Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Petiveria alliacea
(guinea hen weed)

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Datasheet

Petiveria alliacea (guinea hen weed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Petiveria alliacea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • guinea hen weed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. alliacea is a herbaceous perennial herb, with medicinal properties, included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). Within its...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Habit and flower of Petiveria alliacea
TitleHabit and flower
CaptionHabit and flower of Petiveria alliacea
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Habit and flower of Petiveria alliacea
Habit and flowerHabit and flower of Petiveria alliacea©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Petiveria alliacea L., 1753

Preferred Common Name

  • guinea hen weed

Other Scientific Names

  • Petiveria alliacea var. grandifolia Moq.
  • Petiveria alliacea var. octandra (L.) Moq.
  • Petiveria corrientina Rojas
  • Petiveria hexandria Sessé & Moc.
  • Petiveria ochroleuca Moq.
  • Petiveria octandra L.
  • Petiveria paraguayensis D. Parodi

International Common Names

  • English: Congo root; garlic weed; Guinea hen plant; Guinea-hen weed; gully root; skunk root; skunk weed; strong man's weed
  • Spanish: ajillo; anamú; apacina; epasina; hierba gallinita; hierba zorrillo; hoja de zorrillo; ipasina; mapurite; pipí; zorrillo
  • French: chasse vermine; chasser vermine; feuilles avé; herbe aux poules; pétivere à odeur d’ail; verveine puante

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: calauchín; mikura; sinikila
  • Bahamas: garlic-weed; obeah-bush
  • Brazil: erva guiné; guiné; mucuracá; tipí
  • Dominican Republic: avé; huevo de gato; mal pourri
  • El Salvador: hierba de toro
  • Guatemala: apacin
  • Haiti: avette
  • Honduras: ipacina
  • Lesser Antilles: conga root; cudjoe root; dandail; danday; douvan neg; douvant-negre; fey douvan; garlic root; gonga root; kudjoe root; marie purie; mawi pouwi; strong man bush
  • Mexico: carricillo silvestre; japachumi
  • Peru: chanvico; mucura; sacha ajo

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. alliacea is a herbaceous perennial herb, with medicinal properties, included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). Within its native distribution range, this species is a common weed in pastures, agricultural lands, waste areas, roadsides, and riverbanks. It is listed as an “agricultural weed” in Mexico, Cuba, Colombia, Brazil, Puerto Rico, and Central America where it affects mainly coffee and maize plantations (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967; Garcia et al., 1975; Más and Lugo, 2013). Seeds of P. alliacea can be easily dispersed at local and long-distances attached to animals’ fur and feathers and human clothes by spiky hooks and barbed projections present in the fruits (Mori and Brown, 1998; Nienaber and Thieret, 2003). The species is a fast-growing herb with a wide environmental tolerance which may aid its survival as a successful weed.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Phytolaccaceae
  •                             Genus: Petiveria
  •                                 Species: Petiveria alliacea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Phytolaccaceae is a small family of flowering plants including 18 genera and 65 species of trees, shrubs, herbs, and vines, mostly distributed in tropical and warm temperate areas principally in America, but also in Tropical Africa, Tropical Asia, and Australia (Stevens, 2012). Taxonomic delimitation of the family Phytolaccaceae has been a matter of debate. Although for many botanists Phytolaccaceae clearly belongs to the Caryophyllales, there is a debate about its circumscription and exact position (Nienaber and Thieret, 2003; Steinmann, 2013). Recently, some genera historically considered within the family have been segregated as separate families. For example, the North American genus Stegnosperma is now considered in the monogeneric family Stegnospermataceae. Similarly the Old World genera Barbeuia and Gisekia are now treated as the families Barbeuiaceae and Gisekiaceae (Steinmann, 2013). The New World genera Achatocarpus and Phaulothamnus were recognized by some specialists as members of Phytolaccaceae, but these genera are now treated in the family Achatocarpaceae. Even with these genera removed, controversy exists, and the core of the family is sometimes additionally divided into two families (Steinmann, 2013):

  1. Phytolaccaceae: characterized by ovary of 3-16 carpels, corresponding to subfamiles Agdestioideae and Phytolaccoideae.
  2.  Petiveriaceae: characterized by ovary of one carpel, corresponding to subfamilies Rivinioideae and Microteoideae.

The Plant List (2013) places the genus Petiveria still within the Phytolaccaceae, which is the taxonomic status used for this datasheet. P. alliacea is the only accepted species name within the genus in The Plant List (2013), although the infraspecific taxon P. alliacea var. tetrandra (Ortega) Hauman is also listed as accepted.

Description

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P. alliacea is a herbaceous plant, stems erect, up to 1 m tall, pubescent to glabrate. Leaves are alternate, simple and entire, stipules 2 mm; petiole 0.4-2 cm; blade elliptic to oblong or obovate, to 20 × 7 cm, base acute to cuneate, apex acuminate or acute to obtuse or rounded. Leaves and stems with garlic smell. Inflorescences often drooping distally, 0.8-4 dm; peduncle 1-4 cm; pedicel 0.5-2 mm. Flowers are bisexual, zygomorphic, slightly imbricate to rather remote; sepals white or greenish to pinkish, linear-lanceolate to linear-oblong, 3.5-6 mm; ovary superior. Fruits are narrowly oblong achenes subtended by persistent bracts and perianth, 6-8 mm long, striate with recurved hooks, 1 seed (Nienaber and Thieret, 2003; Alegre and Clavo, 2007).

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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P. alliacea is native to America: North America (i.e., Florida and Texas), Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and South America. It has been introduced in India and tropical Africa (Benin, Burundi, Nigeria, and Democratic Republic of Congo; Alegre and Clavo, 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Pauwels, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012), and is grown as a medicinal herb.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentIntroduced
BurundiPresentIntroduced
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroduced
NigeriaPresentIntroduced
RwandaPresentIntroduced

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroducedCultivated

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNative
BahamasPresentNative
BarbadosPresentNative
BelizePresentNative
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeGuana and Tortola
Costa RicaPresentNativeListed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
CubaPresentNativeAgricultural weed in coffee plantations (Acuna, 1974)
DominicaPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresentNative
El SalvadorPresentNativeListed as a weed by Garcia et al, 1975
GrenadaPresentNative
GuadeloupePresentNative
GuatemalaPresentListed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
HaitiPresentNative
HondurasPresentNativeListed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
JamaicaPresentNative
MartiniquePresentNative
MexicoPresentNativeListed as agricultural weed in coffee, maize, and apple plantations
MontserratPresentNative
Netherlands AntillesPresentNativeSaba, St Martin, St Bartheleny, St. Eustatius
NicaraguaPresentNativeListed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentNativeConsidered a weed in pastures and agricultural land
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNative
Saint LuciaPresentNative
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNative
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeWeed
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNativeSt Thomas, St Croix, St John
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentNative
-TexasPresentNative

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
BoliviaPresentNative
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentNativeListed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
-ParanaPresentNativeListed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeListed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeListed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
ColombiaPresentNativeListed as a weed (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967)
EcuadorPresentNative
French GuianaPresentNative
GuyanaPresentNative
ParaguayPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
SurinamePresentNative
UruguayPresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of P. alliacea is high. In Latin America and the West Indies, this species is commonly cultivated to be used in traditional herbal medicine and ritual ceremonies. It is also frequently used in Yoruba magical rituals in Brazil, Cuba, and tropical Africa (Alegre and Clavo, 2007). Within its native distribution range, P. alliacea behaves as a weed and its seeds may be easily dispersed, favouring the probability of colonizing new areas.

Habitat

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Within its native distribution range P. alliacea is very common in disturbed areas, edges of humid forests, along roadsides, riverbanks, pastures, and gardens. This species can also be found growing as a weed in plantations, farming areas, and pastureland (Alegre and Clavo, 2007; Vibrans, 2009; Más and Lugo, 2013). In West Africa it is found in gardens, forest edges, and disturbed localities near human settlements (Alegre and Clavo, 2007).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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P. alliacea is considered an “agricultural weed” in coffee, maize, and apple plantations in Mexico, Cuba, Colombia, Brazil, Puerto Rico, and Central America. It is also listed as a weed in pasturelands and secondary forests (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967; Garcia et al., 1975; Más and Lugo, 2013).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeMain
    Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeMain
      Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

        Growth Stages

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        Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

        Biology and Ecology

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        Genetics

        Chromosome number in P. alliacea is 2n = 34 (Cherian and Kuriachan, 1986). 

        Physiology and Phenology

        In Florida and Texas, P. alliacea reproduces all year around (Nienaber and Thieret, 2003). In Mexico, this species also reproduces all year around but with peaks in flowering and fruiting activity occurring during September-October (Vibrans, 2009). In Central America it has been recorded flowering and fruiting from July to January (Stevens, 2001). 

        Associations               

        P. alliacea is frequently associated to riparian vegetation, deciduous forest vegetation, secondary wet forests, grasslands, and pasturelands (Vibrans, 2009; Más and Lugo, 2013). 

        Environmental Requirements

        P. alliacea grows in warm and moist to dry climates at elevations from sea level to 1300 m. It is adapted to a widely variety of substrates but prefers to grow in well-drained and fertile soils (Nienaber and Thieret, 2003; Vibrans, 2009).

        Climate

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        ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
        Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
        As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
        Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
        Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
        Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

        Air Temperature

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        Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
        Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 35

        Rainfall

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        ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
        Mean annual rainfall5003000mm; lower/upper limits

        Rainfall Regime

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        Bimodal

        Soil Tolerances

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        Soil drainage

        • free

        Soil reaction

        • acid
        • neutral

        Soil texture

        • light
        • medium

        Special soil tolerances

        • shallow

        Means of Movement and Dispersal

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        Alegre and Clavo (2007) suggest that seeds of P. alliacea in South America are wind-dispersed. However, other authors suggest that seeds are dispersed by animals when seeds attach to fur and feathers. P. alliacea fruits (achenes) have spiky hooks and barbed projections which facilitate dispersal by sticking to animal fur, feathers or human clothing (Mori and Brown, 1998; Nienaber and Thieret, 2003).

        Pathway Causes

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        CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
        DisturbanceSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans (2009)
        Escape from confinement or garden escapeWidely planted for traditional medicine purposes Yes Yes Alegre and Clavo (2007)
        Nursery tradeWidely planted for traditional medicine purposes Yes Yes Alegre and Clavo (2007)

        Pathway Vectors

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        VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
        LivestockSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans (2009)
        Machinery and equipmentSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans (2009)
        Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes Vibrans (2009)
        WindSeeds Yes Yes Alegre and Clavo (2007)

        Impact Summary

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        CategoryImpact
        Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
        Economic/livelihood Negative
        Environment (generally) Negative
        Human health Positive and negative

        Economic Impact

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        P. alliacea may cause dermatitis in humans and taints the milk and meat of animals that graze on it and may also induce abortion (Nienaber and Thieret, 2003; Más and Lugo, 2013). When this species is fed to animals on a regular basis it may cause adverse reactions. The plant can accumulate nitrates and may cause nitrate poisoning in cattle (Alegre and Clavo, 2007). P. alliacea is a common weed in coffee, maize, and apple plantations as well as in pasturelands and natural forests (Cardenas and Coulston, 1967; Garcia et al., 1975; Vibrans, 2009; Más and Lugo, 2013).

        Risk and Impact Factors

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        Invasiveness
        • Invasive in its native range
        • Has a broad native range
        • Abundant in its native range
        • Is a habitat generalist
        • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
        • Pioneering in disturbed areas
        • Tolerant of shade
        • Highly mobile locally
        • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
        • Fast growing
        • Has high reproductive potential
        Impact outcomes
        • Monoculture formation
        • Negatively impacts agriculture
        • Damages animal/plant products
        Impact mechanisms
        • Causes allergic responses
        • Competition - monopolizing resources
        • Competition - smothering
        • Induces hypersensitivity
        • Rapid growth
        • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
        Likelihood of entry/control
        • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
        • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
        • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally

        Uses

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        P. alliacea is a very important plant in traditional Latin America herbal medicine where it is used as an anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory, to treat fever, headache, diabetes, malaria, arthritis, skin allergies, cancer, and to induce abortions (Pérez-Leal et al., 2006). Studies have demonstrated that it has biologically active compounds such as benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, benzyl 2-hydroxyethyl trisulphide, coumarin, isoarborinol, isoarborinol acetate, isoarborinol cinnamate, isothiocyanates, polyphenols, senfol, tannins, and trithiolaniacine, many of which show antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunological activity (Pérez-Leal et al., 2006; Alegre and Clavo, 2007). The leaves of P. alliacea have a strong garlic-like odour when crushed, and in some areas of tropical America it serves as an insect and bat repellent, and as an acaridice (Nienaber and Thieret, 2003; Pérez-Leal et al., 2006). In Latin America and the West Indies, it is commonly used by “medicine men” in ritual ceremonies. In Brazil, Cuba, and tropical Africa it is important in Yoruba magical rituals (Alegre and Clavo, 2007).

        Uses List

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        Drugs, stimulants, social uses

        • Religious

        Environmental

        • Amenity

        General

        • Ritual uses

        Medicinal, pharmaceutical

        • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
        • Traditional/folklore

        Prevention and Control

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        Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

        There is little published information on control of P. alliacea. Caro et al. (1985) reported good control of weeds including P. alliacea in a coffee plantation from a single post-emergence application of diuron + paraquat.

        References

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        Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

        Acuna GJ, 1974. [English title not available]. (Plantas Indeseables en Los Cultivos Cubanos. Academia de Ciencias, Insitituto de Investigaciones de Cuba, Havana, in GCW, 2007.) Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) Global Compendium of Weeds. http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/eichhornia_azurea/

        Alegre JC; Clavo M, 2007. Petiveria alliacea L. Record from PROTA4U. PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) [ed. by Schmelzer, G. H. \Gurib-Fakim, A.]. Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

        Balick MJ; Nee M; Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246.

        Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

        Cardenas J; Coulston L, 1967. Weeds: A List of Common and Scientific Names for Brazil, Colombia, Puerto Rico, and Central America.

        Caro P; Huepp G; Ramos R, 1985. Chemical weed control in coffee plantations over two years old planted in mountain areas under shade. (Control químico de malezas en plantaciones de café con más de dos años de plantados en condiciones de montaña y bajo sombra.) Ciencia y Técnica en la Agricultura, Café y Cacao, 7(1):7-16.

        Cherian M; Kuriachan PI, 1986. Cytotaxonomy of two species of Phtyolaccaceae. Current Science, 55:1099-1100.

        Correa A; Galdames MDC; Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama.), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp.

        Correll DS; Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Vaduz, Germany: J. Cramer, 1692 pp.

        Forzza RC; Leitman PM; Costa AF; Carvalho Jr AA, et al. , 2012. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

        Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

        Garcia JGL; MacBryde B; Molina AT; Herrera-MacBryde O, 1975. Prevalent Weeds of Central America. Malezas Prevalentes de America Central. International Plant Protection Centre, 162 pp.

        Graveson R, 2012. Plants of Saint Lucia. http://www.saintlucianplants.com

        Hatch SL; Gandhi KN; Brown LE, 1990. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Texas. Texas, USA: Texas Agricultural Experiment Station.

        Idárraga-Piedrahita A; Ortiz RDC; Callejas Posada R; Merello M, 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia ([English title not available]). 939 pp.

        Jørgensen PM; León-Yànez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard, 75. i-viii, 1-1182.

        Liogier HA, 1998. Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands. A Systematic Synopsis. San Juan, Puerto Rico: Universidad de Puerto Rico.

        Más EG; Lugo MLT, 2013. Common Weeds in Puerto Rico & U.S Virgin Islands., Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, 395 pp.

        Molina RA, 1975. Enumeration of the plants of Honduras. (Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras) Ceiba, 19(1):1-118.

        Morales JF, 2007. Phytolaccaceae. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 111:894-902. [Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Vol. 6.]

        Mori SA; Brown JL, 1998. Epizoochorous dispersal by barbs, hooks, and spines in a lowland moist forest in central French Guiana. Brittonia 50: 2, 165-173.

        Nienaber MA; Thieret JW, 2003. Phytoloccaceae. In: Flora of North America north of Mexico, 4 [ed. by Flora of North America Editorial Committee]. New York and Oxford: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 3-5.

        Pauwels L, 2012. Plantes cultivées et/ou exotiques en Afrique Centrale: R.D. Congo-Rwanda-Burindi ([English title not available]). http://users.telenet.be/cr28796/CultAfrC.htm

        Pérez-Leal R; García-Mateos MR; Martínez-Vásquez M; Soto-Hernández M, 2006. Cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of Petiveria alliacea L. (Actividad citotóxica y antioxidante de Petiveria alliacea L.) Revista Chapingo. Serie Horticultura, 12(1):51-56.

        Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

        Steinmann VW, 2013. Phytolaccaceae. Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics [ed. by Milliken, W. \Klitgard, B. \Baracat, \A.]. http://www.kew.org/science/tropamerica/neotropikey/families/Phytolaccaceae.htm

        Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

        Stevens WD, 2001. Phytolaccaceae. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 85(3):1924-1928. [Flora de Nicaragua.]

        The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

        USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

        Vibrans H, 2009. Malezas de México- Pennisetum purpureum ([English title not available]). http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/poaceae/pennisetum-purpureum/fichas/ficha.htm

        Villaseñor JL; Espinosa-Garcia FJ, 1998. Catálogo de malezas de México ([English title not available])., Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

        Wunderlin RP; Hansen BF, 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Tampa, Florida, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/

        Zuloaga FO; Morrone O; Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Volumen 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Monocotyledoneae (Catalogue of the vascular plants of the southern cone (Argentina, southern Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay). Volume 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledoneae) [ed. by Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 983 pp.

        Distribution References

        Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

        Acuna G J, 1974. [English title not available]. (Plantas Indeseables en Los Cultivos Cubanos. Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae).). In: Plantas Indeseables en Los Cultivos Cubanos. Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae). Havana, Cuba: Academia de Ciencias, Insitituto de Investigaciones de Cuba. http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/eichhornia_azurea/

        Alegre JC, Clavo M, 2007. Petiveria alliacea L. Record from PROTA4U. In: PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa), Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

        Anon, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. [ed. by Jørgensen P M, León-Yànez S]. Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. viii + 1182 pp.

        Balick MJ, Nee M, Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. In: Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85 1-246.

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        Links to Websites

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        WebsiteURLComment
        Angiosperm Phylogeny Websitehttp://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/apweb/
        Common weeds in Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islandshttp://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/plantsanimals/plants/feature/?cid=stelprdb1078250
        Flora of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/
        GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
        PROTA: Plant Resources of Tropical Africahttp://www.prota4u.org/
        Weeds of Mexicohttp://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/home-malezas-mexico.htm

        Contributors

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        15/07/13 Original text by:

        Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

        Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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