2012
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedPauwels, 2012
NigeriaPresentIntroducedAlegre and Clavo, 2007
RwandaPresentIntroducedPauwels, 2012

North America

MexicoPresentNativeVillaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia, 1998; Vibrans, 2009Listed as agricultural weed in coffee, maize, and apple plantations
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentNativeWunderlin and Hansen, 2008
-TexasPresentNativeHatch et al., 1990

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
BahamasPresentNativeCorrell and Correll, 1982
BarbadosPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
BelizePresentNativeBalick et al., 2000
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Guana and Tortola
Costa RicaPresentNativeCardenas and Coulston, 1967; Morales, 2007Listed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
CubaPresentNativeAcuna, 1974; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Agricultural weed in coffee plantations (Acuna, 1974)
DominicaPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentNativeGarcia et al., 1975; USDA-ARS, 2013Listed as a weed by Garcia et al, 1975
GrenadaPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
GuadeloupePresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
GuatemalaPresentCardenas and Coulston, 1967; USDA-ARS, 2013Listed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
HaitiPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentNativeCardenas and Coulston, 1967; Molina, 1975Listed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
JamaicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
MartiniquePresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
MontserratPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
Netherlands AntillesPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007Saba, St Martin, St Bartheleny, St. Eustatius
NicaraguaPresentNativeCardenas and Coulston, 1967; Stevens, 2001Listed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
PanamaPresentNativeCorrea et al., 2004
Puerto RicoPresentNativeLiogier, 1998; Más and Lugo, 2013Considered a weed in pastures and agricultural land
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
Saint LuciaPresentNativeGraveson, 2012
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeCardenas and Coulston, 1967Weed
United States Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012St Thomas, St Croix, St John

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008
BoliviaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentNativeCardenas and Coulston, 1967; Forzza et al., 2012Listed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
-ParanaPresentNativeCardenas and Coulston, 1967; Forzza et al., 2012Listed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeCardenas and Coulston, 1967; Forzza et al., 2012Listed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeCardenas and Coulston, 1967; Forzza et al., 2012Listed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
ColombiaPresentNativeCardenas and Coulston, 1967; Idárraga-Piedrahita et al., 2011Listed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
EcuadorPresentNativeJørgensen and León-Yànez, 1999
French GuianaPresentNativeFunk et al., 2007
GuyanaPresentNativeFunk et al., 2007
ParaguayPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008
PeruPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
SurinamePresentNativeFunk et al., 2007
UruguayPresentNativeZuloaga et al., 2008
VenezuelaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of P. alliacea is high. In Latin America and the West Indies, this species is commonly cultivated to be used in traditional herbal medicine and ritual ceremonies. It is also frequently used in Yoruba magical rituals in Brazil, Cuba, and tropical Africa (Alegre and Clavo, 2007). Within its native distribution range, P. alliacea behaves as a weed and its seeds may be easily dispersed, favouring the probability of colonizing new areas.

Habitat

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Within its native distribution range P. alliacea is very common in disturbed areas, edges of humid forests, along roadsides, riverbanks, pastures, and gardens. This species can also be found growing as a weed in plantations, farming areas, and pastureland (Alegre and Clavo, 2007; Vibrans, 2009; Más and Lugo, 2013). In West Africa it is found in gardens, forest edges, and disturbed localities near human settlements (Alegre and Clavo, 2007).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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P. alliacea is considered an “agricultural weed” in coffee, maize, and apple plantations in Mexico, Cuba, Colombia, Brazil, Puerto Rico, and Central America. It is also listed as a weed in pasturelands and secondary forests (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967; Garcia et al., 1975; Más and Lugo, 2013).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeMain
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Chromosome number in P. alliacea is 2n = 34 (Cherian and Kuriachan, 1986). 

Physiology and Phenology

In Florida and Texas, P. alliacea reproduces all year around (Nienaber and Thieret, 2003). In Mexico, this species also reproduces all year around but with peaks in flowering and fruiting activity occurring during September-October (Vibrans, 2009). In Central America it has been recorded flowering and fruiting from July to January (Stevens, 2001). 

Associations               

P. alliacea is frequently associated to riparian vegetation, deciduous forest vegetation, secondary wet forests, grasslands, and pasturelands (Vibrans, 2009; Más and Lugo, 2013). 

Environmental Requirements

P. alliacea grows in warm and moist to dry climates at elevations from sea level to 1300 m. It is adapted to a widely variety of substrates but prefers to grow in well-drained and fertile soils (Nienaber and Thieret, 2003; Vibrans, 2009).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 35

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall5003000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Alegre and Clavo (2007) suggest that seeds of P. alliacea in South America are wind-dispersed. However, other authors suggest that seeds are dispersed by animals when seeds attach to fur and feathers. P. alliacea fruits (achenes) have spiky hooks and barbed projections which facilitate dispersal by sticking to animal fur, feathers or human clothing (Mori and Brown, 1998; Nienaber and Thieret, 2003).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2009
Escape from confinement or garden escapeWidely planted for traditional medicine purposes Yes Yes Alegre and Clavo, 2007
Nursery tradeWidely planted for traditional medicine purposes Yes Yes Alegre and Clavo, 2007

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
LivestockSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2009
Machinery and equipmentSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2009
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans, 2009
WindSeeds Yes Yes Alegre and Clavo, 2007

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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P. alliacea may cause dermatitis in humans and taints the milk and meat of animals that graze on it and may also induce abortion (Nienaber and Thieret, 2003; Más and Lugo, 2013). When this species is fed to animals on a regular basis it may cause adverse reactions. The plant can accumulate nitrates and may cause nitrate poisoning in cattle (Alegre and Clavo, 2007). P. alliacea is a common weed in coffee, maize, and apple plantations as well as in pasturelands and natural forests (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967; Garcia et al., 1975; Vibrans, 2009; Más and Lugo, 2013).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Induces hypersensitivity
  • Rapid growth
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally

Uses

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P. alliacea is a very important plant in traditional Latin America herbal medicine where it is used as an anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory, to treat fever, headache, diabetes, malaria, arthritis, skin allergies, cancer, and to induce abortions (Pérez-Leal et al., 2006). Studies have demonstrated that it has biologically active compounds such as benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, benzyl 2-hydroxyethyl trisulphide, coumarin, isoarborinol, isoarborinol acetate, isoarborinol cinnamate, isothiocyanates, polyphenols, senfol, tannins, and trithiolaniacine, many of which show antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunological activity (Pérez-Leal et al., 2006; Alegre and Clavo, 2007). The leaves of P. alliacea have a strong garlic-like odour when crushed, and in some areas of tropical America it serves as an insect and bat repellent, and as an acaridice (Nienaber and Thieret, 2003; Pérez-Leal et al., 2006). In Latin America and the West Indies, it is commonly used by “medicine men” in ritual ceremonies. In Brazil, Cuba, and tropical Africa it is important in Yoruba magical rituals (Alegre and Clavo, 2007).

Uses List

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Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Religious

Environmental

  • Amenity

General

  • Ritual uses

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Prevention and Control

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There is little published information on control of P. alliacea. Caro et al. (1985) reported good control of weeds including P. alliacea in a coffee plantation from a single post-emergence application of diuron + paraquat.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Acuna GJ, 1974. [English title not available]. (Plantas Indeseables en Los Cultivos Cubanos. Academia de Ciencias, Insitituto de Investigaciones de Cuba, Havana, in GCW, 2007.) Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) Global Compendium of Weeds. http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/eichhornia_azurea/

Alegre JC; Clavo M, 2007. Petiveria alliacea L. Record from PROTA4U. PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) [ed. by Schmelzer, G. H. \Gurib-Fakim, A.]. Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Balick MJ; Nee M; Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Cardenas J; Coulston L, 1967. Weeds: A List of Common and Scientific Names for Brazil, Colombia, Puerto Rico, and Central America.

Caro P; Huepp G; Ramos R, 1985. Chemical weed control in coffee plantations over two years old planted in mountain areas under shade. (Control químico de malezas en plantaciones de café con más de dos años de plantados en condiciones de montaña y bajo sombra.) Ciencia y Técnica en la Agricultura, Café y Cacao, 7(1):7-16.

Cherian M; Kuriachan PI, 1986. Cytotaxonomy of two species of Phtyolaccaceae. Current Science, 55:1099-1100.

Correa A; Galdames MDC; Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama.), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp.

Correll DS; Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Vaduz, Germany: J. Cramer, 1692 pp.

Forzza RC; Leitman PM; Costa AF; Carvalho Jr AA, et al. , 2012. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Garcia JGL; MacBryde B; Molina AT; Herrera-MacBryde O, 1975. Prevalent Weeds of Central America. Malezas Prevalentes de America Central. International Plant Protection Centre, 162 pp.

Graveson R, 2012. Plants of Saint Lucia. http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Hatch SL; Gandhi KN; Brown LE, 1990. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Texas. Texas, USA: Texas Agricultural Experiment Station.

Idárraga-Piedrahita A; Ortiz RDC; Callejas Posada R; Merello M, 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia ([English title not available]). 939 pp.

Jørgensen PM; León-Yànez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard, 75. i-viii, 1-1182.

Liogier HA, 1998. Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands. A Systematic Synopsis. San Juan, Puerto Rico: Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Más EG; Lugo MLT, 2013. Common Weeds in Puerto Rico & U.S Virgin Islands., Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, 395 pp.

Molina RA, 1975. Enumeration of the plants of Honduras. (Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras) Ceiba, 19(1):1-118.

Morales JF, 2007. Phytolaccaceae. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 111:894-902. [Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Vol. 6.]

Mori SA; Brown JL, 1998. Epizoochorous dispersal by barbs, hooks, and spines in a lowland moist forest in central French Guiana. Brittonia 50: 2, 165-173.

Nienaber MA; Thieret JW, 2003. Phytoloccaceae. In: Flora of North America north of Mexico, 4 [ed. by Flora of North America Editorial Committee]. New York and Oxford: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 3-5.

Pauwels L, 2012. Plantes cultivées et/ou exotiques en Afrique Centrale: R.D. Congo-Rwanda-Burindi ([English title not available]). http://users.telenet.be/cr28796/CultAfrC.htm

Pérez-Leal R; García-Mateos MR; Martínez-Vásquez M; Soto-Hernández M, 2006. Cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of Petiveria alliacea L. (Actividad citotóxica y antioxidante de Petiveria alliacea L.) Revista Chapingo. Serie Horticultura, 12(1):51-56.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Steinmann VW, 2013. Phytolaccaceae. Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics [ed. by Milliken, W. \Klitgard, B. \Baracat, \A.]. http://www.kew.org/science/tropamerica/neotropikey/families/Phytolaccaceae.htm

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Stevens WD, 2001. Phytolaccaceae. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 85(3):1924-1928. [Flora de Nicaragua.]

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Vibrans H, 2009. Malezas de México- Pennisetum purpureum ([English title not available]). http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/poaceae/pennisetum-purpureum/fichas/ficha.htm

Villaseñor JL; Espinosa-Garcia FJ, 1998. Catálogo de malezas de México ([English title not available])., Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Tampa, Florida, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Zuloaga FO; Morrone O; Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Volumen 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Monocotyledoneae (Catalogue of the vascular plants of the southern cone (Argentina, southern Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay). Volume 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledoneae) [ed. by Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 983 pp.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Angiosperm Phylogeny Websitehttp://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/apweb/
Common weeds in Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islandshttp://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/plantsanimals/plants/feature/?cid=stelprdb1078250
Flora of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
PROTA: Plant Resources of Tropical Africahttp://www.prota4u.org/
Weeds of Mexicohttp://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/home-malezas-mexico.htm

Contributors

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15/07/13 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

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